QUEUING THEORY

Presented By: Yogesh Deo ME in Communication Engineering 2013 batch

Presentation Outline
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Characteristics of a Queuing system Measures of Queuing systems performance Different model of Queuing system Economic analysis of queuing systems References

• Mathematical study of waiting lines or queues. . • Possible Criteria -Maximum profits. -Desired Service Level . • The objective of queuing analysis is to design systems that enable organizations to perform optimally according to some criteria.

Possible Service measurements -Average time a customer spends in line -Average length of the waiting line -The probability that an arriving customer must wait for service .•.

P(X=k) = (λt)k eλt/k! Where λ=mean arrival rate per time unit t=the length of the interval .•. The Arrival Process Deterministic • Random • • We will take only random process into considerations having Poisson distribution.

• When service time varies. service time varies widely among customers. • In most business situations. Some service systems require a fixed service time.•. it is treated as a random variable which has generally exponential distribution f(X)= μe-μx Where μ= average number of customers who can be served per time period . however.

• Steady State Performance Measures P0=Probability that there are no customers in the system. -Customers in the system. W q=Average time a customer spends in the queue. . L q=Average number of customers in the queue. L =Average number of customers in the system.•. Performance can be measured by focusing on: -Customers in the queue. P n=Probability that there are „n‟ customers in the system. W =Average time a customer spends in the system.

•. Queuing system can be classified by: -Arrival process -Service process Example -Number of servers M/M/6/10/20 -System size(infinite/finite waiting line) -Population size • Notation -M (Markovian)=Poisson arrival or exponential service time -D (Deterministic)=Constant arrival rate or service time -G (General)=General probability of arrival or service time . .

Characteristics -Poisson arrival process -Exponential service time distribution -A single server -Potentially infinite queue -An infinite population .

P0=1-(λ / μ) Pn=[1-(λ / μ)](λ / μ) L=λ / (μ-λ) Lq=λ / [μ(μ-λ)] W=1 / (μ-λ) W q=λ / [μ(μ-λ)] 2 n .

Management is interested in determining the performance measures for this service system .Customers arrive at Mary‟s Shoes every 12 minutes on the average according to a Poisson process. Service time is exponentially distributed with an average of 8 minutes per customer.

33333 Pn=[1-(λ / μ)](λ / μ)n = (0.26667= 16 minutes .3333) (0.4 hours= 24 minutes Wq=λ / [μ(μ-λ)] = 0.6667)n L=λ / (μ-λ) = 2 Lq=λ2 / [μ(μ-λ)] = 1.3333 W=1 / (μ-λ) =.5)=0.Solution Input λ=1/12 customers per minute=60/12=5 per hour μ=1/8 customers per minute=60/8=7.5 per hour Performance Calculations P0=1-(λ / μ) = 1-(5/7.

and possibly infinite line. -Service time follow an exponential distribution. -There are k servers. -Infinite population. each of which works at a rate of μ customers. .M / M / k Queuing Systems Characteristics -Customers arrive according to a Poisson process at a mean rate λ.

com .Performance measures Imported from powershow.

com .Imported from powershow.

M/M/k/F Queuing System Characteristics -Poisson arrival process at mean rate λ. -K servers. -Maximum number of customers that can be present in the system at any one time is “F”. each having an exponential service time with mean rate μ. . -Customers are blocked (and never return) if the system is full.

RYAN ROOFING COMPANY Ryan gets most of its business from customers who call and order service. . •When the secretary is busy serving a customer. Data • One appointment secretary takes phone calls from 3 telephone lines. •Arrival process is Poisson and service process is Exponential. •Each phone calls takes three minutes on average. a new calling customer gets a busy signal and calls a competitor. •Ten customers per hour call the company on the average. a new calling customer is willing to wait until the secretary becomes available. •When all the lines are busy .

. Management is interested in the following information: •The percentage of time the secretary is busy. •The average time a customer is kept on hold. •The fewest lines necessary. •The actual percentage of callers who encounter a busy signal.Management would like to design the following system. •The average number of customers kept on hold. •At most 2% of all callers get a busy signal.

P 0. P P 0.2667.508. P3 == 0. M/M/1/4 system Input λ = 10 per hour μ = 20 per hour (1/3 per minute) By calculation P = 0. P2 = 0.516. 1.258.0667 1 0.016 of the customers get a busy signal.2% the of customers get aabusy signal. P00 == 0.127. P2P == 0.032 0.Solution ThisM/M/1/5 is an M/M/1/3 system. . 3= P5 = 0.7% of3. Still above the goal of 2% This is above goal 2%. 0 1= 2 3 4 0.065.6% the customers get busy signal. P1P =P 0. The goalthe of 2% has of been achieved. = 0. 6.129. P4P = =0.254.1333.063.032. 0.5333.

.Economic Analysis of Queuing Systems •The performance measures previously developed are used next to determine a minimal cost queuing system.  Customer goodwill cost while being served. •The procedure requires estimated costs such as:  Hourly cost per server  Customer goodwill cost while waiting in line.

5 minutes.Wilson Foods Talking Hot Line Wilson Foods has an 800 Hot Line number to answer customers questions. • • . A customer will stay on the line waiting at most 3 minutes. Customer goodwill cost is $ 0.20 per minute while on hold. How many customer service A customer service representative is paid $ 16 per hour. representatives should beper used to when the customer is Wilson pays the telephone company $ 0.18 minute minimize the hourly cost of operation? on hold or when being served. Customer goodwill cost while in service is $ 0. An average phone call takes 1.05. Data • • • • • On the average 225 calls per hour are received.

g s ) L q .Total average hourly cost of employing “k‟” customer service representatives Solution The total cost model Total hourly wages Average hourly goodwill cost for customers on hold TC(K) = CW k + C i L + g W L q + g s (L – L q ) Average hourly goodwill cost for customers in service Total average hourly Telephone charge TC(K) = CW k + (C i + g s ) L + (g W .

.5).8L + 9 L q Assuming a Poisson arrival process and an Exponential service time.18* 60] g W =$ 12 per hour [0. λ = 225 calls per hour. we have an M/M/K system.Input CW =$ 16 C I = $ 10.80 per hour [0.8 +3) L + (12 – 3) L q = 16k + 13.20* 60] g s =$ 3 per hour [0. μ = 40 per hour ( 60/1.05* 60] The total Average hourly cost is TC(K) = 16k + ( 10. The minimal possible value for K is 6 to ensure that steady state exists (λ < Kμ).

50 227.0916 Wq 0.62 235.05556 0.70 Conclusion: 8 customer service representatives must be employed.2777 5.6527 0.Summary of results of the runs for k=6.12 239.8661 5.9.0029 0.5 2.7.7166 Lq 12.8.10 K 6 7 8 9 10 L 18. .1249 7-6437 6.00897 0.0187 0.62 220.00107 0.2411 0.00041 TC(K) 458.

Probability.Sundarapandian 2. Probability.References: 1.com . Statistics and Queuing Theory By V. Random Variables & Random Processes By Hwei Hsu 3. Queuing theory presentation on Powershow .

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