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Embedded Systems (Using 8051

)
Submitted by :

Sadhana Singh, 04 Manish Tripathi, 21

What is Embedded Systems
• An embedded system
• Employs a combination of hardware & software (a “computational engine”) to perform a specific function; • Microcontroller • Is part of a larger system that may not be a “computer”; • Works in a reactive and time-constrained environment. • Is a part of almost all our daily usage appliances, • Avionics, FMS etc.

Block Diagram of Embedded System
SOFTWARE

MEMORY

A/D

CPU

D/A

ACUTATORS

SENSOR

HUMAN INTERFERENCE

Steps of fabricating a system
• Definition of the objective • Theoretical and analytical study of the various componenets that can be used. • Coding and simulation using softwares. • Designing of the PCB layout. • Fabrication • Hardware testing

Choosing the optimum components

Coding & Simulation of the circuit on the computer

Final PCB layout and fabrication

Which architecture to choose ?
• 8-bit/16-bit/32-bit cores • Programming language – ASM or Embedded C • GPIOs and features • Cost • Availability • Online support

8051 Internal Architecture

8051 PIN description
P1.0 P1.1 P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 RST (RXD) P3.0 (TXD) P3.1 (INT0) P3.2 (INT1) P3.3 (T0) P3.4 (T1) P3.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 35 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 40 39 38 37 36 Vcc P0.0 (AD0) P0.1 (AD1) P0.2 (AD2) P0.3 (AD3) P0.4 (AD4) P0.5 (AD5) P0.6 (AD6) P0.7 (AD7)

8051

34 33 32

31
30 29 28 27 26

EA/VPP
ALE/PROG PSEN P2.7 (A15) P2.6 (A14) P2.5 (A13)

(WR) P3.6
(RD) P3.7 XTAL2 XTAL1 GND

16
17 18 19 20

25
24 23 22 21

P2.4 (A12)
P2.3 (A11) P2.2 (A10) P2.1 (A9) P2.0 (A8)

Interfacing Seven-Segment LED

decimal point

8051 Daily Applications

Moving message display

Digital clock

7 segment display

Traffic Light

OBSTACLE DETECTOR ROBOT USING 8051

INTRODUCTION
• Obstacle avoidance robot is capable of detecting an obstacle in its path. • It can avoid the obstacle on its own by changing its direction. • Its major application is in Automation of vehicles.

MAJOR COMPONENTS(HARDWARE)
• AT89C51 Microcontroller with 64kB flash memory.

• • • • • •

Regulated power supply: 7-15V Power indicator LED. Dual full H bridge Motor Driver . DC Motors. ON/OFF switch for power and motor drivers. Infrared sensors.

Major Components

Block diagram: Obstacle Detector Robot

IR SENSORS
Features: • Modulated IR transmitter • Ambient light protected IR receiver • 3 pin interface connectors • Indicator LED • We have used LM358 sensor

L293D Motor driver
• Amplification of current desired for running the motors • Two inbuilt H-bridge bidirectional driver circuits

Applications
• Research carried out for avoiding wires in low height flights • Terrain collision avoidance system • Mars autonomy

Conclusions
Embedded systems are an integral part of our daily lives characterized by their size, cost and ease of programing and implementation. They will play an even bigger role in the future as things become more autonomous; thus creating a very huge scope for future research.

Future scope
• The present study can be enhanced to create a more intelligent and accurate Robot . • The Robot can be implemented with other RF signals like Radar etc. • The study of 8-bit processor will enable us to study about the industrially acclaimed 32 bit ARM Processor.

Softwares used
• Proteus • Top view simulator (ASM coding) • Keil C compiler (Embedded C coding )

References
• http://www.sltf.com/articles/pein/pein9706.htm • http://www.google.co.in/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page • http://www.datasheets.com • http://www.kiel51.com • http://www.8051microcontroller.com