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TORSION OF

CIRCULAR CROSS-

SECTIONS

6.1. SIMPLE TORSION

THEORY

a torque, it can be shown that every section

of the shaft is subjected to a state of pure

shear (Fig. 6.1), the moment of resistance

developed by the shear stresses being

everywhere equal to the magnitude, and

opposite in sense, to the applied torque.

For the purposes of deriving a simple theory

to describe the behaviour of shafts subjected

to torque it is necessary to make the

following basic assumptions:

Shear System Set Up on an Element in

the Surface of a Shaft Subjected to

Torsion

Resisting torque, T

Applied torque T

Assumptions

uniform elastic properties throughout.

(2) The material is elastic, following Hooke's

law with shear stress proportional to shear

strain.

(3) The stress does not exceed the elastic

limit or limit of proportionality.

(4) Circular sections remain circular.

Assumptions Contd.

(5) Cross-sections remain plane. (This is

certainly not the case with the torsion of

non-circular sections.)

(6) Cross-sections rotate as if rigid, i.e. every

diameter rotates through the same angle.

have shown that the theory developed below

on the basis of these assumptions shows

excellent correlation with experimental

results.

(a) Angle of Twist

Consider now the solid circular shaft of radius R subjected to a torque T at one end, t

other end being fixed (Fig. 6.2). Under the action of this torque a radial line at the

free end

the shaft twists through an angle θ, point A moves to B, and AB subtends an angle γ

at'

fixed end. This is then the angle of distortion of the shaft, i.e. the shear strain.

arc AB = R θ = L γ

γ = R θ /L (1)

From the definition of rigidity modulus:

shear stress τ

G=

shear strain γ

Simple Torsion Theory Contd.

=τ

γ/G (2)

where τ

is the shear stress set up at radius R.

Therefore equating eqns. (1) and (2),

R θ

=

τ

L G

τθ τ

G F

G'I

J ……………….

=

R L Hr K (3)

where τ

’ is the shear stress at any other radius r.

(b) Stresses

Let the cross-section of the shaft be considered as divided into elements

of radius r and thickness dr as shown in Fig. 6.3 each subjected to a

shear stress τ ’

= stress x area = τ ’ x 2 π r dr (approximately)

This force will produce a moment about the center axis of the shaft, providing a

contribution to the torque:

( τ’ x 2 πr dr) x r = 2 πτ’ r2 dr

z

R

T= 2 πτ' r 2

0

Shear stress τ’ will vary with the radius r and will therefore be replaced in terms of

Gθ

τ' = r

L

z Gθ 3

R

T = 2π r dr

0

L

Gθ R

L 0z2πr 3 dr

The integral z0

R

2πr 3 dr is called the polar moment of area J, and may be evaluated as

a standard form for solid and hollow shafts as shown in the section 6.2 elow.

Gθ

T= J

L

T Gθ

= …………… (4)

J L

Combining equations (3) and (4) produces the so called simple theory of torsion

equation:

T τ Gθ

= = ………………. (5)

J R L

6.2 POLAR SECOND MOMENT OF

AREA

As stated above, the polar second moment of area, J is defined as

J = zR

0

2π r 3 dr

Lr O 2π R

2 π MP=

4 R 4

=

π D4

(6)

N4 Q 4 0

32

Lr O π

z

R

π

c h

4

2 π MP= ( R

R

J = 2π r 3 dr = 4

− r4 ) = D4 − d 4 (7)

0

N4 Q 2 r

32

6.3 Shear Stress and Shear Strain

in Shafts

The shear stresses developed in a shaft under pure torsion as shown in Fig. 6.1., their

values as given by the simple torsion theory as:

Gθ

τ= R

L

τ=G γ

The two equations can be combined to relate shear stress and strain in the shaft to the

angle of twist per unit length thus:

Gθ

τ= R = Gγ (8)

L

or, in terms of some internal radius, r,

Gθ

τ' = r = Gγ (9)

L

These equations indicate that the shear stress and shear strain vary linearly with

radius and have their maximum value at the outside radius (Fig. 6.4). The applied shear

stresses in the plane of the cross-section are accompanied by complementary stresses of

equal value on longitudinal planes as indicated in Figs. 6.1 and 6.4.

to torsion

8.4 Section Modulus

It is sometimes convenient to re-write part of the torsion theory formula to obtain the

maximum shear stress in shafts as follows:

T τ

=

J R

TR

τ =

J

With R the outside radius of the shaft the above equation yields the greatest value

possible for τ (Fig. 6.4),

TR T

τ max = = (10)

J Z

where Z = J/R is termed the polar section modulus. From the preceding section:

π D3 π ( D4 − d 4 )

for solid shafts: Z= and for hollow shafts, Z= (11)

16 16 D

6.5 Torsional Rigidity

The angle of twist per unit length of shafts is given by the torsion theory as:

θ T

=

L GJ

The quantity G J is called the torsional rigidity of the shaft and is thus given as:

T

GJ= (12)

θ/ L

i.e. the torsional rigidity is the torque divided by the angle of twist (in radians) per unit

length.

Power Transmitted by Shafts

the rate of T w Nm/s ( or joule/s)

Now the rate at which a system works is defined as its power, the basic unit of power

being the Watt ( 1 Watt = 1 N m/s). Thus, the power transmitted by the shaft:

2π N T

= T w Watts = N = revolutions per minute

60

Since the Watt is a very small unit of power in engineering terms use is normally made

of S.I. multiples, i.e. kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW).

Combined Stress Systems-Combined

Bending and Torsion

shafts which carry torque are also subjected

to bending, if only by virtue of the self-weight

of the gears they carry. Many other practical

applications occur where bending and

torsion arise simultaneously so that this type

of loading represents one of the major

sources of complex stress situations.

Combined Stress Systems Contd.

tensile stress on one surface and

compressive stress on the opposite surface

whilst torsion gives rise to pure shear

throughout the shaft.

An element on the tensile surface will thus

be subjected to the stress system indicated

in Fig. 6.5 and equation or the Mohr circle

procedure derived in Chapter 4 can be

used to obtain the principal stresses present.

Combined Bending and Torsion-

Equivalent Bending Moment

simultaneous application of a bending

moment M and torque T the principal

stresses set up in the shaft can be

shown to be equal to those produced by

an equivalent bending moment,

of a certain value Me acting alone.

Combined Bending and Torsion-

Equivalent Bending Moment Contd.

set up at the outside surface of the shaft owing to the bending moment

M are given by

M ymax M D

σ= =

I 2I

Similarly, from the torsion theory, the maximum shear stress in the surface of the shaft is

given by

TR TD

τ= =

J 2J

Combined Bending and Torsion-

Equivalent Bending Moment Contd.

But for a circular shaft: J = 2 I,

TD

τ=

4I

The principal stress for this system can now be obtained by applying the formula

derived in the last Chapter.

1 1

σ1 or σ2 = (σx +σy ) ± (σx −σy ) 2 +4τ2

2 2

F

G I FM DI

2

FT DI

2

H JK G

H2 I JK G H4 I JK

1 MD 1

σ1 = + +4

2 2I 2

F

G I

H JKM +

1 D

= ( M 2 +T 2 )

2 2I

Combined Bending and Torsion-Equivalent

Bending Moment Concluded

Now, if Me is the bending moment which acting alone will produce the same maximum

stress, then:

M e ymax M e D

σ1 = =

I 2I

Me D 1 D F

G I

J

2I

=

2 2I HK M+ ( M 2 +T 2 )

1

Me = M + ( M 2 +T 2 ) (13)

2

and it will produce the same maximum direct stress as the combined bending and torsion

effects.

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