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‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬

Bridge Construction

BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION

BY Dr. Ahmed Abdel-Atty Gab-Allah (Zagazig University)
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Bridge Construction

OUTLINE
1. INTRODUCTION.
2. BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS. 3. BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION IN EGYPT.

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1. INTRODUCTION
  

Importance of bridges. Objective:
 Review

latest bridge construction systems.

Scope:
 Highway

bridges (90%).  Prestressed concrete (most recent developments).  Superstructures.

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2. BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS
System Code A B C D E F G Description
Precast, Prestressed Concrete Girders Incremental Launching Construction (Deck Pushing System) Cast-in-place, Balanced Cantilever Construction Precast Segmental, Balanced Cantilever Construction Flying Shuttering System Cable-Stayed Bridges Suspension Bridges
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Suitability of Bridge Construction Systems
Sys. A B C D E F G Site Cond.
Inaccess. Inaccess. Inaccess. Inaccess. Inaccess. Inaccess. Inaccess.

Structure Span Lengths Structure Depth Level
High High High High High Very High Very High Short (40 - 80 m) Short (40 - 80 m) Long (up to 250 m) Long (up to 200 m) Short (40 – 70 m) Long (200 to 1,000 m) Very Long (500 to 2,000 m) Variable Constant Variable Variable Variable Variable Variable

Other Aspects
Sharp curvatures & superelevations. Straight or slightly-curved superstructures. Crossing navigable waterways. Crossing navigable waterways. Long viaducts with short spans. Crossing deep rivers, deep valleys, and mountains. Crossing deep rivers, deep valleys, and mountains.
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(A) Precast, Prestressed Concrete Girders

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Post-Tensioning of Girders

Construction Sequence

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Precast, Prestressed Concrete Girders Advantages:

• • • • •

Economy, speed, and improved quality of mass production. Sharp curvatures & superelevations. Inaccessible sites. No interference with traffic.

Disadvantages:
Casting yard, transport and erection equipment. Unsuitability for complex roadway geometry.

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(B) Incremental Launching (Deck Pushing)

Inc. Launching Construction

Construction Sequence

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Incremental Launching (Deck Pushing) Advantages:

• • •

Inaccessible sites. Riding learning curve (Repetitive operations). No interference with traffic.

Disadvantages:

• • • •

Casting yard and pushing equipment. Increase in longitudinal prestressing (cantilever moments). Large labor force during launching. Unsuitability for complex roadway geometry.
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(C) Cast-in-Place, Balanced Cantilever (Cantilever Carriage System)

Cantilever Carriage Construction

Construction Sequence

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Cast-in-Place, Balanced Cantilever (Cantilever Carriage System) Advantages:

• • • •

Inaccessible sites. Long navigation channels. No interference with traffic or navigation. High labor efficiency. Special equipment and skilled labor. High precision required. Increase in reinforcement (cantilever moments). Limited length of segments. Low construction rate.
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Disadvantages:

• • • • •

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(D) Precast Segmental, Balanced Cantilever

Precast Segmental Construction

Construction Sequence

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Precast Segmental, Balanced Cantilever
Advantages:


• • •

Economy, speed, and improved quality of mass production. No interference with traffic or navigation. Low labor requirement for both fabrication and erection operations. Adaptability to curvatures and superelevation.
Casting yard, transport and erection equipment. High precision required. Increase in reinforcement (cantilever moments).
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Disadvantages:

• • •

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(E) Flying Shuttering System
Two Phases:

• Concreting Phase. • Advancing Phase.
Flying Shuttering Details

Construction Sequence
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Flying Shuttering System Advantages:

• • •

Long viaducts with short spans. No interference with traffic. High construction progress rate

Disadvantages:

• •

Special equipment. Unsuitability for long spans.

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(F) Cable-Stayed Bridges
Cable Arrangements:

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Transverse:
(a) (b) (c) (d)

Single Plane – Vertical Single Plane - Vertical/Lateral Double Plane – Vertical Double Plane - Sloping

Longitudinal:
(a) (b) (c) (d) Radiating Harp Fan Star

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Cable-Stayed Bridges
Construction Systems:

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• • •

Balanced Cantilever. Free Cantilever. Deck pushing.

Free Cantilever

Balanced Cantilever (Cast-in-Place)

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Stay Technology

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Anchorage System for Parallel-Wire Cables

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Cable-Stayed Bridges Advantages:

• • •

High clearance for traffic or navigation. Suitability for long spans. Less material quantities (smaller depths).

Disadvantages:

• • •

High risks involved in bridge construction. High tech. required (very long span lengths). High degree of control required on quality, time and budget.
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(G) Suspension Bridges

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Suspension Bridges Advantages:

• • •

Suitability for very long spans. High clearance for traffic or navigation. Less material quantities (smaller depths).

Disadvantages:

• • •

High risks involved in bridge construction. High tech. required (very long span lengths). High degree of control required on quality, time and budget.
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DEVELOPMENTS & FUTURE TRENDS Bridge Construction IN BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION Balanced Cantilever Construction:

Overhead Gantries (Carry form travelers to next pier)

Temporary Cable Stays (Support cantilever moments)
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Bridge Construction Cable-Stayed Bridges: Innovative Features of William Natcher Bridge:

• Continuity of superstructure at anchor piers with

approach girders, eliminating expansion joints. • Concrete counterweight instead of conventional tiedowns at anchor piers (to resist uplift).

Transition at Anchor Pier

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Bridge Construction Cable-Stayed Bridges: Innovative Features of William Natcher Bridge:

• Simple details of cable-to-girder anchoring system. • Efficient prefab composite steel cable-to-tower
anchoring system.

Cable-to-Girder Connection

Cable-to-Tower Connection
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Cable-Stayed Bridges: Innovative Features of Suez Canal Bridge:

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• First major cable-stayed bridge in and Middle East. • Highest Hwy bridge in the world
navigation clearance).

Egypt (70-m

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Cable-Stayed Bridges: Main Cable-Stayed Portion:

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• 730-m-long (440-m main span, and 163-m side spans). • 154-m-high RC pylons (slip-formed). • Assembly of steel deck segments using high-friction grip bolts and robot-welding. • Erection of deck segments using two erection girders. • New type of parallel wire strands (New-PWS).

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Suez Canal Bridge:
Approach Spans (40-m):

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• Advanced shoring system (Flying Shuttering).

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Developments in Suspension Bridges:

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Suspension Bridges with Significant Jump in Span Length Year Name of Bridge Span Length (m) U.K. 177 U.S.A. 486 U.S.A. 1,280 Japan 1,991 Italy 3,300 Spain/Moraocoo 5,000 Country

1826 Menai 1883 Brooklyn 1937 Golden Gate 1998 Akashi Kaikyo ?* Messina Strait ?* Gibraltar Strait * Design completed.

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Developments in Suspension Bridges: Development Trends:

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• Stronger, lighter decks (minimize dead load). • Aerodynamic-shaped decks (minimize wind effects). • Multi-box deck system (increase torsional stiffness). • New cable materials, stronger and lighter than steel
(such as Carbon Fiber Composite Cables, CFCC). Reinforced technology: Polymer (FRP)

• Fiber • •

composite

Modular deck systems. Cable and tendon systems.
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3. BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION IN EGYPT Major Bridge Projects in Egypt
Sys. A B C Major Applications
 6th of October Bridge (Ramsis/Ghamra).  Ring Road 9-D Bridge.  Zamalek Elevated Road.  Dessouk Overhead Bridge.  Al-Giza New Bridge.  6th of October Bridge.  Abou El-Ela Bridge.  Rod El-Farag Bridge.  New Benha Bridge.  Al-Warrak Bridge

Span Lengths (m)
33 – 40 40 31@25, 2@23.5 34.2, 7@40.7, 5@40, 34 104, 2@69 110, 2@100, 2@70 115, 2@69 130, 2@75 120, 2@69 120, 2@60 42 40 133 (66.5 in each side) 404, 2@163

Comp. Date
1988 1998 1986 1987 1969 1976 1986 1990 1990 2000 1998 2001 1998 2001
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D E F G

Has Not Been Applied  6th of October Br. (Ghamra/ Autostrad).  Suez Canal Bridge, Approach Spans.  6th of October Br.(Ghamra/Autostrad).  Suez Canal Bridge, Main Spans. Has Not Been Applied

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Bridge Construction Systems Applicable for Different Site Conditions in Egypt
System Code A Under Running I B Traffic E C Across Navigable II D Waterways F Deep Waterways and F III Mountains G A IV At Accessible Sites B E # Site Conditions System Description Precast concrete girders. Incremental launching. Flying shuttering. Cantilever carriage. Precast segmental construction. Cable-stayed bridges. Cable-stayed br. (up to 1000 m). Suspension bridges (> 1,000 m). Precast concrete girders. Incremental launching. Flying shuttering.
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Thank you for listening

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