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Democritus (460-370 BC)

“To understand the very large, we must understand the very small.”

• proposed that all matter was made of tiny indivisible particles, which he named “atomos” meaning indivisible, indestructible and unchangeable. • did not carry out any experiments to see if his theory was correct, he based his theories on his observations

• John Dalton (1766-1844)

• Dalton stated that elements consisted of tiny particles called atoms • He was able to supply experimental results to forcefully revive the idea of the atom • He also called the elements pure substances because all atoms of an element were identical and that in particular they had the same mass.

“We might as well attempt to introduce a new planet into the solar system, or to annihilate one already in existence, as to create or destroy a particle of hydrogen”

" • .Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) • formulated the Law of Conservation of Matter: "Matter is neither gained nor lost during a chemical reaction.the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products .

the constituent elements are always present in a definite proportion by weight." .Joseph Louis Proust (1754-1826) • formulated the Law of Constant Proportions: "In a compound.



he used a gas discharged tube to study cathode rays and was able to show that cathode rays are usually made up of negatively charged particles called electrons .J. Thomson (1856 .1940) • In 1897.J.

the less the deflection 2. Charge (e) on the electrons The greater the charge. Mass (m) of the electrons The greater the mass.• Thomson realized that two factors affected the deflection of the electrons: 1. but he was able to determine the ratio between the two . the greater the deflection Thomson was not able to measure either the charge or mass separately.

ON - OFF voltage source + + By adding an electric field… he found that the moving pieces were negative. .

The “Plum Pudding” Model Spherical cloud of Positive charge Electrons • Proposed by Lord Kelvin and J. Thomson • Electrons were seen as being randomly distributed in a sphere of positive charge .J.

Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) • In 1909 Rutherford undertook a series of experiments • He fired a (alpha) particles at a very thin sample of gold foil • According to the Thomson model the a particles would only be slightly deflected • Rutherford discovered that they were deflected through large angles and could even be reflected straight back to the source .



Most particles flew right through the foil as if there were nothing there – The foil was mostly empty space  A small number of particles were bounced back to their source – There must be a small. dense nucleus with a positive charge .

positively-charged nucleus  negatively-charged electrons orbiting the nucleus .n+ dense.

Bohr proposed that electrons travel in definite orbits around the nucleus.Niels Bohr (1885 . developed a theory of how electrons moved around the nucleus in certain paths or energy levels.1962) • After Rutherford’s discovery. • studied how atoms react to light. .

Planetary model .

Louis de Broglie ( 1892-1987) • extended to matter the concept that like light. matter must be both a particle and a wave • confirmed in experiments that showed electron beams could be diffracted or bent as they passed through a slit much like light could .

Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) • developed an equation that relates the wavelength of an electron to its energy which describes the probability that an electron will be at a certain point in space. .

Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976) • pointed out that it is impossible to know both the exact position and the exact momentum of an object at the same time (Uncertainty Principle) • effectively destroys the idea of electrons traveling around in neat orbits. . .any electron that is subjected to photons will have its momentum and position affected.

Dalton’s model (1803) Thomson’s plum-pudding model (1897) Rutherford’s model (1909) Bohr’s model (1913) Charge-cloud model (present) .

we instead use a unit called amu (atomic mass unit) . Because it would be cumbersome to continually have to express such small masses in grams.• An atom is a minute electrically neutral particle with a massive positive core called nucleus and is surrounded by revolving electrons • Atoms have extremely small masses.

66054 X 10-24 g = 1/12 of the mass of C-12 atom PARTICLE electron proton ABSOLUTE CHARGE -1.602 x 10-19 C +1.1 amu = 1.109 x 10-28 g 1.symbol of element .602 x 10-19 C ABSOLUTE MASS 9.67493 x 10-24 g James Chadwick An atom is represented as: A-mass number Z-atomic number X.67266 x10-24 g DISCOVERER Joseph John Thomson Ernest Rutherford neutron 0 1.

• The isotopic composition of an element is always expressed on a percentage basis in terms of the relative number of atoms of the various isotopes present % abundance = x 100 .

• Isotopic abundances can be determined by mass spectrometer .0129 amu and 8009 would have a mass of 11.91 and 80.• The boron isotopes 10B and 11B have % abundances of 19. This means that if you could count 10. 1991 of them would have a mass of 10.000 boron atoms from an “average” natural sample.09 respectively.0093 amu.

Orbital – a region of space where there is a probability of finding an electron MAIN ENERGY LEVEL K L M N SUBLEVEL NUMBER OF ORBITAL MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ELECTRON/SHELL 2 1 2 3 4 s s p s p d s p d f 1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 4 9 8 18 32 16 .

• Aufbau Principle – filling up an orbital in the order of increasing energy Electron Configuration Mnemonics .

orbital method (spectroscopic notation) – use electron configuration mnemonics 2. 3. core method – uses the noble gas as core . shows how electrons are distributed among various atomic orbitals Ways of Writing Electron Configuration: 1. rectangle –arrow or arrow-box method ( orbital -box diagram) – uses boxes or rectangles to represent orbitals and arrows as electrons. HUND’S RULE: Each orbital is filled up by a single electron before any pairing can occur.

) orbital box diagram: 3.) orbital method(spectroscopic notation): 1s2 2s2 2p3 2.• Using the three methods .) core method : [ He ] 2s2 2p3 . show the electron configuration of 14N7 1.