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NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF

RESEARCH

DEFINING RESEARCH
It implies that the person has to search
again, to take another more careful look, to
find out more”.

Why?
• Information may not be enough
• Misleading information
• Totally wrong
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH

It is an activity which is meant to
acquire better knowledge by
“relearning what we already know
through systematic observation and
experimentation.”
- Filipino anthropologist F.
Landa Jocano
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH

Research is a systematic, objective and
comprehensive investigation of certain
phenomenon which involves accurate
gathering and recording and critical
analysis and interpretation of all facts
about the phenomenon for theoretical or
practical ends.
- Best and Kahn(1989)
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
ARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
1. Research is directed towards the
solution of a problem.
3. Research emphasizes the
development of generalizations,
principles or theories that will be
helpful in predicting future
occurrence.
5. Research is based upon observable
experience or empirical evidence.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
ARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
1. Research involves gathering new data from
primary or firsthand sources using existing
data for a new purpose.
3. Although research activity may at times be
somewhat random and unsystematic, it is
more often characterized by carefully
designed procedures that apply rigorous
analysis.
5. Research requires expertise.
8. Research tries to be objective and logical,
applying every possible test to validate the
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
ARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
1. Research involves the quest for
answers to unsolved problems.

3. Research is characterized by patience
and unhurried activity.

5. Research is carefully recorded and
reported.

12. Research sometimes requires
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
AJOR TYPES OF RESEARCH
BASIC/THEORETICAL RESEARCH – type of research which
is conducted for the sake of knowing.

OBJECTIVES:

• It is known as theoretical because it is designed to add to
our understanding and store of knowledge, but without any
particular practical goals.

• Its other main objective is to test or arrive at a theory with
ultimate goal of establishing general principles.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
AJOR TYPES OF RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH – to be undertaken when the
purpose is to obtain knowledge for practical
application or useful ends, thus, it is also known as
PRACTICAL RESEARCH.
The intention is to use the newly-acquired
knowledge to solve problems or improve the
prevailing condition which in its present state is
unsatisfactory, or may be satisfactory but which has
still room or possibility for betterment.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
AJOR TYPES OF RESEARCH

PURPOSE(according to Gay,
1976):

The purpose of applied research is
to apply, test, and evaluate the
usefulness of a theory or knowledge
arrived at in solving problems.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
C STAGES IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS:

1. Problem identification

3. Review of Related Literature

5. Objectives Formulation

7. Formulation of hypotheses and
Assumptions
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
C STAGES IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS:

5. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
Construction

6. Research Design Selection

8. Data Collection

9. Data Processing
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
C STAGES IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS:

1. Data Analysis and Interpretation

10. Report Writing
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH

UNCTIONS OF RESEARCH
1. Research corrects perceptions as
well as expands them.

2. Research gathers information on
subjects or phenomena we lack or have
little knowledge about.

3. Research develops and evaluates
concepts, practices, and theories.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
UNCTIONS OF RESEARCH
4. Research obtains knowledge for
practical purposes like solving problems
on population explosion, drug addiction,
juvenile delinquency, and the like.
5. Research also develops and evaluates
methods that test concepts, practices
and theories.
6. Research provides hard facts which
serve as bases for planning decision-
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
RESEARCHER FACTOR
 Objectivity
 Critical mind
 Openness
 Resourcefulness
 Patience
 Logical Thinking
 Ethical
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
CHARACTERISTICS OF
RESEARCHABLE
1. When there is noPROBLEM
known answer or
solution to the problem such that gap
in knowledge exists.

3. Where there are possible solutions to
it but the effectiveness of which is
untested or unknown yet.

3. When there are answers or solutions
but the possible results of which may
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
CHARACTERISTICS OF
RESEARCHABLE PROBLEM
1. When there are several possible and
plausible explanations for the
undesirable condition.

5. When the existence of a
phenomenon requires explanation.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
URCES OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
 Personal experience
 Common sense
 Theories
 Past researches
 Practical problems
 Journals, books, theses and
dissertation, and mass media
 Technological changes
 Friends, colleagues, professors,
consultants
 Conferences, symposia,
dialogues, ordinary meetings
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
OOD RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.Research problem should be of great
interest to the researcher.

2. Research problem should be relevant and
useful to a specific group of people.

3. Research problem is good when it is novel
in that it possesses the element of
newness or freshness.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
OOD RESEARCH PROBLEM
1. A good research problem should be
well-defined or specified.

3. A good research problem should be
measurable.

6. It should be time-bound.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
OOD RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.It is good if it does not cause ethical
or moral violations.

3.It is good if the study of it will
contribute to the refinement of
certain important concepts, creation
or improvement of research
instruments and analytical systems,
and will permit generalizations.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
HOW TO DEFINE A RESEARCH PROBLEM
3. The researcher should see to it that the major concepts or
terms and variables in the study are clearly defined. The
concepts/terms/variables must be such that they mean
according to how the researcher wants them to be understood
and they can be represented by some evidence which can be
obtained through direct or indirect activities which are feasible
to carry out.

2. Limit the scope of the study in terms of issues, concerns, or
subjects; area coverage; target population and/or sample
population, source of data or respondents; time allotment; and
data requirement – qualitative or quantitative, or both.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
TIFYING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1. Is the problem a current and
timely one?
2. Is it pervasive or
widespread?
3. Does it affect a special group
of people such as mothers,
children, farmers, fishers,
drivers, domestic helpers,
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
TIFYING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.Does it relate to ongoing programs
such as land reform, family planning,
tuberculosis control program, child
immunization, skill training and
others?

5. Does it relate to broad social,
economic, and health issues such as
unemployment, malnutrition,
immigration, graft and corruption,
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
TIFYING THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
1.Who else is concerned about the
problems – top government
officials, medical doctors,
administrators, or other
professionals?

8. What are its direct and indirect,
short- and long-range impact on
the welfare of a group of people
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The research problem should be
discussed in the introductory section
where its existence, prevalence and
seriousness should be established. This
section is sometimes titled “Background
of the Study”.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH

OBJECTIVE – an effect that is desired or
expected to be achieved by an activity, project
or program(Blumenfeld, 1985)

It refers to the statements of purpose for
which are expected to be attained at the end
of the research process. They are stated right
after the introductory section where the
research problem is discussed.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
JOR CLASSIFICATION OF OBJECTIVE
GENERAL OBJECTIVE – it is a
broad statement of purpose
which uses abstract and non-
measurable concepts. It is
usually the rephrase of the
research title so constructed
that it became an objective
structurally and in essence.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
JOR CLASSIFICATION OF OBJECTIVE
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE – is a
statement of purpose which
uses well-defined and
measurable concepts, the
formulation of which should be
based on and logically flow
from the general objective.
Some studies may only have
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
OOD RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

simple language
measurable concepts
attainable
result-oriented
time-bound
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

SCOPE – defines the coverage or boundary
of the study in terms of:
1.Area or Locality
2.Population or Sample
3.Duration or Period
4.Subjects, issues or concerns which are
explicitly stated in specific objectives of the
study
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

LIMITATIONS – are statements which
alert the reader of the research report to
certain conditions or constraints have
direct bearing on the result of the study
because they may place restrictions on
the conclusions of the study and their
application to other situations.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
DEFINITION OF TERMS

It helps the readers of a
proposal or report in
understanding the research
objectives, method/s and
findings because here the key
concepts are defined not only
conceptually but most
importantly operationally, that
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
TWO FUNCTIONS OF DEFINITION
OF TERMS

c.Establishes the rules and
procedures the investigators will use
to measure variables.

b. Provides definite meaning to
terms that otherwise can be
interpreted in different ways.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
PES OF DEFINITION OF TERMS
• CONCEPTUAL DEFINITION –
universal meaning that is attributed to
a word or group of words and which is
understood by many people. It is
abstract and most general in nature.
The usual source of conceptual
definitions is the dictionary.

b. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION –
meaning of the concept or terms as
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is where the researcher
discusses the value of his study in as
persuasive as possible in order to get
the approval of the screening and
approving committee and the
financial support of the prospective
funding institution.
NATURE AND FUNCTIONS OF
RESEARCH
AREAS TO WHERE CONTRIBUTION MAY
BE MADE:
3. Contribution to accumulation of knowledge, or to
filling up a knowledge gap; contribution to building,
validating or refining prevailing theories;
4. Contribution to meeting a pressing need of a
specific group like solving problems or improving
certain conditions;
5. Contribution to refining concepts, improving
research instrumentation and methodologies;
6. Contribution to meeting the concerns or priorities
of funding institution.