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Chapter 10

Natural Selection
An Evolving Enemy

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Chapter 10 Section 1
Tuberculosis
Return of an Ancient Killer

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

10.1 Return of an Ancient Killer

Tuberculosis  Tuberculosis (TB) has infected humans for thousands of years
 Evidence of TB has been found in Egyptian mummies  Hippocrates described a TB-like condition  In 1906, TB accounted for 2 out of every 1000 deaths in the U.S.

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10.1 Return of an Ancient Killer What is Tuberculosis?
 TB is caused by bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis
 2 billion people carry TB  New infections occur at a rate of 1 per second  TB causes roughly 2 million deaths per year

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Figure 10.1

.What is Tuberculosis? Symptoms of TB include:     Cough that produces blood Fever Fatigue Period of wasting – patient becomes weaker and thinner  Led to calling the disease “consumption” Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10.1 Return of an Ancient Killer . Inc.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.2 . Figure 10. Inc.10.1 Return of an Ancient Killer .What is Tuberculosis?  Consumptive symptoms occur because of damage to lung tissues.

Figure 10.000 droplets. all containing infectious bacteria Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.1 Return of an Ancient Killer . Inc.What is Tuberculosis?  Testing is by x-ray of lungs and skin test  Transmission of TB occurs through the air. from infected individuals  A single sneeze can contain 40.10.4 .

10. scientists have noticed an increase in TB that is resistant to antibiotics  Because of resistance to antibiotics. .1 Return of an Ancient Killer Treatment – and Treatment Failure  19th and early 20th century – treatment consisted of “sanitariums”  Discovery of antibiotics revolutionized TB treatment  Since the 1980s. Inc. the number of TB cases worldwide is increasing Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Chapter 10 Section 2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc.

. Inc. Common descent 2. Natural selection   Natural selection is considered to be the primary cause of evolution Other factors include genetic drift and sexual selection Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Darwin discussed two ideas in Origin of Species 1.

10. Populations of organisms produce more offspring than will survive 4. . Inc. Survival and reproduction are not random Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Some of the variation within individuals can be passed on to their offspring 3. Individuals within populations vary 2.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Natural selection is an inference based on four observations 1.

Figure 10. such as blooming time in flowers Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.6 .10.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution 1. Inc. Individuals within populations vary  This is true of human and non-human populations  Variation can include traits other than appearance.

7 . Inc.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution 2.10. Some of the variation within individuals can be passed on to their offspring Darwin noticed that animal breeders could get exaggerated traits through selective breeding Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Figure 10.

Inc. .2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution 3.10. Populations of organisms produce more offspring than will survive  Even slow-breeding animals can produce large populations quickly Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Populations of organisms produce more offspring than will survive If a female elephant (colored pink) lives a full fertile lifetime. Figure 10.8 .10. half of her calves will be female. Shelf = Available resources Generation 0 = 2 elephants Generation 1 = 6 elephants Generation 2 = 18 elephants Generation 3 = 54 elephants Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. she will bear about six calves in about 90 years. Inc.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution 3. On average.

Inc. Survival and reproduction are not random  Fitness: Relative survival and reproduction of one variant  Adaptation: Traits that increase individual fitness in an environment  Individuals with adaptations for a particular environment are more likely to survive and reproduce Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10. .2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution 4.

2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution 4.10. Figure 10. Inc. Survival and reproduction are not random 1976 Number of individuals Bill depth Average bill depth before drought 1978 Average bill depth of drought survivors Bill depth (mm) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.9 .

Figure 10.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Adaptations do not only affect survival  Any trait that increases the number of offspring produced is an adaptation  A flower’s reproduction is impacted by traits that affect the number of pollinators it receives  Therefore.10 .10. color or nectar production might be adaptations Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Darwin’s Inference: Natural Selection Causes Evolution  Result of natural selection  Favorable inherited variations tend to increase in frequency  Unfavorable variations tend to be lost  End result is a change in the traits of individuals in a population over generations (i.10. evolution) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .e.

2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Testing Natural Selection  Artificial Selection Selection imposed by human choice  Breeds of pigeons studied by Darwin arose through artificial selection  Breeds of dog have been artificially selected by humans Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .10.

.10. environmental conditions can be manipulated and effects on population examined  Example: alcohol in fruit flies  Scientists examined alcohol metabolism in fruit flies  All animals have enzymes to metabolize alcohol  Variations in ability to metabolize alcohol exist in populations Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Testing Natural Selection in the Lab  In laboratory.

Generation Generation 1 57 Fly population in normal laboratory environment Fly population in a high-alcohol laboratory environment Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10. Inc. Figure 10. As a result. all flies in the high-alcohol environment are fast processors of alcohol. the average rate of alcohol metabolism is twice the rate of the unmodified population.12 .2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Testing Natural Selection  Natural selection in the lab Percent of population that metabolized alcohol rapidly Increase in percent of fast-metabolizing flies No change in alcohol-metabolizing rate Generation Generation 1 57 After 57 generations.

tuberculosis to antibiotics  Many other disease-causing pathogens have also evolved resistance  Galapagos finches provide another classic example 1976 Number of individuals Bill depth Average bill depth before drought 1978 Average bill depth of drought survivors Bill depth (mm) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10. Figure 10.9 . Inc.2 Natural Selection Causes Evolution Natural Selection in Wild Populations  Many examples exist:  Evolution of resistance of M.

Chapter 10 Section 3 Natural Selection Since Darwin Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .

10.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin The Modern Synthesis  The union of genetics and evolution is called “the modern synthesis”  Knowledge of genetics facilitates understanding of the mechanisms of evolution  Alleles are the basis of variation of traits  Mutations can create new alleles and provide the basis for new traits  Natural selection provides a filter that selects for or against new traits Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .

10. .3 Natural Selection Since Darwin The Modern Synthesis  Mutation gives rise to new alleles  Generates raw material for natural selection  Natural selection alters the frequency of alleles within a population over generations  Evolution of a population = an increase or decrease in the frequency of an allele of a particular gene Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

3 Natural Selection Since Darwin Mutation. Figure 10.10.13 . Inc. Natural Selection & Evolution Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

10.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin A Closer Look: Subtleties of Natural Selection 1. differential survival caused allele to become more common Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. alcohol-rich environment did not cause gene to arise. . Natural selection cannot cause new traits to arise  Not an issue of choice or “will” of organisms  Selection can ONLY act on variations that ALREADY exist  Mutation creates new alleles RANDOMLY  In fly example. Inc.

10. just better fit to a particular situation  Adaptation that is beneficial in one situation might be a liability in another  Adaptations are trade-offs between better fit in one situation versus another Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Natural selection does not result in perfection  Natural selection does cause organisms to become a better fit to their environment  Organisms are not necessarily “better”. Inc.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin A Closer Look: Subtleties of Natural Selection 2. .

Figure 10.10.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin A Closer Look: Subtleties of Natural Selection  Adaptations are constrained by underlying biology  Result is “jury-rigged design”  Example is panda’s “thumb”  Actually grown from wrist bones  Not as efficient as opposable thumb Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.14 . Inc.

Natural selection does not cause progression towards a goal  Natural selection favors variants with the most appropriate adaptations for current environment  Organisms do not choose to change or adapt  Natural selection depends on the situation of the population Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .10. Inc.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin A Closer Look: Subtleties of Natural Selection 3.

3 Natural Selection Since Darwin Patterns of Selection  Different environmental conditions can lead to different changes in populations  Directional selection – change in population traits by favoring one allele over another  Stabilizing selection – selection for the average traits  Diversifying selection – selection for extremes Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc.10.

3 Natural Selection Since Darwin Directional Selection (a) Directional selection Number of individuals in the population of each type Number of individuals in the population of each type Not favored by pollinator = low fitness Preferred by pollinator = high fitness Population evolves in the direction of a darker pink color. Figure 10.16a . Inc.10. Color range Color range Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

Dark flowers not recognized by pollinators = low fitness Color range Color range Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10.16b . Inc.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin Stabilizing Selection (b) Stabilizing selection Number of individuals in the population of each type Pollinators more likely to visit similar-colored flowers = high fitness Number of individuals in the population of each type Pale flowers not recognized by pollinators = low fitness Population stabilizes. Figure 10. nearly all the individuals are same color.

Inc.10.3 Natural Selection Since Darwin Diversifying Selection (c) Diversifying selection Number of individuals in the population of each type One type of pollinator specializes in pale flowers = high fitness Number of individuals in the population of each type Neither pollinator chooses intermediate color = low fitness Population diversifies into pale variety and dark variety. Another pollinator specializes in dark flowers = high fitness Color range Color range Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Figure 10.16 .

.Chapter 10 Section 4 Natural Selection and Human Health Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.4 Natural Selection and Human Health Tuberculosis Fits Darwin’s Observations  Mycobacterium tuberculosis has evolved resistance to antibiotics because it fulfills the same observations Darwin made     Bacteria in the population vary Variation can be passed on to offspring More bacteria are produced than survive Bacterial survival is not random Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10. .

Figure 10. Single drug therapy 1 Start with different variants of M. 2 Single drug reduces fitness of most variants. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.10.17 .4 Natural Selection and Human Health Selecting for Drug Resistance  Simple antibiotic treatment can result in directional selection in bacteria. tuberculosis. 3 Resistant variants proliferate. Inc.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.10. Figure 10.4 Natural Selection and Human Health Stopping Drug Resistance  Continue treatment until infection is completely cured (maybe months)  Combination therapy (aka drug cocktail) is a powerful tool against drug resistance.18 .

4 Natural Selection and Human Health Can Natural Selection Save Us From Superbugs  If bacteria can evolve resistance to antibiotics. .10. can humans evolve resistance to bacteria?  Humans do vary in their immune capacity  To evolve resistance to superbugs would require many humans to die over many generations  By using modern drugs are we allowing the “survival of the weakest”? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.