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Introductory FLUENT Training
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved.
April 28, 2009 Inventory #002600
Defining Boundary Conditions
• To define a problem that results in a unique solution, you must specify information on the flow variables at boundaries.
– Specify fluxes of mass, momentum, energy, etc. into the domain.
• Defining boundary conditions involves:
– Identifying the boundary locations – Supplying information at the boundaries
• The data required at a boundary depends upon the boundary condition type and the physical models employed. • You must be aware of the information that is required of the boundary condition and locate the boundaries where the information on the flow variables are known or can be reasonably approximated
– Poorly defined boundary conditions can have a significant impact on your solution
ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory #002600
Instead. the fluid zone consists of the mixture of the phases. the material is not shown. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc. • Optional inputs – – – – – Porous region Source terms Laminar region Fixed Values Radiation ANSYS. • Fluid material selection is required. 4-3 April 28. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.Boundary Conditions Cell Zones – Fluid Training Manual • A fluid cell zone is a group of cells for which all active equations are solved. 2009 Inventory #002600 . – For multiple species or multiphase flows.
– – – – – Packed beds Filter papers Perforated plates Flow distributors Tube banks • Inputs are directional viscous and inertial resistance coefficients. April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 4-4 . Inc.Boundary Conditions Porous Media • A porous zone is a special type of fluid zone. – Pressure loss in flow determined via user inputs of resistance coefficients to lumped parameter model Training Manual • Used to model flow through porous media and other uniformly distributed flow resistances. – Enable Porous Zone option in the Fluid panel. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. ANSYS. All rights reserved.
Inc. All rights reserved. • Optional inputs allow you to set volumetric heat generation rate (heat source). • Only required input is the material name (defined in the Materials panel). Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Can define motion for a solid zone ANSYS.Boundary Conditions Cell Zones – Solid Training Manual • A solid zone is a group of cells for which only heat conduction problem solved. 4-5 April 28. • Need to specify rotation axis if rotationally periodic boundaries adjacent to solid zone. Inc. Flow equations are not solved. 2009 Inventory #002600 .
Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Requires accurate profile. 3 Nozzle outlet plane • Premixed reaction model. Nozzle inlet plane • Non-premixed reaction models. Fuel • Not generally recommended since inlet BCs may drive the interior solution. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Non-premixed reaction models Requires more cells. 1 Nozzle Manifold box 4-6 April 28. • Flow is still non-premixed. Inc. Properly accounts for mixing. 2 3 3. Upstream of manifold • • • • Can use uniform profile. ANSYS. All rights reserved. Inc. • Requires accurate inlet profile. Combustor Wall 2.Boundary Conditions Locating Boundaries – An Example Air 1 Training Manual • Three possible approaches in locating inlet boundaries for this example: 1.
select boundary location and shape such that flow either goes in or out. Training Manual Upper pressure boundary modified to ensure that flow always enters domain.Boundary Conditions General Guidelines • If possible. 4-7 April 28. – Not necessary. 2009 Inventory #002600 . – Indicates incorrect set-up. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. but will typically observe better convergence. All rights reserved. 1 2 ANSYS. • Should not observe large gradients in direction normal to boundary. Inc. – Otherwise it would introduce error early in calculation. • Minimize mesh skewness near the boundary. Inc.
2009 Inventory #002600 . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc. 4-8 April 28.Boundary Conditions Available Boundary Condition Types • External Boundaries – General • Pressure Inlet • Pressure Outlet Training Manual • Internal Boundaries – – – – – Fan Interior Porous Jump Radiator Wall – Incompressible • Velocity Inlet • Outflow (not recommended) – Compressible • Mass Flow Inlet • Pressure Far Field • Cell (Continuum) zones – Fluid – Solid – Porous media – Other • • • • Wall Symmetry Axis Periodic outlet wall orifice – Special • Inlet / Outlet Vent • Intake / Exhaust Fan plate plate-shadow inlet ANSYS.
Training Manual ANSYS. All rights reserved. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • To change the boundary condition type for a zone: – Choose the zone name in the Zone list.Boundary Conditions Changing Boundary Condition Types • Zones and zone types are initially defined in the preprocessing phase. – Select the type you wish to change it to in the Type pulldown list. Inc. 4-9 April 28.
• Boundary conditions can also be defined by UDFs and profiles. Training Manual – Boundary condition data can be copied from one zone to another. • Choose the boundary name in the Zone list.Boundary Conditions Setting Boundary Condition Data • Explicitly assign data in BC panels. Inc. 2009 Inventory #002600 . ANSYS. 4-10 April 28. All rights reserved. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Profiles can be generated by: – Writing a profile from another CFD simulation – Creating an appropriately formatted text file with boundary condition data. • Click the Edit… button. – To set boundary conditions for particular zone: • Select Boundary Conditions in the project tree. Inc.
2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc. Inc. unless UDF or profile is used. ANSYS. All rights reserved.Boundary Conditions Velocity Inlet • Velocity Specification Method – Magnitude. 4-11 April 28. implying that you can prescribe the exit velocity. Normal to Boundary – Components – Magnitude and Direction Training Manual • Applies a uniform velocity profile at the boundary. • Velocity inlets are intended for use in incompressible flows and are not recommended for compressible flows. • Velocity Magnitude input can be negative. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.
2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc.Boundary Conditions Pressure Inlet Training Manual • Pressure inlets are suitable for both compressible and incompressible flows. Incompressible: Compressible: 4-12 April 28. All rights reserved. ANSYS. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Required inputs – – – – Gauge Total Pressure Supersonic / Initial Gauge Pressure Inlet flow direction Turbulence quantities (if applicable) – Total temperature (if heat transfer and/or compressible). – FLUENT calculates static pressure and velocity at inlet – Mass flux through boundary varies depending on the interior solution and specified flow direction. – Pressure inlet boundary is treated as a loss-free transition from stagnation to inlet conditions. Inc.
2009 Inventory #002600 . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. ignored if subsonic • Will be used if flow field is initialized from this boundary. – More difficult to converge than pressure inlet. – Total pressure adjusts to accommodate mass flow inputs. however. they can be used for incompressible flows. – Total Temperature (on Thermal tab) • Used as static temperature for incompressible flow. 4-13 April 28. All rights reserved.Boundary Conditions Mass Flow Inlet Training Manual • Mass flow inlets are intended for compressible flows. Inc. • Required information – Mass Flow Rate or Mass Flux – Supersonic/Initial Gauge Pressure • Static pressure where flow is locally supersonic. Inc. – Direction Specification Method ANSYS.
Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. • Required information – Gauge Pressure (static) – static pressure of the environment into which the flow exits. non-reflecting outlet boundary conditions (NRBC) are available. Training Manual – Specified pressure is ignored if flow is locally supersonic at the outlet. ANSYS. • For ideal gas (compressible) flow.Boundary Conditions Pressure Outlet • Suitable for compressible and incompressible flows. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Inc. 4-14 April 28. – Backflow quantities – Used as inlet conditions if/when backflow occurs (outlet acts like an inlet). Inc. – Can be used as a “free” boundary in an external or unconfined flow.
Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. no-slip conditions are applied at walls. All rights reserved. Training Manual • Thermal boundary conditions – Several types of thermal BCs are available. 2009 Inventory #002600 . – Shear stress can be applied. Inc. – Wall material and thickness can be defined for 1D or shell conduction heat transfer calculations (details will be discussed in the Heat Transfer lecture). 4-15 April 28. Inc. • Wall roughness can be defined for turbulent flows.Boundary Conditions Wall Boundaries • In viscous flows. • Translational or rotational velocity can be assigned to wall boundaries. ANSYS. – Wall shear stress and heat transfer based on local flow field.
Inc. All rights reserved. 4-16 April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 .Boundary Conditions Symmetry and Axis Boundaries • Symmetry Boundary – No inputs are required. – Flow field and geometry must be symmetric: • Zero normal velocity at symmetry plane • Zero normal gradients of all variables at symmetry plane • Must take care to correctly define symmetry boundary locations. – Must coincide with the positive x direction! Axis ANSYS. Inc. Training Manual Symmetry Planes • Axis Boundary – Used at the center line for axisymmetric problems. – No user inputs required. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.
Rotationally periodic planes Training Manual – Translational periodicity • ΔP can be finite across periodic planes.Boundary Conditions Periodic Boundaries • Used to reduce the overall mesh size. • Specify either mean ΔP per period or net mass flow rate. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Periodic conditions can be defined (if not defined in the mesh) using the FLUENT TUI: /mesh/modify-zones/make-periodic Flow Translationally periodic planes 2D Tube Heat Exchanger ANSYS. Inc. 2009 Inventory #002600 . • Models fully developed conditions. Inc. 4-17 April 28. – Rotational periodicity • ΔP = 0 across periodic planes. • Flow field and geometry must contain either rotational or translational periodicity. All rights reserved. • Axis of rotation must be defined in fluid zone.
• Used to implement various physical models including: – Fans – Radiators – Porous-jump models • Preferable over porous media for its better convergence behavior. All rights reserved. Inc. 4-18 April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.Boundary Conditions Internal Face Boundaries • Defined on the cell faces only: Training Manual – Thickness of these internal faces is zero – These internal faces provide means of introducing step changes in flow properties. Inc. – Interior walls ANSYS.
Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. inlet-1 inlet-2 outlet-1 Actual 3D Flow Domain 4-19 April 28. Inc.Boundary Conditions Case Setup Replication • To replicate a case setup: Training Manual – Use the read/write boundary conditions feature via TUI command: /file/write-bc Creates a BC file /file/read-bc Reads an existing BC file – You can transfer settings from a 2D case to a 3D case! inlet-1 fluid outlet-2 inlet-2 outlet-2 outlet-1 2D Flow Domain (approximation) ANSYS. Inc. All rights reserved. 2009 Inventory #002600 .
laminar region. – Options for porous media. fixed value. • Computational effort can be reduced through use of symmetry and periodic boundaries.Boundary Conditions Summary Training Manual • Boundary zones are used to control the solution at external and internal boundaries. Inc. – – – – Pressure Far Field Exhaust Fan / Outlet Vent Inlet Vent / Intake Fan Outflow 4-20 April 28. Inc. Many different boundary types exist for prescribing boundary information. . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • There are several other boundary condition types which were not presented (see appendix for more information about these). etc. 2009 Inventory #002600 ANSYS. • Cell zones (or continuum zones) are used to assign which fluid/solid material(s) exist in a region. All rights reserved.
Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. All rights reserved. 2009 Inventory #002600 . 4-21 April 28. Inc.Appendix ANSYS. Inc.
with prescribed static conditions and the free-stream Mach number. • Inlet Vent / Intake Fan – Models an inlet vent / external intake fan with specified loss coefficient / pressure rise. and ambient (inlet) pressure and temperature. 4-22 April 28. 2009 Inventory #002600 . ANSYS. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. flow direction. All rights reserved. – Available only when density is calculated using the ideal gas law. • Inlet boundary conditions for large-eddy / detached-eddy simulations are covered in the Turbulence Modeling lecture. • Target Mass Flow Rate option for pressure outlets (not available for the multiphase models) – Provides the ability to fix the mass flow rate on a pressure outlet (either constant or via UDF hook) – Options to choose iteration method in TUI • Exhaust Fan / Outlet Vent – Models an external exhaust fan or outlet vent with specified pressure rise / loss coefficient and ambient (discharge) pressure and temperature. Inc.Boundary Conditions Other Inlet / Outlet Boundary Conditions • Pressure Far Field Training Manual – Used to model free-stream compressible flow at infinity. Inc.
Inc. 4-23 April 28. – Cannot be used with a pressure inlet boundary (must use velocity-inlet). – Cannot be used if backflow is expected in the final solution. • The outflow boundary is intended for use with incompressible flows. – Cannot be used for unsteady flows with variable density. – Mass balance correction is applied at boundary. – Appropriate where the exit flow is fully developed.Boundary Conditions Outflow • No pressure or velocity information is required. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS. • Combination does not uniquely set pressure gradient over whole domain. ANSYS. Inc. – Data at exit plane is extrapolated from interior. All rights reserved. Training Manual • Flow exiting outflow boundary exhibits zero normal diffusive flux for all flow variables. • Poor rate of convergence when backflow occurs during iterations.
Inc. T0) Outflow (FRW2) ANSYS. T0) OR Pressure inlet (p0. Velocity inlet (V. FLUENT calculates the fraction of total flow through each branch. 4-24 April 28. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS.Boundary Conditions Modeling Multiple Exits Training Manual • Flows with multiple exits can be modeled using pressure outlet or outflow boundaries. Inc. 2009 Inventory #002600 . Outflow (FRW1) Velocity inlet (V. All rights reserved. – Pressure outlets – requires knowledge of downstream pressures. depending on the information you know. T0) Pressure outlet Pressure outlet – Outflow: • Mass flow rate fraction determined from Flow Rate Weighting (FRW) by • Static pressure varies among exits to accommodate the prescribed flow distribution.
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