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Summer II – 2009

Dr. Konstantinos Sierros

263 ESB new add

kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu

Inverse of a matrix

• If A is an n × n matrix and B is any n × n matrix such that AB = BA = I, then B is

called an inverse of A.

• If it exists, the inverse of a matrix is unique

Determinant of a matrix

• Let A = [aij] be an n × n matrix. We wish to associate with A a scalar that in

some sense measures the “size” of A

• The determinant of the matrix A = [aij] is defined to be the scalar det A = |A|

**• For a 2 ×2 matrix A, the determinant is defined by;
**

Use of determinants

• The cross product of two vectors A and B can be expressed as the value of the

determinant

**• The scalar triple product can be expressed as the value of a determinant
**

Properties of determinants

**• det(AB) = detA · detB
**

• detAT = detA

• det(αA) = αn detA, where α is a scalar and n is the order of A

4. If A’ is a matrix obtained from A by multiplying a row (or column) of A by a

scalar α, then det A’ = α detA

5. If A’ is the matrix obtained from A by interchanging any two rows (or columns)

of A, then detA’ = −detA

6. If A has two rows (or columns) one of which is a scalar multiple of another (i.e.,

linearly dependent), detA = 0

7. If A’ is the matrix obtained from A by adding a multiple of one row (or column)

to another, then detA’ = detA

*** Please do problem 6 for practice
**

Determinants and matrices

• A matrix is said to be singular if and only if its determinant is zero.

• For an n × n matrix A, the determinant of the (n − 1) × (n − 1) sub-matrix, of

A is called minor of ai j and is denoted by Mi j (A)

• The quantity cofi j (A) ≡ (−1)i+j Mi j (A) is called the cofactor of ai j

• The determinant of A can be cast in terms of the minor and cofactor of ai j for any

value of j

**• The adjunct (also called adjoint) of a matrix A is the transpose of the matrix
**

obtained from A by replacing each element by its cofactor. The adjunct of A is denoted

by AdjA

• At this stage the inverse of a matrix A can be computed using;

**As we can see detA must not be zero (i.e A is nonsingular)
**

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• The basic notions of vector and scalar calculus, especially with regard to physical

applications, are closely related to the rate of change of a scalar field (such as the

velocity potential or temperature) with distance.

• Let us denote a scalar field by φ =φ(x), x being the position vector, as shown in the

figure below;

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

**• In general coordinates, we can write φ = φ(q1, q2, q3)
**

•The coordinate system (q1, q2, q3) is called the unitary system

• We can define the unitary basis (e1, e2, e3);

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

**• We can note that (e1, e2, e3) is not necessarily an orthogonal or unit basis.
**

• Therefore we can define an arbitrary vector A as follows;

**• A differential distance dx is denoted by;
**

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

**• From the above equations we can see that both A’s and dq’s have superscripts,
**

whereas the unitary basis (e1, e2, e3) has subscripts

• The dqi are referred to as the contravariant components of the differential vector dx

• Ai are the contravariant components of vector A

Covariance and contravariance refer to how coordinates change under a change of

bases (or coordinate system). Components of vectors transform contravariantly, while

components of covectors (linear functionals) transform covariantly.

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

**• The unitary basis can be described in terms of the rectangular Cartesian basis
**

as follows;

Cartesial

Rectangular basis

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• Using the summation convention discussed in previous class;

* This should be a subscript

Summation

convention

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• We can also construct another basis by taking the scalar product of vector A with the

cross product of e1xe2 and noting that since e1 × e2 is perpendicular to both e1 and e2, we

obtain;

Remember!!

i=3

**• And solving for A3 we have;
**

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

**• In similar fashion, we can obtain expressions for A1 and A2
**

e3

e2

e1

**• Therefore, the set of vectors (e1 , e2 , e3 ) is called the dual basis or reciprocal basis
**

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

**• It is possible, since the dual basis is linearly independent to express a vector A in terms
**

of the dual basis;

**• Notice now that the components associated with the dual basis have subscripts, and Ai
**

are the covariant components of A.

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• If we now returning to the scalar field φ, the differential change is given by;

**Remember that these are components of dx
**

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• We can now write dφ in such a way that we elucidate the direction as well as the

magnitude of dx

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

**• If we denote the magnitude of dx by ds=IdxI
**

• Then ê= dx/ds is a unit vector in the direction of dx

Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

**• The derivative (dφ/ds) ê is called the directional derivative of φ.
**

• We see that it is the rate of change of φ with respect to distance and that it depends on

the direction ê in which the distance is taken.

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