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# Unit 8: Presenting Data in Charts, Graphs and Tables

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## Warm Up Questions: Instructions

Take five minutes now to try the Unit 8 warm up questions in your manual.
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## By the end of this unit you should be able to:

list the variables for analysing surveillance data identify the types of charts and graphs and when the use of each is appropriate

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## Analysing Surveillance Data

Person: Who develops a disease (for example, by age group or sex)? Are the distributions changing over time?

Place: Where are cases occurring? Is the geographical distribution changing over time?
Time: Is the number of reported cases changing over time?
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## Purpose of Displaying Data

The purpose of developing clearly understandable tables, charts and graphs is to facilitate:
analysis of data interpretation of data effective, rapid communication on complex issues and situations

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Types of Variables

## Categorical variables refer to items that can be grouped into categories.

Ordinal variables are those that have a natural order. Nominal variables represent discrete categories without a natural order. Dichotomous variables have only two categories

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## Simpler is better. Graphs, tables and charts can be used together.

Use clear descriptive titles and labels. Provide a narrative description of the highlights. Dont compare variables with different scales of magnitude.
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Graphs

A diagram shown as a series of one or more points, lines, line segments, curves or areas

Represents variation of a variable in comparison with that of one or more other variables

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## Scale Line Graph

Scale line graph: represents frequency distributions over time Y-axis represents frequency.
X-axis represents time.

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## Example: Scale Line Graph

Figure 8.1. Trends in HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Country X, years 1 10
40

30

% 20

10

Year
0 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

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## Y-axis should be shorter than X-axis

Start the Y-axis with zero Determine the range of values needed Select an interval size

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Bar Charts

Uses differently coloured or patterned bars to represent different classes Y-axis represents frequency
X-axis may represent time or different classes

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## Example: Bar Chart

Figure 8.2. Differences in HIV prevalence among various high-risk groups, Country X, year 1.
30
% HIV prevalence

25 20 15 10 5 0 Female sex workers Men who have sex with men Injecting drug users Population Prisoners Refugees

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## Specific Rules: Bar Charts

Arrange categories that define bars in a natural order (for example, age). If natural order does not exist, define categories by name, such as country, sex or marital status. Position the bars either vertically or horizontally. Make bars the same width. Length of bars should be proportional to the frequency of event.
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## Clustered Bar Charts

Bars can be presented as clusters of sub-groups in clustered bar charts. These are useful to compare values across categories. They are sometimes called stacked bar charts.
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## Example: Clustered Bar Chart

Figure 8.3. HIV prevalence rate among pregnant 15- to 19-year-olds at 4 clinic sites, City X, Country Y, years 1 3
HIV prevalence (%)
35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Site 1 Site 2
Clinic
Source : Ministry of Health, Count ry Y. Annual AIDS Surve illa nce Report, y ear 3. Yea r 1 Yea r 2 Yea r 3

Site 3

Site 4

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## Specific Rules: Clustered Bar Charts

Show no more than three sub-bars within a group of bars. Leave a space between adjacent groups of bars. Use different colours or patterns to show different sub-groups for the variables being shown. Include a legend that interprets the different colours and patterns.
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Histograms

## A representation of a frequency distribution by means of rectangles

Width of bars represents class intervals and height represents corresponding frequency

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Example: Histogram
Figu8.4. re 7.3. Childr en Living with HIV, Figure Children living with HIV, District X, 2002 District X, 2002
160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 <1 1 2 3 4

5 -9

10 - 13

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Pie Charts

A circular (360 degree) graphic representation Compares subclasses or categories to the whole class or category using differently coloured or patterned segments

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## Example: Pie Chart

Figure 8.5. Projected annual expenditure requirements for HIV/AIDS care and support by 2005, by region

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Area Maps

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## Example: Area Map

Figure 8.6. HIV Prevalence in Adults in Africa, end 2003

## Source: UNAIDS, 2003 #1-8-23

Tables

A rectangular arrangement of data in which the data are positioned in rows and columns. Each row and column should be labelled.
Rows and columns with totals should be shown in the last row or in the right-hand column.
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Example: Table
Table 8.1. Adults and children with HIV/AIDS by region in Country Y, end year X
14 800 400 000 997 000 985 000 1 460 000 465 000 940 000 380 000 900 000 545 000 7 086 800

## Children <15 years

Total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total

200 20 000 3 000 15 000 40 000 35 000 10 000 220 000 600 000 5 000 948 200

15 000 420 000 1 000 000 1 000 000 1 500 000 500 000 950 000 600 000 1 500 000 550 000 8 035 000 #1-8-25

In Summary

## Surveillance data can be analysed by person, place or time.

Depending on your data, you can choose from a variety of chart and graph formats, including pie charts, histograms, tables, etc.

Using several simpler graphics is more effective than attempting to combine all of the information into one figure.
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Warm Up Review

Take a few minutes now to look back at your answers to the warm up questions at the beginning of the unit.
Make any changes you want to.

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## Answers to Warm Up Questions

1. List two demographic variables by which surveillance data can be analysed.

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## Answers to Warm Up Questions, Cont.

1. List two demographic variables by which surveillance data can be analysed. Age, sex, marital status, etc.

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## Answers to Warm Up Questions, Cont.

2. True or false? Compiling all the data into one comprehensive chart or graph is more effective than including many simpler diagrams.

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## Answers to Warm Up Questions, Cont.

2. True or false? Compiling all the data into one comprehensive chart or graph is more effective than including many simpler diagrams. False

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## Answers to Warm Up Questions, Cont.

3. Which of the following cannot be extracted from public health surveillance data: a. changes over time b. changes by geographic distribution c. differences according to subjects sex d. none of the above

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## Answers to Warm Up Questions, Cont.

3. Which of the following can not be extracted from public health surveillance data: a. changes over time b. changes by geographic distribution c. differences according to subjects sex d. none of the above

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## Answers to Warm Up Questions, Cont.

4. Match the type of chart/graph with its example.

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## Answers to Warm Up Questions, Cont.

4. Match the type of chart/graph with its example: scale line graph: d area map: c pie chart: a histogram: b

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## Small Group Discussion: Instructions

Get into small groups to discuss these questions. Choose a speaker for your group who will report back to the class.

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## Small Group Reports

Select one member from your group to present your answers. Discuss with the rest of the class.

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## Try this case study individually.

Well discuss the answers in class.

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## Case Study Review

Follow along as we go over the case study in class. Discuss your answers with the rest of the class.

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## Questions, Process Check

Do you have any questions on the information we just covered? Are you happy with how we worked on Unit 8?
Do you want to try something different that will help the group?

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