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IPv6 Needs & Applications

2003, Cisco Systems, 2001, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IP The Applications Convergence Layer

With millions of new devices becoming IP aware, the need for increased addressing and plug & play networking is only met with the implementation of IPv6

IP version 6
Wireless Ethernet E-Power Storage Channel Optical PSDN CATV xDSL

2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

A Need for IPv6?


IETF IPv6 WG began in early 90s, to solve addressing growth issues, but
CIDR, NAT,were developed

IPv4 32 bit address = 4 billion hosts


~40% of the IPv4 address space is still unused which is different from unallocated

BUT IP is everywhere
Data, voice, audio and video integration is a reality Regional registries apply a strict allocation control

So, only compelling reason: More IP addresses!


2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

A Need for IPv6?


Internet Population ~600M users in Q4 CY2002, ~945M by end CY 2004 only 10-15%of the total population How to address the future Worldwide population? (~9B in CY 2050) Emerging Internet countries need address space, eg: China uses nearly 2 class A (11/2002), ~20 class A needed if every student (320M) has to get an IP address Mobile Internet introduces new generation of Internet devices PDA (~20M in 2004), Mobile Phones (~1.5B in 2003), Tablet PC Enable through several technologies, eg: 3G, 802.11, Transportation Mobile Networks 1B automobiles forecast for 2008 Begin now on vertical markets Internet access on planes, eg. Lufthansa train, eg. Narita express Consumer, Home and Industrial Appliances
2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IP Address Allocation History


1981 - IPv4 protocol published 1985 ~ 1/16 of total space 1990 ~ 1/8 of total space 1995 ~ 1/3 of total space 2000 ~ 1/2 of total space 2002.5 ~ 2/3 of total space
100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010

This despite increasingly intense conservation efforts


PPP / DHCP address sharing translation) CIDR (classless inter-domain routing) NAT (network address

plus some address reclamation

Theoretical limit of 32-bit space: ~4 billion devices Practical limit of 32-bit space: ~250 million devices (RFC 3194)
2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IPv6 Technology

2003, Cisco Systems, 2001, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

IPv6 Protocol

Changes in some key areas


Simplification of header format

Expanded Address space


Improved option support Mandated Security

2003, Cisco Systems, Inc.

IPv6 Protocol
IPv4 Header
Version IHL Type of Service

Headers and fields


Total Length Version

IPv6 Header
Flow Label

Traffic Class

Identification

Flags

Fragment Offset Payload Length

Next Header

Hop Limit

Time to Live

Protocol

Header Checksum

Source Address Destination Address


Options Padding

Source Address

- fields name kept from IPv4 to IPv6 - fields not kept in IPv6 - Name & position changed in IPv6 - New field in IPv6
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Destination Address
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IPv6 Protocol

Headers
Few fields have been removed and some are renamed
Flow label is the only new addition to the v6 header Header is fixed length 40 bytes, no more options, these are now in the next-header

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IPv6 Protocol
What fields are retained or renamed

IPv4
Version Type of service Total Length Time to live Protocol

IPv6
Version Traffic class Payload length Hop limit Next Header

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IPv6 Protocol
Fields removed from IPv4 in IPv6
Header Length Identification Flags Fragment offset

Header Checksum

Field added to the v6 header


Flow Label
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Addressing

2003, Cisco Systems, 2001, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Addressing

Three types of address


Unicast
Multicast Anycast

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Addressing

Unicast
Like IPv4 this address is used for uniquely identifying an IPv6 node. Packet identified by the destination unicast address is delivered to the router connecting to the specified interface

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Addressing

Anycast
Common address assigned to multiple interfaces, packet is sent to the closest interface to the source as defined by the routing table

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Addressing

Mulitcast
Packet sent to group of interfaces, packet sent to this address is sent to the group of nodes in a given scope.

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Addressing

A single interface may be assigned multiple IPv6 addresses of any type (unicast, anycast, multicast)
No Broadcast Address -> Use Multicast

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Addressing

Representation
16 bit hexadecimal numbers Numbers are separated by (:) Hex numbers are not case sensitive

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Addressing
Representation
Abbreviations are possible
Leading zeros in contiguous block could be represented by (::) Example: 2003:0000:130F:0000:0000:087C:876B:140B 2003:0:130F::87C:876B:140B Double colon only appears once in the address
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Addressing
IPv4 and IPv6 mixing
IPv4 address is put into the lower-order 4 bytes of the address
Example IPv4 IPv6 131.108.140.111 0:0:0:0:0:0:131.108.140.111 Or

::131.108.140.111
Or ::836c: 8c6f
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Addressing

Prefix Representation
Representation of prefix is just like CIDR In this representation you attach the prefix length Like v4 address 198.10.0.0/16 V6 address is represented the same way 3ef8:ca62:12::/40

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Addressing
Some special addresses
Type
Aggregatable global unicast address

Binary
0010

Hex
2

Link local unicast address


Unique local unicast address Multicast address

1111 1110 10

FE80::/10

1111 1100 1111 1101


1111 1111

FC00::/8 FD00::/8
FF00::/16

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