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DSY Final Review

DSY class 13-14

Heart Patterns
Differentiation and Treatment

Deficiency patterns

HEART-QI DEFICIENCY

Palpitations, shortness of breath on exertion, sweating, pallor, tiredness, listlessness. Tongue: Pale or normal color. Severe cases: midline crack reaching the tip with swelling on either side. Pulse: Empty. Severe cases: Overflowing and Empty (very superficial and somewhat pounding with light pressure but empty with heavier pressure). Key symptoms: palpitations, tiredness, Empty pulse.

HEART-YANG DEFICIENCY

Palpitations, shortness of breath on exertion, tiredness, listlessness, sweating, feeling of stuffiness or discomfort in the heart region, feeling of cold, bright-pale face, cold limbs (especially hands).

Tongue: Pale, wet, Swollen.


Pulse: Deep-Weak or Knotted.

Key symptoms: palpitations, feeling of cold, cold limbs, Deep pulse.

HEART-YANG COLLAPSE

Palpitations, shortness of breath, weak and shallow breathing, profuse sweating, cold limbs, cyanosis of lips, severe cases coma.

Tongue: Very Pale or Bluish-Purple, Short.


Pulse: Hidden-Minute-Knotted. Key symptoms: cyanosis of lips, HiddenMinute pulse, cold limbs.

HEART-BLOOD DEFICIENCY

Palpitations, dizziness, insomnia, dreamdisturbed sleep, poor memory, anxiety, propensity to be startled, dull-pale complexion, pale lips. Tongue: Pale, Thin, slightly dry.

Pulse: Choppy or Fine.


Key symptoms: palpitations, insomnia, poor memory, Pale tongue.

SPLEEN- AND HEARTBLOOD DEFICIENCY

Palpitations, dizziness, insomnia, dreamdisturbed sleep, poor memory, anxiety, propensity to be startled, dull-pale complexion, pale lips, tiredness, weak muscles, loose stools, poor appetite, scanty menstruation. Tongue: Pale, Thin, slightly dry. Pulse: Choppy or Fine. Key symptoms: palpitations, insomnia, poor memory, Pale tongue.

HEART-YIN DEFICIENCY
Palpitations, insomnia, dream-disturbed sleep, propensity to be startled, poor memory, anxiety, mental restlessness, "uneasiness", "fidgetiness", malar flush, feeling of heat especially in the evening, night sweating, dry mouth and throat, 5-palm heat.

Tongue: Red, no coating, tip redder and swollen with red points, deep midline crack reaching the tip.
Pulse: Floating-Empty-Rapid or FineRapid. May be Overflowing in Front and Weak in Rear positions. Key symptoms: palpitations, mental restlessness, feeling of heat, malar flush, Red-Peeled tongue, deep midline crack.

KIDNEY AND HEART NOT Palpitations, mental restlessness, insomnia, dreamHARMONIZED


disturbed sleep, anxiety, poor memory, dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, lower backache, nocturnal emissions with dreams, fever or feeling of heat in the evening, night sweating, 5-heart heat, scantydark urine.

Tongue: Red-Peeled, tip redder, midline crack reaching tip. Pulse: Floating-Empty, Rapid or Deep weak rear with front Overflowing. Key symptoms: palpitations, insomnia, night sweating, Red-Peeled tongue with redder tip and midline crack.

Excess patterns

HEART-FIRE BLAZING

Palpitations, thirst, mouth and tongue ulcers, mental restlessness, feeling agitated, "impulsiveness", feeling of heat, insomnia, red face, dark urine or blood in urine and bitter taste. Tongue: Red, tip redder and swollen with red points, yellow coating; may be midline crack reaching to the tip. Pulse: Full-Rapid-Overflowing especially on the left Front position. It could also be Hasty. Key symptoms: tongue ulcers, thirst, palpitations, Red tongue.

FULL-HEAT IN THE SMALL Mental restlessness, insomnia, tongue/mouth INTESTINE

ulcers, pain in the throat, deafness, uncomfortable feeling and heat sensation in the chest, abdominal pain, thirst for cold liquids, scanty and dark urine, burning painful urination, blood in urine.

Tongue: Red with redder and swollen tip, yellow coating. Pulse: Rapid, Overflowing, especially in the Front position. Urinary symptoms, will be wiry in rear. Key symptoms: abdominal pain, tongue ulcers, scanty-dark-painful urination.

PHLEGM-FIRE HARASSING THE HEART Mental restlessness, palpitations, bitter taste,


insomnia, dream disturbed sleep, easily startled, incoherent speech, mental confusion, rash behavior, tendency to hit or scold people, uncontrolled laughter or crying, agitation, shouting, muttering to oneself, mental depression and dullness; in severe cases aphasia and coma.

Tongue: Red, yellow-sticky coating, midline crack with yellow prickles in it. Tip may be redder and swollen with red points. Pulse: Full-Rapid-Slippery or Rapid-OverflowingSlippery or Rapid-Full-Wiry.

PHLEGM MISTING THE MIND



Mental confusion, unconsciousness, lethargic stupor, vomiting, rattling sound in the throat, aphasia. Tongue: Thick-sticky-slippery coating, midline crack reaching the tip with prickles in it. Tonguebody Swollen. Pulse: Slippery. Key symptoms: mental confusion, rattling sound in throat, sticky-slippery tongue coating.

HEART-BLOOD STAGNANT

Palpitations, pain in the heart region which may radiate to the inner aspect of the left arm or to the shoulder, discomfort or feeling of oppression or constriction of the chest, cyanosis of lips and nails, cold hands. Tongue: Purple.

Pulse: Knotted.
Key symptoms: pain in the heart region, cyanosis of lips, purple tongue.

Liver Patterns

OF LIVER-QI STAGNATION a. Feeling of distension of hypochondrium, chest,


epigastrium or abdomen, sighing.

b. Melancholy, depression, moodiness, fluctuation of mental state, "feeling wound-up", feeling of lump in the throat. c. Irregular periods, painful periods, distension of breasts before the periods, pre-menstrual tension and irritability. Tongue: the body color may be normal, or with red sides. Pulse: Wiry, especially on the left side. Key symptoms: hypochondriac and chest distension, depression, moodiness, Wiry pulse.

LIVER-FIRE BLAZING UPWARDS


Irritability, propensity to outbursts of anger, tinnitus, deafness, temporal headache, dizziness, red face and eyes, thirst, bitter taste, dreamdisturbed sleep, constipation with dry stools, dark-yellow urine, epistaxis, hematemesis, hemoptysis. Tongue: Red body, redder on the sides, yellow coating, dry. Pulse: Full-Wiry-Rapid. Key symptoms: irritability, red face, red eyes, Red tongue with yellow coating.

LIVER-YANG RISING

Headache which may be on the temples, eyes or lateral side of the head, dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, dry mouth and throat, insomnia, irritability, feeling worked-up, shouting in anger.

Tongue: Red, especially on the sides, though may vary with underlying condition.
Pulse: Wiry.

Key symptoms: headache, irritability, Wiry Pulse.

Fullness and pain of hypochondrium, chest, DAMP-HEAT IN LIVER abdomen or hypogastrium, bitter or sticky taste,
nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, feeling of heaviness, yellow vaginal discharge, vulvar eczema or sores, mid-cycle bleeding or pain, pain-redness-swelling of scrotum, vaginal or genital itching or rashes, dark urine, dysuria, burning urination.

Tongue: Red body, sticky-yellow coating. Pulse: Slippery-Wiry-Rapid. Key symptoms: fullness in abdomen and hypochondrium, feeling of heaviness, nausea, bitter or sticky taste, sticky yellow coating, Slippery pulse.

STASIS OF LIVER-BLOOD

Vomiting of blood, epistaxis, painful periods, irregular periods, menstrual blood dark and clotted, abdominal pain, "masses" in abdomen, purple nails, purple lips, purple complexion, dry skin (in severe cases), petechiae. Tongue: Purple especially on the sides, with purplish spots. Pulse: Wiry. Key symptoms: dark and clotted menstrual blood, Purple tongue.

STAGNATION OF COLD IN THE LIVER CHANNEL

Fullness and distension of the hypogastrium with pain which refers to the scrotum and testis. Straining of the testis or contraction of the scrotum. In women there can be shrinking of the vagina. The pain is alleviated by warmth.

Tongue: Pale, wet, white coating.


Pulse: Wiry-Deep-Slow. Key symptoms: hypogastric pain referring to scrotum, Wiry-Deep-Slow Pulse.

Deficiency Patterns

DEFICIENCY OF LIVERBLOOD
Dizziness, numbness of limbs, insomnia, blurred vision,"floaters" in eyes, scanty menstruation or amenorrhea, dull-pale complexion, pale lips, muscular weakness, muscle spasms, cramps, withered and brittle nails, dry hair and skin.

Tongue: Pale especially on the sides which can assume an orange color, and Dry.
Pulse: Choppy or Fine. Key symptoms: blurred vision, scanty periods, dull-pale complexion, Pale tongue.

LIVER-YIN DEFICIENCY

Dizziness, numbness or tingling of limbs, insomnia, blurred vision,"floaters" in eyes, diminished night vision, scanty menstruation or amenorrhea, dull-pale complexion without luster but with red cheekbones, muscular weakness, cramps, withered and brittle nails, very dry hair and skin, depression, feeling of aimlessness.
Tongue: normal color, no coating or with rootless coating.

Pulse: Floating Empty.


Key symptoms: blurred vision, dry eyes, uncoated tongue.

KIDNEY- AND LIVER-YIN DEFICIENCY Dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, dull occipital or


vertical headache, insomnia, numbness of limbs, malar flush, dry eyes, blurred vision, lower backache, dry throat, dry hair and skin, vaginal dryness, night sweating, dry stools, nocturnal emissions, scanty menstruation or amenorrhea, delayed cycle, infertility.

Tongue: Normal or Red with rootless or no coating. Pulse: Floating-Empty (or Choppy). Key symptoms: dry eyes, dry throat, night sweating, scanty menstruation, Red-Peeled tongue.

Deficiency/Excess Patterns

LIVER-WIND

The general clinical manifestations of LiverWind are: tremor, tic, numbness, dizziness, vertigo, headache and convulsions or paralysis.
Internal Wind signs are characterized by movement or the absence of it, hence the tremor and convulsions or paralysis (as in Wind-stroke).

EXTREME HEAT GENERATING WIND



High temperature, convulsions, rigidity of the neck, tremor of limbs, opisthotonos, in severe cases coma.
Tongue: Deep-Red, Stiff, thick yellow coating. Pulse: Wiry-Rapid-Full. Key symptoms: high temperature, convulsions, Stiff tongue.

LIVER-YANG RISING CAUSING WIND


Maciocia gives three subtypes of this pattern:


a) LiverYang Rising deriving from LiverYin Deficiency

b) LiverYang Rising deriving from Liver and Kidney-Yin Deficiency


c) LiverYang Rising deriving from LiverBlood Deficiency

a) LiverYang Rising deriving from LiverYin Deficiency


Tremor, facial tic, severe dizziness, tinnitus, headache, hypertension, dry throat, dry eyes, blurred vision, numbness or tingling of limbs, poor memory

Tongue: Normal colored without coating


Pulse: Wiry-Fine

b) LiverYang Rising deriving from Liver and Kidney-Yin Deficiency same as above but with backache, scanty urine, night sweats Tongue: Normal colored without coating Pulse: Wiry-Fine

c) LiverYang Rising deriving from LiverBlood Deficiency


Tremor, dizziness, tinnitus, headache, hypertension, dry throat, blurred vision, numbness or tingling of limbs, poor memory, insomnia

Tongue: Pale and Thin


Pulse: Wiry-Fine

LIVER-BLOOD DEFICIENCY GENERATING WIND



Fine tremor, dizziness, blurred vision, numbness or tingling of limbs, poor memory, insomnia, scanty periods Tongue: Pale and Thin Pulse: Wiry-Fine

LIVER INVADING THE SPLEEN



Irritability, abdominal distension and pain, alternation of constipation and diarrhea, stools sometimes dry and bitty and sometimes loose, flatulence, tiredness.

Tongue: Red on the sides or Pale.


Pulse: Weak on the right and Wiry on the left. Key symptoms: alternation of constipation and diarrhoea, abdominal distension and pain.

Lung Patterns
DSY class 4

Deficiency Patterns

LUNG-QI DEFICIENCY

Slight shortness of breath, slight cough, weak voice, spontaneous daytime sweating, dislike of speaking, bright-pale complexion, propensity to catching colds, tiredness, dislike of cold. Tongue: Pale.

Pulse: Empty, particularly in the right Front position.


Key symptoms: shortness of breath, weak voice, Empty Pulse.

KIDNEYS FAILING TO RECEIVE QI

Shortness of breath on exertion, rapid and weak breathing, difficulty in inhaling, cough, asthma, sweating, cold limbs, cold limbs after sweating, swelling of the face, thin body, mental listlessness, clear urination during asthma attack, soreness of the back.
Tongue: Pale. Pulse: Weak, Tight, Deep. Key symptoms: shortness of breath on exertion, sweating, clear urination.

LUNG-YIN DEFICIENCY

Cough which is dry or with scanty sticky sputum, weak and/or hoarse voice, dry mouth and throat, tickly throat, tiredness, dislike of speaking, thin body or chest, night sweating. Tongue: Normal color, dry without coating or rootless coating in front. Pulse: Floating-Empty and Rapid.

Key symptoms: dry cough, weak-hoarse voice, dry throat, night sweating.

KIDNEY- AND LUNG-YIN DEFICIENCY


Dry cough which is worse in the evening, dry throat and mouth, thin body, dizziness, tinnitus, breathlessness on exertion, lower backache, night sweating, 5-heart heat, scanty urination. Tongue: Normal or Red with rootless or no coating. Pulse: Floating-Empty, possibly rapid. Key symptoms: dry cough, tongue with rootless or no coating.

Excess Patterns

INVASION OF LUNGS BY WIND-COLD



Aversion to cold, fever, cough, itchy throat, slight breathlessness, blocked or runny nose with clear-watery discharge, sneezing, occipital headache, body aches.

Tongue: thin-white coating.


Pulse: Floating-tight. Key symptoms: aversion to cold, sneezing, Floating pulse.

INVASION OF LUNGS BY WIND-HEAT Cough, fever, aversion to cold, cough, sore


throat, blocked or runny nose with yellow discharge, sneezing, headache, body aches, slight sweating, slight thirst, swollen tonsils.

Tongue: slightly Red on the sides or tip, possibly thin white or yellow coating. Pulse: Floating-Rapid. Key symptoms: Fever, aversion to cold, sore throat, Floating-Rapid pulse.

INVASION OF LUNGS BY WIND-WATER Sudden swelling of eyes and face, gradually


spreading to the whole body, bright-shiny complexion, scanty and pale urination, aversion to Wind, fever, cough, slight breathlessness.

Tongue: White-sticky coating. Pulse: Floating-Slippery. Key symptoms: sudden swelling of face, aversion to Wind, Floating-Slippery pulse.

LUNG HEAT

Cough, slight breathlessness, feeling of heat, chest ache, flaring of nostrils, thirst, red face. Tongue: Red with yellow coating. Pulse: Overflowing-Rapid. Key symptoms: cough, feeling of heat, thirst, red tongue with yellow coating.

LIVER-FIRE INSULTING THE LUNGS Breathlessness, asthma, fullness and


stuffiness of the chest and hypochondrium, cough, yellow or blood-tinged sputum, headache, dizziness, red face, thirst, bitter taste, scanty-dark urine, constipation.

Tongue: Red, redder on the sides, swollen in the front part, yellow coating. Pulse: Wiry and Slippery. Key symptoms: breathlessness, asthma, fullness of hypochondrium, headache, Wiry pulse.

PHLEGM-HEAT IN THE LUNGS

Barking cough, profuse sticky yellow or green sputum, shortness of breath, wheezing, feeling of oppression of the chest, feeling of heat, thirst, insomnia, agitation, dizziness and heaviness of the head.
Tongue: Red, swollen, thick-sticky yellow coating. Pulse: Slippery-Rapid-Full. Key symptoms: cough, yellow or green sputum, thick-sticky yellow coating, RapidSlippery pulse.

DRY-PHLEGM IN THE LUNGS


Dry cough with occasional expectoration of scanty sputum, shortness of breath, feeling of oppression of the chest, scanty phlegm in the throat, heaviness in the head, dizziness, dry throat, wheezing, pasty-dry complexion.

Tongue: swollen with dry-sticky coating.


Pulse: Fine-Slippery. Key symptoms: Dry cough with occasional expectoration of scanty sputum, feeling of oppression of the chest.

DAMP-PHLEGM IN THE Chronic coughLUNGS coming in bouts, profuse white


sticky sputum which is easy to expectorate, white-pasty complexion, phlegm in the throat, feeling of oppression of the chest, shortness of breath, dislike of lying down, wheezing, nausea, feeling of heaviness, dizziness and heaviness of the head.

Tongue: Swollen with sticky white coating.

Pulse: Slippery or Soggy.


Key symptoms: Chronic cough with profuse white sputum, thick-sticky white tongue coating.

COLD-PHLEGM IN THE LUNGS

Cough with expectoration of whitewatery sputum, aggravated by exposure to cold, cold feeling, cold hands, phlegm in the throat, dizziness, feeling of oppression and/or cold in the chest, feeling of heaviness, heaviness in the head. Tongue: Swollen, wet with sticky white coating.

Pulse: Slippery-Slow.

PHLEGM-FLUIDS OBSTRUCTING THE LUNGS Cough with expectoration of of white-watery


sputum, breathlessness, splashing sounds in the chest, vomiting of white-watery-frothy sputum, feeling of oppression of the chest, dizziness and heaviness of the head, cough which may be elicited by a scare.

Tongue: Pale body, thick-sticky white coating.


Pulse: Fine and Slippery or Weak-Floating.

Key symptoms: cough with white-watery-frothy sputum.

KIDNEY-YANG DEFICIENT, WATER OVERFLOWING



Edema especially of legs and ankles, cold feeling in legs and back, fullness and distension of abdomen, soreness of lower back, feeling cold, scanty-clear urination. Water overflowing to the Lungs: the above symptoms plus thin-watery-frothy sputum, cough, asthma and breathlessness on exertion.

Spleen Patterns
DSY class 5

Deficiency patterns

SPLEEN-QI DEFICIENCY

Poor appetite, abdominal distension after eating, tiredness, lassitude, desire to lie down, pale complexion, weakness of the limbs, loose stools, depression, tendency to obesity.

Tongue: Pale.
Pulse: Empty. Key symptoms: Poor appetite, tiredness, loose stools.

SPLEEN-YANG DEFICIENCY

Poor appetite, slight abdominal distension after eating, tiredness, lassitude, desire to lie down curled up, pale complexion, weakness of the four limbs, loose stools, edema, feeling cold, cold limbs. Tongue: Pale, wet. Pulse: Weak, Deep. Key symptoms: loose stools, feeling cold, cold limbs and tiredness.

KIDNEY- AND SPLEEN-YANG DEFICIENCY


Lower backache, cold weak knees, desire to lie down, abdominal distension, poor appetite, feeling cold, cold limbs, abundantclear or scanty-clear urination, loose stools, diarrhea at dawn, edema of the legs, feeling of cold in the back, chronic diarrhea, borborygmi, watery diarrhea. Tongue: Pale, wet. Pulse: Deep, Weak. Key symptoms: chronic diarrhea, feeling of cold in the back, Deep-Weak pulse.

SPLEEN-QI SINKING

Any of the symptoms and signs of Spleen-Qi deficiency with the addition of: bearing down sensation in the abdomen, prolapse of stomach, uterus, anus or vagina, frequency and urgency of urination, menorrhagia.
Tongue: Pale. Pulse: Weak. Key symptoms: bearing down sensation, Weak Pulse.

SPLEEN NOT CONTROLLING BLOOD



Any of the Spleen-Qi deficiency manifestations, plus: blood spots under the skin, blood in the urine or stools, excessive uterine bleeding.

Tongue: Pale.
Pulse: Weak or Fine. Key symptoms: Fine Pulse, Pale tongue and bleeding.

Excess Patterns

COLD-DAMPNESS INVADING THE SPLEEN


Poor appetite, feeling of fullness of the abdomen and epigastrium, feeling of cold in the epigastrium which improves with the application of warmth, feeling of heaviness of the head and body, sweetish taste or absence of taste, no thirst, loose stools, white vaginal discharge, lassitude, tiredness, nausea, edema, dull-white complexion. Tongue: Pale with sticky-white coating. Pulse: Slippery-Slow. Key symptoms: abdominal fullness, feeling of heaviness, sticky tongue coating.

DAMP-HEAT INVADING THE SPLEEN Fullness of epigastrium & lower abdomen, poor
appetite, feeling of heaviness, thirst without desire to drink, nausea, vomiting, loose stools with offensive odor, burning sensation of the anus, scanty dark-yellow urination, feeling of heat, low-grade fever, dull headache with heaviness of the head, yellow complexion, yellow sclera of eyes, oily sweat, bitter taste, itchy skin or skin eruptions, sweating which does not reduce fever.

Tongue: Red, sticky-yellow coating. Pulse: Slippery-Rapid. Key symptoms: abdominal fullness, feeling of

Combined Patterns

SPLEEN-(QI) AND HEARTBLOOD DEFICIENCY Palpitations, dizziness, insomnia, dreamdisturbed sleep, poor memory, anxiety, propensity to be startled, dull-pale complexion, pale lips, tiredness, weak muscles, loose stools, poor appetite, scanty menstruation.

Tongue: Pale, Thin, slightly dry. Pulse: Choppy or Fine. Key symptoms: palpitations, insomnia, poor memory, Pale tongue.

Kidney Patterns
DSY class 6

KIDNEY-YANG DEFICIENCY Lower backache, cold weak knees, sensation of


cold in the back, feeling of cold, weak legs, bright-white complexion, tiredness, lassitude, impotence, premature ejaculation, decreased libido, abundant-clear urination, night urination, apathy, edema of the legs, infertility in women.

Tongue: Pale, Wet. Pulse: Deep-Weak. Key symptoms: cold in the back, abundant-clear urination, Pale tongue, Deep Pulse.

KIDNEY-QI NOT FIRM


Soreness and weakness of the back, weak knees, clear frequent urination, weak-stream urination, abundant urination, dribbling after urination, incontinence of urine, enuresis, urination at night, nocturnal emissions without dreams, premature ejaculation, spermatorrhea, chronic vaginal discharge, recurrent miscarriage. Tongue: Pale.

Pulse: Deep-Weak especially in the Rear positions.


Key symptoms: dribbling after urination, nocturnal emissions without dreams.

KIDNEY-YANG DEFICIENT, WATER OVERFLOWING Edema especially of legs and ankles, cold
feeling in legs and back, fullness and distension of abdomen, soreness of lower back, feeling cold, scanty-clear urination.

1. Water overflowing to the Heart: the above symptoms plus palpitations, breathlessness, cold hands. 2. Water overflowing to the Lungs: the above symptoms plus thin-watery-frothy sputum, cough, asthma and breathlessness on exertion.

KIDNEYS FAILING TO RECEIVE QI

Shortness of breath on exertion, rapid and weak breathing, difficulty in inhaling, cough, asthma, sweating, cold limbs, cold limbs after sweating, swelling of the face, thin body, mental listlessness, clear urination during asthma attack, soreness of the back.
Tongue: Pale. Pulse: Weak, Tight, Deep. Key symptoms: shortness of breath on exertion, sweating, clear urination.

KIDNEY-YIN DEFICIENCY Dizziness, tinnitus, vertigo, poor memory,


deafness, night sweating, dry mouth / throat at night, 5-palm heat, thirst, lower backache, ache in bones, nocturnal emissions, constipation, dark-scanty urine, infertility, premature ejaculation, anxiety.

Tongue: Normal or Red with no coating, cracks.


Pulse: Floating-Empty and Rapid Key symptoms: dry mouth at night, night sweating, Red-Peeled tongue.

KIDNEY-YIN DEFICIENT, EMPTY-FIRE BLAZING

Malar flush, mental restlessness, nightsweating, low-grade fever, afternoon fever, feeling of heat in the afternoon/evening, insomnia, scanty-dark urine, blood in the urine, dry throat especially at night, thirst with desire to drink in small sips, lower backache, deafness, tinnitus, nocturnal emissions with dreams, excessive sexual desire, dry stools. Tongue: Red-Peeled, cracked, red tip. Pulse: Floating-Empty, Rapid. Key symptoms: malar flush, mental restlessness, dry throat at night, feeling of heat

KIDNEY-ESSENCE In children: poor bone development, late DEFICIENCY


closure of fontanelle, mental dullness or retardation.

In adults: softening of bones, weakness of knees and legs, poor memory, loose teeth, falling hair or premature greying of hair, weakness of sexual activity, lower backache, infertility (M/F), dizziness, tinnitus, dull mental function. Tongue: Pale (Yang xu) or no coating (Yin xu). Pulse: Floating-Empty or Leather. Key symptoms: children: poor bone development; adults: weak knees, falling hair,

Tongue: Pale, Swollen, wet with white coating.


Pulse: Deep-Weak-Slow.

Key symptoms: edema of ankles, Deep-Weak pulse, Pale-Swollen tongue.


a. Water overflowing to the Heart: all the above plus palpitations. b. Water overflowing to the Lungs: all the above plus thin-watery-frothy sputum.

COMBINED PATTERNS

KIDNEY- AND LIVER-YIN DEFICIENCY Dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, dull occipital or


vertical headache, insomnia, numbness of limbs, malar flush, dry eyes, blurred vision, lower backache, dry throat, dry hair and skin, vaginal dryness, night sweating, dry stools, nocturnal emissions, scanty menstruation or amenorrhea, delayed cycle, infertility.

Tongue: Normal or Red with rootless or no coating. Pulse: Floating-Empty (or Choppy). Key symptoms: dry eyes, dry throat, night sweating, scanty menstruation, Red-Peeled tongue.

KIDNEY AND HEART NOT HARMONIZED


Clinical manifestations Palpitations, mental restlessness, insomnia, dreamdisturbed sleep, anxiety, poor memory, dizziness, tinnitus, deafness, lower backache, nocturnal emissions with dreams, fever or feeling of heat in the evening, night sweating, 5-heart heat, scanty-dark urine.

Tongue: Red-Peeled, tip redder, midline crack reaching tip.


Pulse: Floating-Empty, Rapid or Deep weak rear with front Overflowing. Key symptoms: palpitations, insomnia, night sweating, Red-Peeled tongue with redder tip and midline crack.

KIDNEY- AND SPLEEN-YANG DEFICIENCY


Lower backache, cold weak knees, desire to lie down, abdominal distension, poor appetite, feeling cold, cold limbs, abundantclear or scanty-clear urination, loose stools, diarrhea at dawn, edema of the legs, feeling of cold in the back, chronic diarrhea, borborygmi, watery diarrhea. Tongue: Pale, wet. Pulse: Deep, Weak. Key symptoms: chronic diarrhea, feeling of cold in the back, Deep-Weak pulse.

Stomach Patterns
DSY class 7

Deficiency patterns

STOMACH DEFICIENT AND COLD Discomfort or dull pain in the epigastrium,


better after eating and better with pressure or massage, no appetite, preference for warm drinks and foods, vomiting of clear fluid, no thirst, cold weak limbs, tiredness, pale face.

Tongue: Pale, wet.

Pulse: Deep, Weak, Slow, especially on the right Middle position.


Key symptoms: discomfort in the epigastrium which is better after eating, tiredness, cold limbs.

COLD INVADING THE STOMACH

Sudden pain in the epigastrium, feeling cold, preference for warmth, vomiting of clear fluid, feeling worse after swallowing cold fluids which are quickly vomited, preference for warm liquids. Tongue: thick-white coating. Pulse: Deep, Slow, Tight. Key symptoms: sudden pain in epigastrium, vomiting, feeling cold, Deep-Tight Pulse.

STOMACH-YIN DEFICIENCY

No appetite or slight hunger with no desire to eat, constipation (dry stools), dull or slightly burning epigastric pain, dry mouth and throat especially in the afternoon, desire to drink in small sips, slight feeling of fullness after eating.
Tongue: Peeled in the centre, or with coating "without root" Pulse: Floating-Empty on the right Middle position.

STOMACH-FIRE (OR PHLEGM-FIRE)

Burning epigastric pain, intense thirst with desire to drink cold liquids, excessive hunger, mental restlessness, swelling and pain in the gums, bleeding gums, sour regurgitation, dry stools, nausea, vomiting soon after eating, bad breath, feeling of heat. In case of Phlegm-Fire: feeling of oppression of epigastrium, less thirst, mucus in stools, expectoration of phlegm, mental derangement.

Tongue: Red center, yellow-dry coating (in case of Phlegm-Fire: yellow-sticky coating).
Pulse: Rapid Overflowing right middle position (in case of PhlegmFire: Slippery, Overflowing, Rapid). Key symptoms: burning sensation in epigastrium, thirst with desire to drink cold liquids, thickyellow coating, Red tongue.

LIVER INVADING THE STOMACH



Irritability, distension and pain in epigastrium and hypochondrium, fullness in epigastrium, sour regurgitation, belching, nausea, vomiting. Tongue: Red on the sides or Pale. Pulse: Weak on the right and Wiry on the left.

DAMP-HEAT IN THE STOMACH

Fullness and pain of the epigastrium, feeling of heaviness, facial pain, blocked nose or thick sticky nasal discharge, thirst without desire to drink, nausea, feeling of heat, yellow complexion, sticky taste. Tongue: Red, sticky-yellow coating. Pulse: Slippery-Rapid. Key symptoms: epigastric fullness, feeling of heaviness, nausea, sticky-yellow coating.

FULL-HEAT IN THE SMALL Mental restlessness, insomnia, tongue/mouth INTESTINE


ulcers, pain in the throat, deafness, uncomfortable feeling and heat sensation in the chest, abdominal pain, thirst for cold liquids, scanty and dark urine, burning painful urination, blood in urine.

Tongue: Red with redder and swollen tip, yellow coating. Pulse: Rapid, Overflowing, especially in the Front position. Urinary symptoms, will be wiry in rear. Key symptoms: abdominal pain, tongue ulcers, scanty-dark-painful urination.

RETENTION OF FOOD IN THE STOMACH Fullness, pain and distension of the


epigastrium which are relieved by vomiting, nausea, vomiting, foul breath, sour regurgitation, belching, insomnia, loose stools or constipation, poor appetite

Tongue: thick coating (which could be white or yellow). Pulse: Full, Slippery. Key symptoms: epigastric fullness, sour regurgitation, thick coating.

STASIS OF BLOOD IN THE STOMACH



Severe stabbing epigastric pain, may be worse at night, dislike of pressure, nausea, vomiting of blood, vomiting of food looking like coffee grounds.

Tongue: Purple.
Pulse: Wiry. Key symptoms: stabbing pain in the epigastrium, vomiting of dark blood.