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OSTEOLOGY - MYOLOGY

pudjo sanjoto Laboratorium Anatomi-Histologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya

Axial skeleton : Skull Auditory ossicles Hyoid bone Vertebral column Ribs and sternum Appendicular skeleton : Upper extremity Lower extremity

22 6 1 26 25 ---64 62 ----

80

Total

126 ----206

FUNCTION
PROTECTIVE LEVER MUSCLE ATTACHMENT MOVEMENT STORAGE HEMATOPOESIS

BONE COMPOSITION
Water 50% Solid substance 50% Organic substance 31% Ossein Inorganic substance 69% Calcium Phosphate 80%

BONE STRUCTURE

Pars/substantia compacta Pars/substantis spongiosa Epiphysis Epiphyseal disc Metaphysis Diaphysis (shaft) Cavum medullare

Types of Bone
Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Sesamoid bones

Long bones
Its length is greater than its width Diaphysis 2 Epiphyseal ends Act as a lever movement For examples :
Os femur, os fibula, os tibia, os metatarsalia, ossa phalanges pedis etc Os humerus, os radius, os ulna, os metacarpalia, ossa phalanges manus etc

Short Bones
Approximately equal in all 3 dimentions Composed of cancellous bone surrounded by thin layer of compact bone Almost completely cover with articular surface Only in wrist (ossa carpalia) and ankle (ossa tarsalia) where only limited movement is required

Flat Bones
Formed by 2 thin inner and outer plate of compact bone separated by minimal layer of trabecular/cancellous bone between them Form a protective enclosure (brain, heart, lung), examples :
Os scapula Ossa costae Os sternum Calvaria

Irregular Bones
Have a complicated configuration and numerous processes. For examples :
Os vertebra Os sphenoideus Os ethmoideus

Sesamoid Bones
Small bones embedded within certain tendons. Largest : os patella The most constant :
Tendo m. flexor pollicis brevis metacarpophalangeal I Tendo m flexor hallucis brevis metatarsophalangeal I Articulatio

Articulatio

OSTEOGENESIS Bones can develop in two ways : Osteogenesis intramembranacea Osteogenesis endochondralis

Osteogenesis intramembranacea
Bone tissue develops directly from mesenchymal tissue Only 1 type ossification center Occurs in the flat bone of the skull

Osteogenesis endochondralis
Bone tissue develop by replacing hyaline cartilagenous model Occurs in the long bones (of limbs) Diaphyse Primary center of ossification Epiphyse Secondary center of ossification

TERMINOLOGY
Plane
Median/midsagittal Sagittal Coronal Frontal Transversal/horizontal

Direction/Position
Anterior-Posterior Ventral-dorsal Superior-Inferior Cranial-Caudal Lateral-Medial Proximal-Distal Superficial-Profundus Interna-Externa

Extremitas superior

Brachii

Antebrachii Truncus Manus

Extremitas inferior Genu Genu

Cruris

Pedis

TYPES of MOVEMENTS

TYPES of MOVEMENT

TYPES of MOVEMENT

TYPES of MOVEMENT

Architecture of muscle
Strap Fusiform Pennate : Unipennate Bipennate Multipennate Circular

STRAP :

Muscle fascicles are paralel to one another and to the long axis of the muscle and may extend for the entire length of the muscle Ex : m. sartorius m. sternocleidomastoideus

RHOMBOID m. rhomboides

QUADRILATERAL m. pronator quadratus

FUSIFORM Ex : M. biceps brachii

TRIANGULAR Ex : m. pectoralis major

UNIPENNATE
m. extensor digitorum longus

BIPENNATE m. rectus femoris

MULTIPENNATE Pars acromialis m. deltoideus

CIRCULAR M. orbicularis oculi m. orbicularis oris Sphincter

UNIVENTER
Most of muscles

BIVENTER (TWO-BELLIED)
M. digastricus M. omohyoideus

MULTIVENTER (INTERSECTED)
M. rectus abdominalis

How muscles are named.


Tells something about : Shape Size Location Number of heads of origin Function Direction of their fibers