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SOCIALIZATION AND RECRUITMENT
Augustine ◦ Expansiveness of New World environment ◦ Rousseau .Brazilian Political Culture: Origins ◦ Thomastic synthesis of Greeks and St.
Elite Dominated Emperor Dom Pedro II (age 61) Legacy of patrimonialism Civil society ◦ Emerged in response to authoritarian rule Political Culture: Characteristics .
of little importance electorally Liberation theology Ecclesiastical base communities National Conference of Brazilian Bishops National Cathedral: Brasilia . largest number of Catholics in the world Religious observance among Catholics traditionally low.Political Culture: Catholic Religion Catholic nation.
POLITICAL CULTURE EVANGELICAL PROTESTANTS Candomble Religious differences in voting patterns minimal .
Political Culture of Statism State permeates society Compliance and enforcement often arbitrary Social solidarity movements in favelas ◦ Began as mechanism of state control during military dictatorship (1964 – 85) ◦ Movements evolved into institutions that sought to influence those in authority ◦ Became a force for democratization .
◦ Authoritarianism had an economic impact on women: Took the lead in their communities’ struggles for health care and sanitation Made demands relating to wages and worker rights . Political opportunity followed educational and occupational opportunity.Gender ◦ Machismo and marianismo ◦ Under military rule traditional image and orientations towards politics of women began to change.
Racial Democracy: No & Yes ◦ Racial Democracy myth ◦ Racial prejudice embedded in traditional Brazil ◦ Movimento Negro Unificado-The Unified Black Movement Against Racial Discrimination ◦ Affirmative action policies under .
◦ Less aware of their civic rights and responsibilities than most Latin Americans ◦ On the other hand. political parties. ◦ Distrust democratic institutions today more than other Latin Americans. and democratic institutions more than in the recent past. Brazilians behave in more democratic ways than their answers to surveys may imply Turn out to vote at higher rates and believe their vote matters more than on average across Latin America .Brazilian Political Culture How democratic? ◦ Not tolerant of authoritarianism ◦ No single vision of what kind of democracy they supported ◦ They distrust politicians.
Brazilians National Pride .
Attitudes toward Institutions .
Political Socialization in Brazil Changes in the socialization of Women ◦ Economic development and political organization carried over into democratic era ◦ Increased activist orientation of women Race as a component of political socialization Print Media ◦ Newspapers – confined to elite ◦ Magazines .
Socialization and Mass Communication Impact of Television (access is universal) ◦ Brings politics into Brazilian homes via the horario gratuito free television time set aside during the election campaigns for the political parties Individual candidates and parties receive coverage during television news and any televised debates ◦ Telenovelas (prime-time soap operas) . . project themes subtly influence the ways in which people view politicians and institutions.
Socialization and Neighborhood Political learning .
Recruitment of Political Elites Traditional political families Coronales Wealth – especially in South-east and South Fernando Collor de Mello & Jose Sarney Military regime – opportunities for Técnicos Movement to professional politicians (Fernando Henrique Cardoso) Labor movement (Luis Ignacio da Silva ‘Lula’) Inclusion of more women Luiza Erundina .
most notably those to protect indigenous peoples.000 in the late 1970s Organized movements around identities. the environment. single issues political and social rights. and human rights and to gain land for the landless Tactics International allies Direct confrontation Use of the courts Role of NGOs .Political Recruitment and Political Participation: Citizen Politics Blossoming of associations – 8.
public assemblies before the legislative budget cycle begins in order to establish spending priorities .Political Participation as Political Recruitment Mass political participation ◦ Staggering amount of participation Elections Participatory budgeting Process by which hundreds of thousands of citizens meet in a series of open.
Citizen Politics Grassroots church groups Urban Neighborhood associations (8000) Professional associations Countryside (Movement of Landless Rural Workers) Mass demonstration and confrontational politics Non-governmental organizations .
MASS POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Voting compulsory Submission of blank ballots (varied between 19% and 31% in 1990’s) Voting is becoming more inclusive ◦ 1960 – 19 million eligible to vote ◦ 1998 – 106 million eligible to vote .
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