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TrailBlazer

BASICS OF LFR
AGRAJ JAIN 7TH Sem, EEE

Line follower

Line follower is a machine that can follow a path. The path can be visible like a black line on a white surface (or vice-versa) or it can be invisible like a magnetic field.

Basic Block Diagram .

PART I: SENSOR ARRAY .

Modes of sensing • Digital sensing: Sensor output is sampled using comparators like LM324 to generate binary value • Analog sensing: Inbuilt ADC is used to generate a value 0-255 depending on the output voltage .

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Sensor configuration: Four IR sensors Connected in a row Cover the sensors With black paper from all sides .

Let us assume that when a sensor is on the line it reads 0 and when it is off the line it reads 1 .

ALGORITHM .

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PART II: CONTROL .

Microcontrollers .

• Designed for small and dedicated applications.Definition • A microcontroller (MCU or µC) is a small computer on a single IC consisting of a relatively simple CPU combined with support functions. .

• 8 KB inbuilt flash . 512 bytes EEPROM.5 V. . • Operational voltage : 4.Atmega 8 • High Performance Low Power 8 bit Microcontroller by Atmel.5 – 5. • Atmel Microcontrollers are the most popular ones in NITK.

Pin Diagram – Atmega 8 .

ATMEGA 32 .

• It includes Programmer’s Notepad and Mfile.Software’s • WinAVR • An application suite of open source software development tools for the Atmel AVR series of RISC microprocessors on the Windows platform. .

Software’s • AVR Studio • AVR Studio 4 is the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for writing and debugging AVR applications in Windows environments. • It includes an assembler and a simulator. .

Programmers • Programmers are used for interfacing of micro-controllers to computer • A simple parallel programmer • USBasp (http://www.fischl.de/usbasp) .

Parallel Port Programmer Parallel Port Microcontroller pins Pin 7 Pin8 Pin9 Pin10 Pin10 RESET SCK MOSI MISO Ground .

fischl.USBasp • A USB in-circuit programmer for Atmel AVR controllers. no special USB controller is needed. • The programmer uses a firmwareonly USB driver.de/usbasp) . • Simple circuit consisting an ATMega8 and a couple of passive components. • (http://www.

PART III: MOTOR INTERFACE (L298N) .

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road OM electronics. www.Shops: Mangalore: Manohar Radio. Ph: 080 2423626 Pearl Electronics.P.nskelectronics.P. road . Bangalore: N.P. off S. Electronics.P. road Ph: 9986034979 Vishal Electronics.P. road. off S. S.K. S. road Amar Radio. Hampankatta.S.in Ph: 9740374373 OM Technologies. Hampnkatta. S.

com .CONTACT: Agraj Jain: 9980104741 agrajjain@gmail.