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# EARTHING

SYSTEM/PRACTICES
IS3043-1987
EARTH

• A connection to the general mass of earth by
means of an earth electrode.
• An object is said to be ‘earthed’ when it is
electrically connected to an earth electrode.
• A conductor is said to be ‘solidly earthed’ when it
is electrically connected to an earth electrode
without intentional addition of resistance or
impedance in the earth connection.
GENERAL DEFINATIONS
 EARTH ELECTRODE:
A metal plate, pipe or other conductor or an array of
conductors electrically connected to the general mass of
earth.
 EARTHING/GROUNDING RESISTOR:
A resistor through which a system is earthed and which
serves to limit the current flowing in the event of an earth
fault.
 ARC SUPPRESSION COIL (PETERSEN COIL):
An earthing reactor so designed that its reactance is such
that the reactive current to earth under fault conditions
balances the capacitance current to earth flowing from the
line so that the earth current at the fault is limited to
practically zero.
GENERAL DEFINATIONS

 STEP POTENTIAL:
The maximum value of the potential difference
possible of being shunted by a human body between
two accessible points on the ground separated by
the distance of one pace which may be assumed to
be one meter.
 TOUCH POTENTIAL:
The maximum value of potential difference between a
point on the ground and a point on an object likely to
carry fault current such that the points can be
touched by a person.
BASIC OBJECTIVES

 To stabilise circuit potential w.r.t. ground & limit
overall potential rise.
 To protect men & material from injury/damage
due to over voltage or touching.
 To provide a low impedance path to fault
currents to ensure correct operation of protective
devices.
 To keep max. voltage gradient of surface in
substation within safe limits during ground fault.
RESISTANCE TO EARTH

a) Resistance of the (metal) Electrode.
b) Contact resistance between electrode and the soil.
c) Resistance of the soil from the electrode surface
outward in the geometry setup for the flow of
current from the electrode to the infinite earth.

Soil resistivity is the single factor, which dominates
in the arrival of earth resistance of an electrode.
SOIL RESISTIVITY

Soil Resistivity depends upon following:
 Moisture content of Soil,
 Chemical composition & concentration of salts
dissolved in the water,
 Closeness of packing,
 Grain size

Nearly 90% of resistance between electrode &
soil is within a radius of 2 meters from rod.
EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT ON
EARTH RESISTIVITY

 Moisture content is expressed in percent by
weight of the dry soil.
 Above 20% moisture, the resistivity is very little
affected, while below 20% resistivity increases
very steeply with decrease in moisture content.
 General Range 10% (in dry season) to 35% (in
wet seasons), with average of 16% - 18%.
 If the water is relatively pure soil may have high
resistivity and unless the soil contains sufficient
natural elements to form conducting electrolyte.
ARTIFICIAL TREATMENT OF SOIL

 NaCl Common Salt
 CaCl2 Calcium Cloride

 Na2CO3 Sodium Carbonate
 CuSO4 Copper Sulphate
 Salt & Soft coke
 Salt & Charcoal
 Fly Ash from thermal stations
 Bentonite (for rocky terrain)
EARTH ELECTRODES
 Under ordinary condition soil, use of copper, iron or mild steel
electrodes is recommended.
 In case where soil conditions point to excessive corrosion of
the electrode and its connections, it is recommended to use
either copper electrode or copper clad electrode or zinc coated
(galvanized) iron electrode.
 In direct current (DC) systems, due to electrolytic action which
causes serious corrosion, it is recommended to use only
copper electrodes.
 Electrodes shall be kept free from paint, enamel and grease.
 Earth electrode & earth conductor must be of same material as
to avoid corrosion.
 Earth electrode should be capable of dissipating without failure,
energy in the earth path at the point at which it is installed
under any condition of operation on the system.
EARTH ELECTRODES

 Rod & Pipe Electrodes
Minimum Rod Dia. for Steel/GI = 16mm & for Copper = 12.5mm
Minimum ID for Pipe Steel/GI = 38mm & for cast iron = 100mm
Length of Rod/Pipe electrode must not be less than 2.5 m.
 Strip or Conductor Electrodes
Strip electrode Minimum size 25mmX4mm Steel/GI & 25mmX1.6mm
Copper.
Conductor Minimum cross-section Steel/GI = 6 sq. mm & for Cu = 3 sq.
mm
Length of electrode must not be less than 1.5 m.
 Plate Electrodes
Plate electrode Minimum size 60mmX60mmX6.3mm Steel/GI
& 60mmX60mmX3.15mm Copper.
Plate electrode shall be buried such that its top edge is at a depth not less
than 1.5 m from surface on the ground.
EARTH RESISTANCE

Station Combined resistance
of earths in the station
– ohms (maximum)
 Large Power Stations = 0.5
 Major Sub stations = 1.0
 Small Stations = 2.0
EARTH RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

A
Current Source
V

X=1m
A
Test B C
Electrode Potential Current
Electrode Electrode
DIFFERENT EARTHING METHODS
Earthing Method Points Earthed Purpose of Earthing
Neutral Earthing 1. Transformer Neutral 1. Holding neutral at ground potential
2. Generator Neutral 2. Prevent arcing ground on OH lines
3. Star point of Load 3. Discharge of Voltage surges
4. Neutral of Circuit 4. Path for out of balance current
5. Start point of CT/PT 5. Simpler earth fault protection
secondary
Equipment Metallic non current carrying 1. Holding metallic parts at earth
Earthing (Body parts potential even on earth fault
Earthing) 2. Safety
Reference Floating point in the circuit Holding the point & the conductor at
Earthing zero potential

Discharge Earth terminal of To discharge the surge voltages,
Earthing 1. Earth switch & CT Capacitor charge currents to earth.
2. Surge Arrester
3. Capacitor/filter bank
THANKS
FOR