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Introductory FLUENT Training
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
April 28, 2009 Inventory #002600
Heat Transfer Modeling
• Energy Equation
• Wall Boundary Conditions
• Conjugate Heat Transfer
• Thin and two-sided walls
• Natural Convection
• Radiation Models
• Reporting - Export
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
April 28, 2009 Inventory #002600
Heat Transfer Modeling
Energy Equation – Introduction
• Energy transport equation:
– Energy E per unit mass is defined as:
– Pressure work and kinetic energy are always accounted for with compressible flows or when using the density-based solvers. For the pressure-based solver, they are omitted and can be added through the text command: – The TUI command define/models/energy? Will give more options when enabling the energy equation.
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
April 28, 2009 Inventory #002600
All rights reserved. 7-4 April 28. Inc. Inc.Heat Transfer Modeling Energy Equation for Solid Regions • Ability to compute conduction of heat through solids • Energy equation: Training Manual – h is the sensible enthalpy: • Anisotropic conductivity in solids (pressure-based solver only) ANSYS. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.
– Radiation – simulates an external radiation environment which is not modeled (user-prescribed external emissivity and radiation temperature).Heat Transfer Modeling Wall Boundary Conditions • Five thermal conditions Training Manual – Heat Flux – Temperature – Convection – simulates an external convection environment which is not modeled (user-prescribed heat transfer coefficient). All rights reserved. • Wall material and thickness can be defined for 1D or shell conduction calculations. Inc. Inc. 7-5 April 28. heat transfer calculations. ANSYS. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. – Mixed – Combination of Convection and Radiation boundary conditions. 2009 Inventory #002600 .
Grid Velocity Vectors Temperature Contours Coolant Flow Past Heated Rods ANSYS. 2009 Inventory #002600 . • Makes use of the Coupled boundary condition on wall zones which define fluid/solid interfaces. heat conduction in solid regions is coupled to convective heat transfer in fluid regions. 7-6 April 28. Inc.Heat Transfer Modeling Conjugate Heat Transfer Training Manual • In CHT. Inc. All rights reserved. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.
2009 Inventory #002600 .Heat Transfer Modeling Conjugate Heat Transfer Example Training Manual Symmetry Planes Air outlet Top wall (externally cooled) h = 1. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. 7-7 April 28. Inc.5 m/s T = 298 K Circuit board (externally cooled) k = 0.0 W/m∙K Heat generation rate of 2 watts (each component) Air inlet V = 0. Inc.1 W/m∙K h = 1. All rights reserved.5 W/m2∙K T∞ = 298 K ANSYS.5 W/m2∙K T∞ = 298 K Electronic Component (one half is modeled) k = 1.
Inc. All rights reserved.Heat Transfer Modeling Problem Setup – Heat Source Training Manual • An energy (heat) source is added to the solid zone to simulate the heat generation by the heat-generating electronic components. 2009 Inventory #002600 . 7-8 April 28. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. ANSYS. Inc.
5 W/m2 K 298 K free stream temp 346 330 314 298 Convection Boundary 1. 7-9 April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 .Heat Transfer Modeling Temperature Distribution (Front and Top View) Temp. Top View (image mirrored about symmetry plane) ANSYS. (ºF) 426 410 394 378 362 Board (solid zone) Flow direction Elect. All rights reserved.5 W/m2 K 298 K free stream temp. Inc. Component (solid zone) 2 Watts source Flow direction Air (fluid zone) Training Manual Front View Convection boundary 1. Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.
Heat Transfer Modeling Alternate Modeling Strategies Training Manual • An alternate treatment of the board surface would be to model it as a wall with specified thickness (Thin Wall model). 2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc. Inc. ANSYS. • In this case. 7-10 April 28. there is no need to mesh the lower solid zone (representing the board). All rights reserved. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.
Inc. This is the most accurate approach but requires more meshing effort. 2009 Inventory #002600 . All rights reserved. Thin Wall Approach • Meshed wall approach – – – – Training Manual Energy equation is solved in a solid zone representing the wall. Always uses the coupled thermal boundary condition since there are cells on both sides of the wall. Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. Wall thickness must be meshed. Through-thickness temperature distribution is calculated.Heat Transfer Modeling Meshed Wall vs. 7-11 April 28. Bidirectional heat conduction is calculated. ANSYS. Wall zone (with shadow) Fluid zone Solid zone Wall thermal resistance directly accounted for in the Energy equation.
Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.Heat Transfer Modeling Meshed Wall vs. ANSYS. – Necessary data is supplied through wall boundary conditions (material conductivity and thickness). Through-thickness temperature distribution is assumed to be linear. – Uses the coupled thermal boundary condition only for internal walls. All rights reserved. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Wall zone (no shadow) Fluid zone Wall thermal resistance is calculated using artificial wall thickness and material type. Thin Wall Approach • Thin wall approach Training Manual – Artificially models models the thermal resistance of the wall. Inc. Inc. 7-12 April 28. Conduction is only calculated in the wall-normal direction unless Shell Conduction is enabled.
All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. • Solid properties of the conduction zones must be constant and cannot be temperature-dependent. 7-13 April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Additional conduction cells are created but cannot be displayed and cannot be accessed by UDFs.Heat Transfer Modeling Shell Conduction Option Training Manual • The shell conduction option is used to enable in-plane conduction calculations. Static Temperature (cell value) Virtual conduction cells ANSYS.
2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc. pressure gradient and body force term in the momentum equation are rewritten as: Training Manual where • This pressure transformation avoids round off error when gravity is enabled. Inc. ANSYS.Heat Transfer Modeling Natural Convection • Natural convection occurs when heat is added to fluid and fluid density varies with temperature. 7-14 April 28. All rights reserved. • When gravity term is included. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Flow is induced by force of gravity acting on density variation.
. All rights reserved. • Natural convection problems inside closed domains: – For steady-state solver. – Constant density assumptions reduces nonlinearity. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. small variations in temperature). Inc. 2009 Inventory #002600 . – Suitable when density variations are small. Boussinesq model must be used. – For unsteady solver. – Cannot be used together with species transport or reacting flows. Boussinesq model or ideal gas law can be used. we have: – Valid when density variations are small (i. • The Boussinesq approximation provides improved convergence for many natural convection flows than by using fluid density as function of temperature. ANSYS.Heat Transfer Modeling Natural Convection – the Boussinesq Model Training Manual • Boussinesq model assumes the fluid density is uniform except for the body force term in the momentum equation along the direction of gravity.e. 7-15 April 28.
• Allow FLUENT to calculate ρ0 from a cell average (default. Inc.Heat Transfer Modeling User Inputs for Natural Convection • Define the gravitational acceleration – done in Operating Conditions panel. ρ0. Training Manual – If using a temperature dependent model (ideal gas. β. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Select Boussinesq as the Density Method and assign constant value. polynomial): • Specify Operating Density or. • Set Thermal Expansion Coefficient. Inc. • Set Operating Temperature. • Define density model (several options are available). ANSYS. AungierRedlich-Kwong. every iteration). 2009 Inventory #002600 . 7-16 April 28. – Boussinesq model • Enable gravity. T0. All rights reserved.
Inc. however.67×10-8 W/(m2·K4) Training Manual • Radiation effects should be accounted for when is of comparable magnitude as the convection and conduction heat transfer rates. Inc. – These equations are often solved separate from the fluid flow solution. • To account for radiation. – Local absorption by fluid and at boundaries couples these RTEs with the energy equation. All rights reserved. . • Radiation intensity. they can be coupled to the flow.s). radiative intensity transport equations (RTEs) are solved. I(r. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Five radiation models are available in FLUENT (see the Appendix for details on each model).Heat Transfer Modeling Radiation – σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. is directionally and spatially dependent. 5. 2009 Inventory #002600 ANSYS. – – – – – Discrete Ordinates Model (DOM) Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) P1 Radiation Model Rosseland Model Surface-to-Surface (S2S) 7-17 April 28.
ANSYS. 2009 Inventory #002600 . – Localized heat sources • DTRM/DOM with a sufficiently large number of rays/ ordinates is most appropriate. 7-18 April 28. Inc. • Use S2S for zero optical thickness. All rights reserved.Heat Transfer Modeling Selecting a Radiation Model • Some general guidelines for radiation model selection: – Computational effort • P1 gives reasonable accuracy with the least amount of effort. – Scattering • Scattering is accounted for only with P1 and DO. Training Manual – Accuracy • DTRM and DOM are the most accurate. Inc. – Optical thickness • Use DTRM/DOM for optically thin media (αL << 1) • Use P1 for optically thick media. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. – Particulate effects • P1 and DOM account for radiation exchange between gas and particulates.
com/fluent/training/intermediate/tutorials/index. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc.fluentusers. Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.fluentusers.com • All tutorials and lecture notes • User Documentation ANSYS. www. All rights reserved. 7-19 April 28.Heat Transfer Modeling Summary Training Manual • A number of intermediate and advanced tutorials are available at the FLUENT User Services Center: www.htm • Other learning resources – Advanced training course in heat transfer offered by FLUENT – Web-based training modules – User Services Center.
Inc. Inc. 7-20 April 28. All rights reserved. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.Appendix ANSYS.
diffuse) – Solar calculator for calculating direction and direct intensity using theoretical maximum or “fair weather conditions” – Transient cases • When direction vector is specified with solar calculator. 7-21 April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc. sun direction vector will change accordingly in transient simulation • Specify “time steps per solar load update” ANSYS.Heat Transfer Modeling Solar Load Model • Solar load model – Ray tracing algorithm for solar radiant energy transport: Compatible with all radiation models – Available with parallel solver (but ray tracing algorithm is not parallelized) – 3D only Training Manual • Specifications – Sun direction vector – Solar intensity (direct. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved.
April 28. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Always included in the densitybased solver. – Important when the Brinkman number approaches or exceeds unity: ANSYS. – Important when viscous shear in fluid is large (e. All rights reserved. – Often negligible • Not included by default in the pressure-based solver. 2009 Inventory #002600 7-22 . lubrication) and/or in high-velocity compressible flows. Inc.g. Inc.Heat Transfer Modeling Energy Equation Terms – Viscous Dissipation • Energy source due to viscous dissipation: Training Manual – Also called viscous heating.
– Can be disabled in the pressurebased solver.Heat Transfer Modeling Energy Equation Terms – Species Diffusion • Energy source due to species diffusion included for multiple species flows. All rights reserved. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc. 7-23 April 28. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. ANSYS. Inc. Training Manual – Includes the effect of enthalpy transport due to species diffusion – Always included in the densitybased solver.
Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Energy source due to radiation includes radiation source terms. – Volumetric rate of creation of all species.Heat Transfer Modeling Energy Equation Terms – Source Terms Training Manual • Energy source due to chemical reaction is included for reacting flows. spray. particles… ANSYS. 2009 Inventory #002600 . 7-24 April 28. Inc. • Interphase energy source: – Includes heat transfer between continuous and discrete phase – DPM. Inc. – Enthalpy of formation of all species. All rights reserved.
Heat Transfer Modeling Temperature Definitions for Thin Wall Model Training Manual • Thin wall model applies normal conduction only (no in-plane conduction) and no actual cells are created. All rights reserved. Inc. • Wall thermal boundary condition is applied at the outer layer Static temperature (cell value) Thin wall (no mesh) Thermal boundary condition on wall Wall temperature (outer surface) Wall temperature (inner surface) ANSYS. Inc. 7-25 April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.
Boundary conditions specified on the outside surface.Heat Transfer Modeling Thin and Two-Sided Walls • • • • Training Manual In the Thin Wall approach. Model thin layer of material between two zones Thermal resistance x/k is artificially applied by the solver. All rights reserved. Inc. the wall thickness is not explicitly meshed. Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. Thermal boundary conditions are supplied on the inner surfaces of uncoupled wall/shadow pairs 7-26 April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Exterior wall (user-specified thickness) Outer surface (calculated) Inner surface (thermal boundary condition specified here) Fluid or solid cells Fluid or solid cells q1 or T1 q2 or T2 Interior wall (user-specified thickness) Interior wall shadow (user-specified thickness) x k1 k2 Fluid or solid cells Thermal boundary conditions are supplied on the inner surface of a thin wall ANSYS.
– Most comprehensive radiation model: • Accounts for scattering. 7-27 April 28. Inc. ANSYS.Heat Transfer Modeling Discrete Ordinates Model Training Manual • The radiative transfer equation is solved for a discrete number of finite solid angles. All rights reserved. 2009 Inventory #002600 . • Accuracy can be increased by using a finer discretization. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Limitations: – Solving a problem with a large number of ordinates is CPU-intensive. and wavelength-dependent transmission using banded-gray option. semi-transparent media. specular surfaces. Inc. σs: Absorption Emission Scattering • Advantages: – Conservative method leads to heat balance for coarse discretization.
– Can increase accuracy by increasing number of rays. Inc. – Solving a problem with a large number of rays is CPU-intensive. – Effect of scattering not included. Inc. • Limitations: – Assumes all surfaces are diffuse. All rights reserved. – Applies to wide range of optical thicknesses.Heat Transfer Modeling Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) Training Manual • Main assumption – Radiation leaving a surface element within a specified range of solid angles can be approximated by a single ray. • Uses a ray-tracing technique to integrate radiant intensity along each ray: • Advantages: – Relatively simple model. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. 7-28 April 28. ANSYS. 2009 Inventory #002600 .
– Works reasonably well for applications where the optical thickness is large (e. and soot can be included. ANSYS. 7-29 April 28. – Includes effect of scattering. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Limitations: – Assumes all surfaces are diffuse. Inc.g. combustion). 2009 Inventory #002600 . resulting in a diffusion equation for incident radiation. • Advantages: – Radiative transfer equation easy to solve with little CPU demand. Inc. – Tends to overpredict radiative fluxes from localized heat sources or sinks. – May result in loss of accuracy (depending on the complexity of the geometry) if the optical thickness is small. droplets.Heat Transfer Modeling P-1 Model Training Manual • Main assumption – The directional dependence in RTE is integrated out. All rights reserved. • Effects of particles.
radiative space heaters. 7-30 April 28. ANSYS. Inc. – Storage and memory requirements increase very rapidly as the number of surface faces increases. – The implementation assumes gray radiation. – Not to be used with periodic or symmetry boundary conditions. – Non-participating media is assumed.Heat Transfer Modeling Surface-to-Surface (S2S) Radiation Model Training Manual • The surface-to-surface radiation model can be used for modeling radiation in situations where there is no participating media. • Limitations: – The S2S model assumes that all surfaces are diffuse. spacecraft heat rejection system. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc. and automotive underhood cooling. – S2S is a view-factor based model. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Memory requirements can be reduced by using clusters of surface faces. solar collector systems. – Clustering does not work with sliding meshes or hanging nodes. All rights reserved. – For example.
1.141. In the ANSYS MULTIPHYSICS UTITLITY menu. 4.1. enter the following commands in order: SET. If your case is 2D. select Plot and then Nodes or Elements. Go to Results Summary and click on the first line in the upcoming panel. go to General Postproc Data and File Options and read the file generated from FLUENT. Inc. ANSYS.Heat Transfer Modeling Export – ANSYS • Training Manual The file written is an ANSYS results file with a . Inc. To read this file into ANSYS. 3. In ANSYS. including the nodal solution under Results in the drop-down list. In the small ANSYS Input window. 2. 2009 Inventory #002600 .rfl extension.142 The last command corresponds to FLOTRAN 3D element. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. use the following procedure: 1. 7-31 April 28. You will see some information listed in the ANSYS_56_OUTPUT window displaying geomtery information. then this should be replaced by ET. All rights reserved.FIRST /PREP7 ET.
heat transfer coefficient. pressure.Heat Transfer Modeling Export – ANSYS • Export ANSYS file through GUI or TUI: /file/export/ansys file-name • A single file will be written containing coordinates. 7-32 April 28. All rights reserved. viscosity – X. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Z velocity. and the scalars listed below: Training Manual – Density. wall shear stress. connectivity. Inc. effective viscosity – Thermal conductivity (laminar. temperature – Turbulence kinetic energy. pressure coefficient. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. turbulent viscosity. turbulent. specific heat ANSYS. Mach number. effective) – Total pressure and temperature. Inc. heat flux. Y. stream function. turbulence dissipation rate.
• None of the fluid zone heat transfer properties will get exported • Ideal only when you want to do some Fluid-Solid interface i. and selected scalars will be written. • Export of data to Abaqus is available only for 3D models and is valid only for solid zones or for those surfaces that lie at the intersection of solid zones. You can specify which scalars you want in the Functions to Write list.. All rights reserved. velocity. 2009 Inventory #002600 . connectivity. 7-33 April 28. wall analysis. optional loads.g. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.aba) containing coordinates. Inc. Inc. file.Heat Transfer Modeling Export – ABAQUS Training Manual • A single file (e. file/export/abaqus file-name list-of-surfaces () yes|no list-of-scalars q ANSYS. zone groups..e.
• Loads are written only on boundary walls when the entire domain is exported (i.. and PATRAN. 7-34 . Inc. 2009 Inventory #002600 ANSYS. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.Heat Transfer Modeling Export to Other Formats • NASTRAN/PATRAN: The best approach.3 10 n/ 2 2001 2001 9 April 28. and/or Heat Flux) to analyze the structural stresses (fluid pressure or thermal) in an FEA program. Temperature. Inc. • For ABAQUS. All rights reserved. NASTRAN. select the Loads to be written (Force. if you select no Surfaces).e. Training Manual Format Abaqus ANSYS ASCII CGNS NASTRA N PATRAN TECPLOT Supported Version 6.
Q T_w 7-35 T_c HTC April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 . – Use the text interface: file/export/custom-heat-flux – File format for each selected face zone: zone-name nfaces x_f y_f z_f A … ANSYS. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.Heat Transfer Modeling Reporting – Heat Flux • Heat flux report: – It is recommended that you perform a heat balance check so to ensure that your solution is truly converged. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. Training Manual • Exporting Heat Flux Data: – It is possible to export heat flux data on wall zones (including radiation) to a generic file.
Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. Inc. kP is the turbulence kinetic energy at point P. 7-36 April 28. ANSYS. – Alternative for cases with adiabatic walls. All rights reserved. 2009 Inventory #002600 .Heat Transfer Modeling Reporting – Heat Transfer Coefficient • Wall-function-based heat transfer coefficient Training Manual where cP is the specific heat. and T* is the dimensionless temperature: – Available only when the flow is turbulent and Energy equation is enabled.