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# Continuum mechanics – MAE 640

Summer II – 2009

Dr. Konstantinos Sierros
kostas.sierros@mail.wvu.edu
Inverse of a matrix
• If A is an n × n matrix and B is any n × n matrix such that AB = BA = I, then B is
called an inverse of A.
• If it exists, the inverse of a matrix is unique

Determinant of a matrix
• Let A = [aij] be an n × n matrix. We wish to associate with A a scalar that in
some sense measures the “size” of A
• The determinant of the matrix A = [aij] is defined to be the scalar det A = |A|

• For a 2 ×2 matrix A, the determinant is defined by;
Use of determinants
• The cross product of two vectors A and B can be expressed as the value of the
determinant

• The scalar triple product can be expressed as the value of a determinant
Properties of determinants

• det(AB) = detA · detB
• detAT = detA
• det(αA) = αn detA, where α is a scalar and n is the order of A
4. If A’ is a matrix obtained from A by multiplying a row (or column) of A by a
scalar α, then det A’ = α detA
5. If A’ is the matrix obtained from A by interchanging any two rows (or columns)
of A, then detA’ = −detA
6. If A has two rows (or columns) one of which is a scalar multiple of another (i.e.,
linearly dependent), detA = 0
7. If A’ is the matrix obtained from A by adding a multiple of one row (or column)
to another, then detA’ = detA

* Please do problem 6 for practice
Determinants and matrices
• A matrix is said to be singular if and only if its determinant is zero.
• For an n × n matrix A, the determinant of the (n − 1) × (n − 1) sub-matrix, of
A is called minor of ai j and is denoted by Mi j (A)
• The quantity cofi j (A) ≡ (−1)i+j Mi j (A) is called the cofactor of ai j
• The determinant of A can be cast in terms of the minor and cofactor of ai j for any
value of j

• The adjunct (also called adjoint) of a matrix A is the transpose of the matrix
obtained from A by replacing each element by its cofactor. The adjunct of A is denoted

• At this stage the inverse of a matrix A can be computed using;

As we can see detA must not be zero (i.e A is nonsingular)
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector
• The basic notions of vector and scalar calculus, especially with regard to physical
applications, are closely related to the rate of change of a scalar field (such as the
velocity potential or temperature) with distance.
• Let us denote a scalar field by φ =φ(x), x being the position vector, as shown in the
figure below;
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• In general coordinates, we can write φ = φ(q1, q2, q3)
•The coordinate system (q1, q2, q3) is called the unitary system
• We can define the unitary basis (e1, e2, e3);
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• We can note that (e1, e2, e3) is not necessarily an orthogonal or unit basis.
• Therefore we can define an arbitrary vector A as follows;

• A differential distance dx is denoted by;
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• From the above equations we can see that both A’s and dq’s have superscripts,
whereas the unitary basis (e1, e2, e3) has subscripts
• The dqi are referred to as the contravariant components of the differential vector dx
• Ai are the contravariant components of vector A
Covariance and contravariance refer to how coordinates change under a change of
bases (or coordinate system). Components of vectors transform contravariantly, while
components of covectors (linear functionals) transform covariantly.
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• The unitary basis can be described in terms of the rectangular Cartesian basis
as follows;

Cartesial
Rectangular basis
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector
• Using the summation convention discussed in previous class;

* This should be a subscript

Summation
convention
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector
• We can also construct another basis by taking the scalar product of vector A with the
cross product of e1xe2 and noting that since e1 × e2 is perpendicular to both e1 and e2, we
obtain;

Remember!!
i=3

• And solving for A3 we have;
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• In similar fashion, we can obtain expressions for A1 and A2
e3

e2
e1

• Therefore, the set of vectors (e1 , e2 , e3 ) is called the dual basis or reciprocal basis
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• It is possible, since the dual basis is linearly independent to express a vector A in terms
of the dual basis;

• Notice now that the components associated with the dual basis have subscripts, and Ai
are the covariant components of A.
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector
• If we now returning to the scalar field φ, the differential change is given by;

Remember that these are components of dx
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector
• We can now write dφ in such a way that we elucidate the direction as well as the
magnitude of dx
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• If we denote the magnitude of dx by ds=IdxI
• Then ê= dx/ds is a unit vector in the direction of dx
Vector calculus – Derivative of a scalar function of a vector

• The derivative (dφ/ds) ê is called the directional derivative of φ.
• We see that it is the rate of change of φ with respect to distance and that it depends on
the direction ê in which the distance is taken.