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Is the process by which green plants and autotrophic organisms synthesize food. Is the combination of carbon dioxide with water to form carbohydrates.

+ 12H20

chl light

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O

Differences between autotrophs and heterotrophs

Photoautotrophs Heterotrophs

Source of energy



Source of building materials

carbon dioxide



photosynthetic plants Algae Cyanobacteria

Completeley parasitic plants Fungi Animals; protozoa Non-photosynthetic parts



The Light-dependent reaction

1. The nature of light

The Light-dependent reaction

2 The Nature of pigments

Cholorphyll b

Chlorophyll a


The Light-dependent reaction

The Photosynthetic units Photosystem I Photosystem II

Membrane lipids Antenna chlorophyll molecules Reactin center

Photosynthetic units- 300 molecules of ch a & b and

carotenoids Photosystem I With little chl b P700 Photosynthesis II With ch b almost equal to ch a P680
Each photosystem consists of the ff: 1. Antenna chlorophyll molecules 2. Reaction center (Ch a) 3. Series of electrons carriers

Photosystem I


Ferredoxin/NADP+ reductase


Photosystem II

The electron carriers of Photosystem II

Light-dependent reaction (Photochemical Reaction)

1. Produce the reducing agent NADPH 2. Synthesis of ATP (chemiosmotic phosphorylation) 3. Breakdown of water into H+, O2

Biochemical reactions
Stroma reaction Calvin Benson Cycle Conversion of carbon dioxide to carbohydrates

Rubisco -RuBP Carboxylase

One of the largest and most complex enzymes known A giant complex of two protein subunits With 8 copies of large protein, each with a molecular wt of 14,000 to 15,000 daltons Total molecular weight og 480,000 daltons Low substrate specificity

Anabolic Metabolism
3-phosphoglyceraldehyde Several types of storage compound 1. Short-term storage: ATP and NADPH 2. Intermediate-term storage: glucose and sucrose 3. Long-term storage starch and lipids

The synthesis of Polysaccharides

Gluconeogensis the anablic synthesis of glucose Glucose is polymerized into polysaccharides 1. amylose 2. amylopectin 3. cellulose

Is a process that breaks down complex carbon compounds into simpler molecules and simultaneously generates ATP. ATPS are used to power other metabolic processes.

Types of respiration
Aerobic respiration - requires oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Anaerobic respiration without oxygen, often called fermentation.

Organism types
Strictly aerobes or obligate aerobes Obligate anaerobes Facultative anaerobes or aerobes

Three stages of aerobic respiration

1. Glycolysis Embden-Meyerhoff Pathway constitutes the major portion of anaerobic respiration and is also the first part of aerobic respiration.

The Citric acid cycle

Also called the citric acid cycle one of the intermediates is citrate, anion of citric acid Krebs cycle- was carried out by Hans Krebs Tricarboxylic acis cycle several intermediates are tricarboxylic acids

The mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain

Chemiosmotic Phosphorylation The steps that transport protons from the matrix to the crista lumen, establishing a proton/hydroxyl chemiosmotic gradient.