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for EDS Special Treatment Considerations based on age and developmental stage Family Therapy Dietician and Meals and nutritional planning
Working with Eating Disorder Patients in an Outpatient Setting
Elise Curry Psy.D. Program Manager UCSD IOP
especially anger Careful to allow patient true self expression .Anorexia Nervosa Therapy Strategies Establish rapport Interpret function of symptoms: needs Calculate weight goal (90% IBW) ½-1 lb per week weight gain in outpatient Encourage direct expression of feelings.
rather than starvation.) Family. parent therapy esp with adolescents . tattoos. teenage clothing etc. Helping patient “say no” to things other than food.Anorexia Nervosa Therapy Strategies Address issues of expectations from others vs individual wants Explore fears with food and weight gain as having some relationship to emotional experiences Teach assertiveness skills. (green hair. R rated movies. Stimulate adolescent rebellion in other ways.
Case study: Janine Age 15 Lives with mother Developed anorexia within past year Perfectionistic Make a mistake with a witness at the library Weight contract Weight restoration: 12 lbs. .
rather than urge to get rid of feelings Address issues of expectations from others vs individual wants . DBT Affect tolerance Engagement in other stress relieving and pleasurable activities Work on sitting with uncomfortable feelings. IPT.Therapy strategies for BN CBT.
shame Co morbid BLPD/O (BN) . watching for deprivation Set goals for # B/P episodes Trauma issues.Therapy strategies for BN Food/event diary Normalize eating.
Case example: Shelly Age: 25 College Student C/S symptoms (name change) Purged through running Vow to herself at age 13 Lacked age appropriate dating Assertiveness: family phone conference .
Group Therapy and Integrated Treatment Goal setting Structured on-site meals Meditation/Mindfulness Cognitive-behavioral therapy Process group Art therapy DBT Nutritional counseling .
part. but don‟t purge Challenge foods: have a piece of cheesecake Foods are not good or bad: incorporate desserts into the meal plan .Purge (cycle) What can you do instead? Alternatives Binge if you want.Goal setting Goal setting: met.Binge . not met Mistake with a witness (perfectionism) Reducing the symptom: B/P 1 max Letter to ED ED writes back Meal plan: 3 meals plus 3 snacks helps to reduce binge eating Restrict .
Process Group .
Treatment considerations based on age Children (preteen) Adolescents Adults Chronic AN/BN .
children.Important considerations Age of onset Time of low weight. parents. linear history Developmental phase Involvement of other‟s (family. etc) . spouse.
What about the kids? Pre-pubertal Eating Disorder Childhood Onset Eating Disorder Early Onset Eating Disorder .
What Are We NOT Talking About? DSM-IV Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood – Pica – Rumination Disorder – Feeding disorder of infancy or childhood .
<85% of IBW Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat Disturbance in the way one‟s body weight or shape is experienced Amenorrhea: absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles .Anorexia Nervosa DSM-IV Refusal to maintain body weight above a minimally normal weight for age and height.
Weight Loss vs Weight Maintenance DSM-IV criteria excludes children who have not reached the critical level of <85% Malnutrition can lead to poor growth .
Body Image May be more tricky to assess How can it be evaluated? – Children‟s expression of body image – Standard tools – Clinical Interview Somatic symptoms – Abdominal pain or discomfort – Feeling of fullness – Nausea – Loss of appetite .
Amenorrhea Primary vs Secondary Pubertal delay – Evaluation may include pelvic ultrasound Height Weight Weight/height ratio Ovarian volume Uterine volume – Conventional target weight and weight/height may be too low to ensure ovarian and uterine maturity .
Alternative Criteria for ED in Children: Byant-Waugh and Lask 1995 Alternative classification for the range of eating disorders of childhood “Excessive preoccupation with weight or shape and/or food intake which is accompanied by grossly inadequate. irregular or chaotic food intake” .
g.. abuse of laxatives). food avoidance. .Byant-Waugh and Lask 1995 :Criteria for Anorexia Nervosa Failure to make appropriate weight gains. or significant weight loss Determined weight loss (e. Morbid preoccupation with weight and/or shape. self-induced vomiting. excessive exercising. Abnormal cognitions regarding weight and/or shape.
Related ED Behaviors in Children Anorexia nervosa Food avoidant emotional disorder Selective eating Functional dysphagia Bulimia nervosa Pervasive refusal syndrome .
Early behavioral risk factors for EDs PICA – BN Picky Eater – BN. some AN Digestive problems – AN Subsyndromal symptoms of EDs can predate .
Incidence and Demographics Anorexia in this age range is considered to be rare Males may constitute a higher proportion of cases in childhood as opposed to in adolescence or adulthood – 19-30% of childhood cases – 5-10% of adolescent or adult cases .
Biological Psychological Social .
Biological Genetics – Higher rate of AN. 1997 Medication – Trials suggest serotonin and dopamine systems contribute 15 girls ages 8-16 with AN Regional cerebral blood blow radioisotope scans 13/15 had unilateral temporal lobe hypoperfusion significant association between unilateral reduction of blood flow in the temporal region and – impaired visuospatial ability. BN and ED NOS in first degree relatives – Cross-transmitted – High heritability Imaging – Gordon et al. – impaired visual – Lask et al. 2005 .
Psychological Personality traits – Anxious – Obsessional – Perfectionistic Susceptibility factors – Obsessions Perfectionism Symmetry Exactness – Negative affect. harm avoidance – Preoccupations with weight. body image and food .
Prognosis Long term follow up of patients with early onset anorexia nervosa (Bryant-Waugh et al. 1987) – 30 children with anorexia nervosa followed for mean duration of 7.7 years 19/30 (60%) with a “good” outcome 10/30 remained moderately to severely impaired Poor prognostic factors included – – – – Early age at onset (<11 years) Depression during the illness Disturbed family life and one parent families Families in which one or both parents had been married before .2 years – Mean age at onset 11.
Family therapy Family Video and discussion Maudsley Family Therapy for Adolescents Systemic Family Therapy .
Family Dynamics: Video and Discussion .
Maudsley Family Therapy Agnostic toward etiology Involves parents Food is medicine Initial focus on symptoms Parents are responsible for weight restoration. Non-authoritarian therapist stance Separation of child from illness .
10) Weight restoration. . termination.16) Transfer control back to adolescent gradually.20) Focus on adolescent developmental issues. Phase III: (sessions 17 .Maudsley Family Therapy Phase I: (sessions 1 . Phase II: (sessions 11 . re-feeding focus.
find out how AN has affected each family member. orchestrate intense scene. obtain history of how AN came to be. reduce blame. . Interventions: Greet family in sincere but grave manner. externalize the AN.Maudsley Family Therapy Session 1: Funeral session Goals: engage the family. charge parents with the task of re-feeding. assess family functioning. raise anxiety concerning AN.
Interventions: bring the symptom alive and present in the room. Goals: assess family structure as it may affect ability of parents to re-feed patient. align patient with siblings for support. .Session 2: Family Meal Instructions to parents: bring a meal that would be appropriate for your child‟s nutritional needs. assess family process during meal. provide an opportunity for parents to successfully feed patient. one more bite.
Patient reaction to loss of control. . Rewards and consequences Patient weight progress over time. patient Patient‟s weight history Taking control back from patient. sister. dad.Case Example: BFT Madaline age 14 Family members: mom.
the symptom will no longer be needed. . The symptom bearer is trying to help the family (unconsciously). The eating disorder is serving a function in the family.Systemic Family Therapy Underlying belief: if you fix the system.
even small children. Do not pathologize family or symptom bearer. . not expert. Involve all family members in the discussion. Discuss communication patterns within the family.Methods for Systemic Family Therapy Circular questioning Therapist is curious observer.
Gary. sister. patient Family of origin situation Current family living situation Symptoms of anorexia Function of the anorexia Changes in symptom over time .Case Example: SFT Brianna age 16 Family members: mom.
Handout nutritional assessment .
5-15.Eating Disorder Nutritional Assessment (based on personal interview and review of EDI-2) Date: _________ Name_________________________________ MR.) type.5-5.5) Prealb ______(19-4 3) Electrolytes: K ______ (3.0) Na __________ (136-145) Cl _______ (98-108) Iron status: Total Fe _____ (F:60-160. dose:________________________________________________ Signs of nutritional compromise: Decreased energy level/muscle wasting/hair loss/temp.0-8. Change: ___________________________ Personal weighing frequency: ________ Health Hx: Relevant Med/Psych Hx: _________________________________________________________ Laboratory results: date ___________ Protein status: Alb ______ (3.M:14-18) Hct _____(F:33-47. #___________________ M / F Age: ____ ED DX: __________________________ Ht:______ Wt:______ %IBW or NCHS %tile:_______ Personal Treatment Goals: (incl.4-5.M:39-54) Other: ____________________________________ Current Medications:____________________________________________________________ Vitamins/Minerals/Supplements: Current type. dose:__________________________________ Recent Past (<6 mos.M:80-180) Hgb _____ (F:11. sensitivity/enamel erosion Nutrient-based lesions: _________________________________ Other:__________________ Current GI function: frequency of BM’s: ________ loose/hard: ______________ gas: _______ distention: ____________other: _________________________________________________ Eating Disorder Hx: Restricting/Fasting:________________________ Exercise: _____________________________ Bingeing:__________________Vomiting:___________________Epecac Syrup: ____________ Laxatives: _________________ Diuretics: __________________ Diet Pills: ________________ Relevant Family History: _________________________________________________________ Exercise : Typical Food Intake/Bingeing/Purging Patterns: Good Day: Bad Day: . goal wt range) _______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Previous work with RD/Nutritionist: ________________________________________________ Previous ED Program: ___________________________________________________________ Wt Hx: _______________________________________________________________________ Recent Wt.0) T Pro ________ (6.5.
day .Nutrition Assessment .page 2 Fluid intake: __________________________________________________________________ Alcohol intake: ________________________________________________________________ Caffeine use: __________________________________________________________________ Gum use: ______________________________Smoking: _______________________________ Food Allergies _________________________________________________________________ Food Intolerances:______________________________________________________________ Cultural/Religious Prefs: _________________________________________________________ Safe Foods: ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Social eating patterns: ___________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Assessment /Goals: Present Intake Inadequacies: ______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Signs of Malnutrition: ___________________________________________________________ Calorie/Energy needs to stabilize weight: ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ to achieve weight goal: _______________________________________ for recommended exercise level of ______________________________ Protein needs: ___________________ @ _________ grams/kg Carbohydrate needs: ______________ @ 50-55% of kcal Fat needs:_______________________ @ 20-30% of kcal Fluid needs:______________________ @ 1 cc / kcal Fiber needs:______________________ @ 20-35 g.
Meal Plan : PM__ Dairy _____ Starch _____ Protein _____ Veges/Salad _____ Fruit/Juice _____ Fat _____ Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snacks: AM PM _________ _________ ________ _____ _____ _________ _________ ________ _____ _____ _________ _________ ________ _____ _____ _________ _________ ________ _____ _____ _________ _________ ________ _____ _____ _________ _________ ________ _____ _____ Other ________________________________________________________________________ Nutritional Assessment – page 3 Changes in Progress Weight Record: Date Weight Date Weight Date Weight Date Weight ________________________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________________________ ______ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ____________ Follow-up Notes: ________________________________________________________________________ .
Handout exercise plan .
Level 1: No exercise except for supervised walks and yoga during program.
Level 2: Minimal Exercise. Examples include walking for 45 minutes 3 times per week, swimming for 20 minutes 2 times per week, gym half an hour per week, yoga with permission, biking 1 hour per week. Total exercise time is 2 hours per week.
Level 3: Moderate exercise: Examples include: gym workout 3 times a week for 1 hour, hiking for 2 hours at a time, running 3 times a week for 45 minutes, swimming laps 30 minutes 3 times a week. Total exercise time spent per week is 4 hours.
I agree to document my exercise (type, amount, duration) on my meal report form.
Exercise addiction: Let staff know if your exercise is becoming addictive. The signs of addictive exercise are: motivation based on weight loss, doing more than the agreed upon amount, feeling depressed on days you don’t exercise, lying about your exercise to staff, etc.
I agree to the exercise plan for level _____. Signed ________________ Date _______
Weight Restoration Contract
to use Out patient level of care; 0.5 – 1 lb per week Often includes exercise plan Parent/family/spouse informed
On site meals
response prevention Challenge foods Peer support, „peer pressure‟ Rules at table
On site meals Structure of meal % complete Behaviors to watch for Review of purpose for staff and patients .
Dealing with meal challenges
types to try Extinguishing behaviors Boost Limit setting on # of boosts/ not eating meal on site
Questions and Answers
Day #3 Role Play training DBT/CBT Obesity/binge eating disorder Ends in Special Populations (pregnancy. athletes. males) .
DBT for Eating Disorders .
.Why DBT? Refine and change: Behavioral Emotional Thinking patterns That cause suffering and distress.
Confusion about self and cognitive dysregulation: Mindfulness training . Labile affect: emotional regulation training 3. Impulsiveness: Distress tolerance training 4.Targets for Treatment 1. Interpersonal Chaos: interpersonal effectiveness training 2.
Frantic attempts to avoid abandonment.Interpersonal Chaos Examples: 1. Intense. anxiety over end of relationships 4. Trouble maintaining relationships 3 panic.dread. . unstable relationships 2.
Learn to say no to unwanted requests/demands 3. Maintain self-respect and other‟s respect.Interpersonal Chaos Treatment goals: 1. Learn to deal with conflicts 2. .
Ups and downs 3. intense emotional reactions 4. Problems with anger (over and under-controlled) . Extreme emotional sensitivity 2. Moodiness.Labile affect : emotional regulation training Examples: 1. Chronic depression 5.
. Remind members that to some extent we are who we are. Enhance emotional control 2.Labile affect: Treatment goals 1. but we can learn to modulate emotions to become a bit more relaxed.
food. Treatment goals: 1. Learn to tolerate distress 2. shopping. Explain connection btw distress and impulsive behavior (often functions to reduce intolerable distress) . fast driving etc. Problems with drugs.Impulsivity: Distress Tolerance Training Examples: 1. sex. alcohol.
Problems maintaining her/his own opinions/feelings when around others 4.Confusion about self and cognitive dysregulation: mindfulness training Examples: 1. Pervasive feelings of emptiness 3. Learn to observe oneself . dissociation Treatment goals: 1. Cognitive disturbances: depersonalization. Go within to find oneself 2.problems experiencing or identifying a self 2.
pick a skill to work on and use across a variety of situations or for a recurrent situation. Each person makes a practice commitment each week . Review diary cards C. . opening mindfulness exercise and wind down. B.Structure of Group Sessions A. 50% new material. 50% homework.
CBT for Eating Disorders .
Using laxatives gets rid of all the food. It is more important to be thin than anything else. Purging gets rid of all the food. no one will love me. If I eat too much. Everyone hates fat people. If I am fat. Men like women who are skinny. If I eat this piece of cheesecake. My worth is my weight. I will be able to see it on my body tomorrow. Thinness equals happiness. You can never be too rich or too thin. . I need to get rid of it by purging.Distorted Beliefs There are “good” foods and “bad” foods.
The Thin Commandments Carolyn Costin MFT .
People come in all kinds of shapes and sizes.Recovery Beliefs My worth is not my weight. not an ornament. I am unique and special due to my inner qualities. My body is an instrument. not happiness. and be able to become pregnant some day. shiny hair. I need some fat in my diet in order to have soft skin. Perfectionism only leads to disappointment. by eating 3 balanced meals per day and exercising moderately. I don‟t have to try to mold my body into a standard set by the media or fashion industry. . When I treat my body well. I can enjoy having a more curvy body. instead of striving for thinness. my body will find its own set-point weight.
Eating Disorders in special populations Pregnancy Males Obesity and Binge Eating disorder .
ED and Pregnancy Reduced recovery 20% pts at fertility clinics have EDs More likely to lie about ED behaviors during pregnancy High relapse rates after delivery Higher risk for PPD fertility. even after full .
though often not enough Risks: low birth weight (and associated features). Csections .Eating Disorders in Pregnancy Increase difficulty with weight gain (psychological and physically) Overall. most studies reveal improvement in behaviors in pregnancy (“for the greater good”). prematurity.
but increasing (approx 10% of EDS occur in men) They have a job or profession that demands thinness.Males and EDs Less common than in females. Male models. actors. Cultural pressures to be V shaped .
negative reactions from peers as children .Males and EDS More in common with female EDs than differences Lower testosterone may predispose to ED Fears regarding sexuality More common in homosexual men Conflict over sexual identity Avoidant. passive.
Males and EDs Athletes/profession requirements 1:10 male to female ratio BED similar rates male/female. though women more distressed about it. more guilt with weight .
Males and EDs They were fat or overweight as children (different than females). They have been dieting. . Dieting is one of the most powerful eating disorder triggers for both males and females.
Males and EDs They participate in a sport that demands thinness. Runners and jockeys are at higher risk than football players and weight lifters. Wrestlers who try to shed pounds quickly before a match so they can compete in a lower weight. Body builders are at risk if they deplete body fat and fluid reserves to achieve high definition .
or very guilty after overeating .Binge Eating Disorder Recurrent episodes of binge eating (see BN) The binge eating episodes are associated with three (or more) of the following: Marked distress regarding binge eating is present 2 days/week for 6 months – Eating much more rapidly than normal – Eating until feeling uncomfortably full – Eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry – Eating alone because of being embarrassed by how much one is eating – Feeling disgusted with oneself. depressed.
but minimal success in treatments for obesity itself .Obesity BMI > 30 32.2% of American adults. increasing in children Increasing in past 30 years by 50% per decade Major successful treatment advances in treatment of complications of obesity.
including BED .Is Obesity a psychiatric disorder (BED)? Medical/Metabolic issues Am J Psych 2007: Issues for DSM – V: Should obesity be included as a brain Disorder Major limitation to treatment of obesity is long term behavioral compliance Diets major cause of ED.
cannabinoids Certain foods impact nucleus accombens: DA. endogenous opiates. ie.BED and Neurochemistry Serotonin. opiate Neuropsych: IGT similar to addicts. follow immed reward over long term results during gambling type tasks 9with excitable reward) Individual biological risks: genetic/heritability .
Literature Review: Treatment for BED International J of EDs May 2007 26 studies reviewed: Med plus behav. meds alone. short term . behav alone Meds plus BWL best.
Psychosocial treatments CBT CBT plus BWL BWL alone Group therapy Indiv therapy 12 step/self help .
TCAs ? Topiramate ? Zonisamide Acomplia Gastric Bipass .Medical treatments for BED/obesity Sibutramine Orlastat ? SSRIs. SNRis.
may become irreversible after as early as 6 mos Poor Prognosis Risk benefit assessment of ED Harm reduction .Special Assessment and Treatment Strategies for Chronic AN Problems accumulate.
Treatment issues in Chronic EDs Legal aspects Case examples .
Final Question and Answer Session .
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