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# QUEUING THEORY

Presented By: Yogesh Deo ME in Communication Engineering 2013 batch

Presentation Outline
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Characteristics of a Queuing system Measures of Queuing systems performance Different model of Queuing system Economic analysis of queuing systems References

. • The objective of queuing analysis is to design systems that enable organizations to perform optimally according to some criteria. -Desired Service Level . • Possible Criteria -Maximum profits.• Mathematical study of waiting lines or queues.

•. Possible Service measurements -Average time a customer spends in line -Average length of the waiting line -The probability that an arriving customer must wait for service .

P(X=k) = (λt)k eλt/k! Where λ=mean arrival rate per time unit t=the length of the interval .•. The Arrival Process Deterministic • Random • • We will take only random process into considerations having Poisson distribution.

it is treated as a random variable which has generally exponential distribution f(X)= μe-μx Where μ= average number of customers who can be served per time period . service time varies widely among customers. however. Some service systems require a fixed service time. • In most business situations. • When service time varies.•.

• Steady State Performance Measures P0=Probability that there are no customers in the system. W =Average time a customer spends in the system. L q=Average number of customers in the queue. -Customers in the system. P n=Probability that there are „n‟ customers in the system. . W q=Average time a customer spends in the queue.•. L =Average number of customers in the system. Performance can be measured by focusing on: -Customers in the queue.

Queuing system can be classified by: -Arrival process -Service process Example -Number of servers M/M/6/10/20 -System size(infinite/finite waiting line) -Population size • Notation -M (Markovian)=Poisson arrival or exponential service time -D (Deterministic)=Constant arrival rate or service time -G (General)=General probability of arrival or service time . .•.

Characteristics -Poisson arrival process -Exponential service time distribution -A single server -Potentially infinite queue -An infinite population .

P0=1-(λ / μ) Pn=[1-(λ / μ)](λ / μ) L=λ / (μ-λ) Lq=λ / [μ(μ-λ)] W=1 / (μ-λ) W q=λ / [μ(μ-λ)] 2 n .

Customers arrive at Mary‟s Shoes every 12 minutes on the average according to a Poisson process. Management is interested in determining the performance measures for this service system . Service time is exponentially distributed with an average of 8 minutes per customer.

5 per hour Performance Calculations P0=1-(λ / μ) = 1-(5/7.3333) (0.26667= 16 minutes .6667)n L=λ / (μ-λ) = 2 Lq=λ2 / [μ(μ-λ)] = 1.4 hours= 24 minutes Wq=λ / [μ(μ-λ)] = 0.Solution Input λ=1/12 customers per minute=60/12=5 per hour μ=1/8 customers per minute=60/8=7.3333 W=1 / (μ-λ) =.33333 Pn=[1-(λ / μ)](λ / μ)n = (0.5)=0.

and possibly infinite line. -There are k servers. -Infinite population.M / M / k Queuing Systems Characteristics -Customers arrive according to a Poisson process at a mean rate λ. . each of which works at a rate of μ customers. -Service time follow an exponential distribution.

Performance measures Imported from powershow.com .

Imported from powershow.com .

. -Maximum number of customers that can be present in the system at any one time is “F”. -Customers are blocked (and never return) if the system is full.M/M/k/F Queuing System Characteristics -Poisson arrival process at mean rate λ. each having an exponential service time with mean rate μ. -K servers.

RYAN ROOFING COMPANY Ryan gets most of its business from customers who call and order service. a new calling customer gets a busy signal and calls a competitor. •When all the lines are busy . •Arrival process is Poisson and service process is Exponential. •Ten customers per hour call the company on the average. •Each phone calls takes three minutes on average. •When the secretary is busy serving a customer. . Data • One appointment secretary takes phone calls from 3 telephone lines. a new calling customer is willing to wait until the secretary becomes available.

•The average number of customers kept on hold.Management would like to design the following system. •The average time a customer is kept on hold. •At most 2% of all callers get a busy signal. •The actual percentage of callers who encounter a busy signal. Management is interested in the following information: •The percentage of time the secretary is busy. •The fewest lines necessary. .

P3 == 0.516. 1.258. P 0. The goalthe of 2% has of been achieved.Solution ThisM/M/1/5 is an M/M/1/3 system.032 0. M/M/1/4 system Input λ = 10 per hour μ = 20 per hour (1/3 per minute) By calculation P = 0. P00 == 0. Still above the goal of 2% This is above goal 2%.129. P4P = =0.2667.0667 1 0. P2P == 0.5333. P1P =P 0.065.032. 0.063.016 of the customers get a busy signal.7% of3.2% the of customers get aabusy signal. 3= P5 = 0. 6.508. P2 = 0.6% the customers get busy signal.1333.127. = 0. . P P 0.254. 0 1= 2 3 4 0.

•The procedure requires estimated costs such as:  Hourly cost per server  Customer goodwill cost while waiting in line. .Economic Analysis of Queuing Systems •The performance measures previously developed are used next to determine a minimal cost queuing system.  Customer goodwill cost while being served.

• • .5 minutes. representatives should beper used to when the customer is Wilson pays the telephone company \$ 0. Data • • • • • On the average 225 calls per hour are received. An average phone call takes 1. Customer goodwill cost while in service is \$ 0.05.Wilson Foods Talking Hot Line Wilson Foods has an 800 Hot Line number to answer customers questions.18 minute minimize the hourly cost of operation? on hold or when being served. How many customer service A customer service representative is paid \$ 16 per hour. Customer goodwill cost is \$ 0. A customer will stay on the line waiting at most 3 minutes.20 per minute while on hold.

g s ) L q .Total average hourly cost of employing “k‟” customer service representatives Solution The total cost model Total hourly wages Average hourly goodwill cost for customers on hold TC(K) = CW k + C i L + g W L q + g s (L – L q ) Average hourly goodwill cost for customers in service Total average hourly Telephone charge TC(K) = CW k + (C i + g s ) L + (g W .

80 per hour [0.8 +3) L + (12 – 3) L q = 16k + 13.8L + 9 L q Assuming a Poisson arrival process and an Exponential service time.20* 60] g s =\$ 3 per hour [0.05* 60] The total Average hourly cost is TC(K) = 16k + ( 10. μ = 40 per hour ( 60/1. λ = 225 calls per hour. we have an M/M/K system.5). .18* 60] g W =\$ 12 per hour [0.Input CW =\$ 16 C I = \$ 10. The minimal possible value for K is 6 to ensure that steady state exists (λ < Kμ).

0187 0.7.0916 Wq 0.00041 TC(K) 458.9.5 2.1249 7-6437 6. .Summary of results of the runs for k=6.62 220.62 235.8.10 K 6 7 8 9 10 L 18.70 Conclusion: 8 customer service representatives must be employed.05556 0.50 227.2411 0.0029 0.00897 0.7166 Lq 12.00107 0.8661 5.6527 0.12 239.2777 5.

Probability.References: 1.Sundarapandian 2. Queuing theory presentation on Powershow . Random Variables & Random Processes By Hwei Hsu 3. Probability. Statistics and Queuing Theory By V.com .

Thank You .