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Technology of Machine Tools
Krar • Gill • Smid
Surface Grinders and Accessories
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
• Name four methods of surface grinding and state the advantage of each
• True and dress a grinding wheel • Select the proper grinding wheel to be used for each type of work material
• Important part of machine tool trade • Applied extensively to production of unhardened parts where high accuracy and surface finish required • Has eliminated need for conventional machining • Modern grinding machines permits faster manufacture of intricate parts
Inc. .81-4 Grinding Process • Workpiece brought into contact with revolving grinding wheel • Each small abrasive grain on periphery of wheel acts as individual cutting tool and removes chip of metal Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.
increase speed of work or decrease speed of wheel to make it act as softer wheel .81-5 General Rules for Grinding 1. Use silicon carbide wheel for low-tensilestrength material and aluminum oxide wheel for high-tensile-strength materials 2. Use hard wheel on soft materials and soft wheel on hard materials 3. If wheel too hard.
accuracy. and metal-removal rate. decrease speed of work or increase speed of wheel 5.81-6 4. • Main causes of wheel glazing are: • • • • • Wheel speed too fast Work speed too slow Wheel too hard Grain too small Structure too dense . Glazed wheel will affect finish. If wheel appears too soft or wears rapidly.
Wheel too soft 2. If wheel wears too quickly. Work speed too fast 4. Face of wheel too narrow 6. Feedrate too great 5. cause may be any of the following: 1. Surface of work interrupted by holes or grooves .81-7 6. Wheel speed too slow 3.
81-8 Surface Grinding • Refers to production of flat. reciprocating table Horizontal spindle grinder. reciprocating table Vertical spindle grinder. contoured. rotary table . and irregular surfaces on piece of work – Passed against revolving grinding wheel • Four distinct types of surface grinding machines – – – – Horizontal spindle grinder. rotary table Vertical spindle grinder.
improve accuracy and simplify grinding operations .81-9 Horizontal Spindle Reciprocating Table Surface Grinder • Most commonly used • Either hand or hydraulically operated • EZ-SURF® Grinder – TEACH mode: operator can teach and program up to 100 points for X and Z coordinates – "Intelligent DRO": helps increase productivity.
manually or auto • Table – Mounted on top of saddle – Ways for table at right angles to those on base .81-10 Parts of a Hydraulic Surface Grinder • Base – Generally heavy cast-iron construction – Usually contains hydraulic reservoir and pump to operate table and power feeds • Saddle – Moved in or out across ways.
81-11 • Column – Mounted on back of frame – Contains ways for spindle housing and wheelhead – Wheelfeed handwheel provides means of moving wheelhead vertically to set depth of cut • Table traverse handwheel or hydraulic control valve lever – Means to control manually the reciprocating action of table .
81-12 • Stop dogs – Mounted on side of table – When strike table traverse reverse lever the direction of table reversed • Crossfeed handwheel – Manual means for table to be fed toward or away from column • Power crossfeed control – Automatic means for table to be fed toward or away from column .
Should be tested for cracks prior to use 3.81-13 Guidelines for Grinding Wheel Care 1. store properly 2. Select proper type wheel for job 4. When not in use. Should be properly mounted and operated at recommended speed .
Tighten adapter flanges so holds firmly .81-14 Procedure for Mounting a Grinding Wheel 1. Place blotter on each side prior to mounting 2. Test wheel to see that it is not cracked by ring testing with handle of screwdriver 2. Clean grinding wheel adapter 3. Should be good fit on adapter or spindle 3. Mount adapter through wheel and tighten threaded flange 1. Diameter of flanges not less ½ wheel diameter 4.
Static balancing • • Wheel balance off machine with use of balancing stand and arbor Counterweights in wheel flange must be correctly positioned in order to balance 2.81-15 Two Methods of Balancing a Wheel 1. Dynamic balancing • Automatically balanced wheel while revolving using ball-bearing balancing devices on machine .
Place wheel and arbor on balancing stand that has been leveled . Mount wheel and adapter on surface grinder and true wheel with diamond dresser 2. Remove wheel assembly and mount special tapered balancing arbor in hole of adapter 3.81-16 Procedure To Balance a Grinding Wheel 1.
and three-quarters of a turn to check balance 6. 5) . Allow wheel to rotate until it stops 5. Loosen setscrews in wheel counterbalances. in grooved recess of flange. one-half. Rotate wheel and stop it at three positions: one-quarter. Check wheel in four positions (Steps 4. and move counterbalances opposite chalk mark 7.81-17 4.
Move counterbalances around groove equal amount on each side of centerline and check for balance again 9. Tighten counterbalances in place .81-18 8. Continue to move balances away from heavy side until wheel remains stationary at any position 10.
4. Use the right wheel Ring test the wheel before mounting Always use mounting blotters Tighten clamping nuts only enough to prevent wheel from slipping 5. 2.81-19 Grinder Safety 1. 3. Be sure flanges are flat and free from burrs and gouges .
81-20 6. Stand to one side whenever wheel started 10. not loosely. Always wear safety glasses when grinding . Check arbor holes – wheel should slip freely. Always use wheel guard supplied 9. onto spindle arbor 7. Do not exceed maximum speed 8.
81-21 Truing a Grinding Wheel • Process of making grinding wheel round and concentric with its spindle axis and producing required form of shape on wheel – Involves grinding of a portion of the abrasive section of grinding wheel .
81-22 Dressing a Grinding Wheel • Operation of removing dull grains and metal particles • Exposes sharp cutting edges so cuts better • Reasons for dressing wheel – – – – Reduce heat generated between work and wheel Reduce strain on grinding wheel and machine Improve surface finish and accuracy of work Increase rate of metal removal .
Clean magnetic chuck thoroughly with cloth 3.81-23 Procedure To True and Dress a Grinding Wheel 1. Place piece of paper on left-hand end of magnetic chuck 4. Check diamond for wear and if necessary. turn it in holder to expose sharp cutting edge 2. Place diamond holder on paper and energize chuck .
Raise wheel above height of diamond 6. Start wheel revolving and carefully lower wheel until high point touches diamond .81-24 5. to left of centerline of wheel 7. Move table longitudinally so diamond is offset approximately ½ in. Adjust table laterally so diamond is positioned under high point on face of wheel 8.
001 to . Move table laterally.Lower wheel .0005 in.Lower grinding wheel about . per pass • Rough-dress face of wheel until flat and dressed all around circumference 11. using crossfeed handwheel to feed diamond across face of wheel 10.81-25 9.002 in. and take several passes across face of wheel .
If coolant to be used during grinding.81-26 Helpful Ideas When Truing or Dressing Grinding Wheels 1. To minimize wear on diamond. If rapid removal of metal more important than surface finish. Loaded wheel indicated by discoloration of periphery or face – remove completely 4. use coolant when dressing wheel 3. do NOT finish-dress . roughdress with abrasive stick 2.
held on V-blocks or bolted directly to table for some surfacegrinding operations • Most of ferrous work ground on surface grinder held on magnetic chuck – Clamped to table of grinder .81-27 Work-Holding Devices • Work must be held in vise.
81-28 Two Types Magnetic Chucks • Electromagnetic chuck – Uses electromagnets to provide holding power – Advantages • Holding power may be varied to suit area of contact • Special switch neutralizes residual magnetism in chuck • Permanent magnetic chuck – Holding power provide by means of permanent magnets .
permits longitudinal movement. and provides oil reservoir for lubrication .81-29 Permanent Magnetic Chuck Construction • Base plate – Provides base for chuck and means of clamping it to table of grinder • Grid (magnetic pack) – Houses magnets and grid conductor bars – Moved longitudinally by handle • Case – Houses grid assembly.
grid conductors bars and inserts in line • Permits magnetic flux to pass through work – Handle rotated 180º to off position • Moves bars and inserts out of line so work not held .81-30 • Top plate – Contains inserts or pole pieces separated magnetically from surrounding plate by means of white metal • Necessary to conduct magnetic lines of flux – Work place on face of chuck (top plate) and handle moved to on position.
and thickness of workpiece • Adapter plate used to securely hold thin work (less than ¼ in. area of contact.) • Magnetic chuck blocks provide means of extending flux paths to hold workpieces that cannot be held securely on chuck face .81-31 Magnetic Chuck Accessories • Holding power of magnetic chuck dependent of size of workpiece.
If regrinding necessary to restore accuracy.81-32 How to Make Magnetic Chuck Blocks Last Longer 1. Store in covered wooden box 3. Clean thoroughly before and after use 2. take light cuts with dressed wheel . Check frequently for accuracy and burrs 4.
nonmagnetic pieces on chuck for grinding – Two adhesive sides: places between chuck and work .81-33 More Work-Holding Devices • Sine Chuck – Use when required to grind angle on work – Form of magnetic sine plate • Double-faced tape – Used for holding thin.
81-34 More Work-Holding Devices • Magna-vise clamps – Used when workpiece does not have large bearing area on chuck or work nonmagnetic – Consist of comblike bars attached to solid bar by piece of spring steel – Work placed on chuck surface between toothed edges • Special fixtures – Used to hold nonmagnetic and odd-shaped work .
Reduction of grinding heat 2. Control of grinding dust .81-35 Four Purposes of Grinding Fluids 1. Removal of swarf from cutting area • Small metal chips and abrasive grains 4. Lubrication 3.
Soluble chemical grinding fluids and water • • • Used with "through-the-wheel" systems Contains rust inhibitors and bactericides Applied by flood system and used for high finish. accuracy and long wheel life 3. Soluble oil and water • Milky solution applied by flooding surface 2. Straight oil grinding fluids .81-36 Types of Grinding Fluids 1.
fluid forced through wheel by centrifugal force • Mist cooling system – Atomizer principle: air passes through line.81-37 Methods of Applying Coolants • Flood system – Coolant directed onto work by nozzle and recirculated through system • Through-the-wheel cooling – Fluid pumped and discharged into dovetailed groove in wheel flange (with holes). as passes reservoir draws coolant and discharges it in vapor form directed at point of contact .
81-38 Factors Affecting Surface Finish • Material being ground • Amount of material being removed • Grinding wheel selection • Grinding wheel dressing • Condition of machine • Feed .
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