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Malaria • Caused by protozoan parasites of the plasmodium genus. • Sporozites multiply within red blood cell cause haemolysis. plasmodium ovale. anemia and convulsions . • Parasites are ingested by feeding on human carrier and sporozites are carried in their salivary glands. • Symptoms : fever. vomiting. plasmodium malariae. plasmodium vivax and plasmodium knowlesi. • Sporozites are ingested into the skin when mosquitoes take their next meal. • Transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquitoes. joint pain. • Most common protozoa are plasmodium falciparum.
• Caused by a bacteria called Yersinia Pestis • Bubonic Plague – Infects the lymphatic system – Bacteria spreads to the lymph nodes and multiply – Symptoms : swollen lymph nodes (buboes). septicemic plague and pneumatic plague. continuous vomitting – The victim will not last more than 24 hours . spots on the skin which are first red then black.Plague • Three types of plague : Bubonic plague.
fever. – Does not spread from person to person • Pneumatic Plague – Not vector borne but spreads from person to person – Primary : Inhalation of aerosolised plague bacteria . delirium and death. – Symptoms : Chills.It is mot transmitted from one person to another • Septicemic Plague – Happens when yersinia pestis bacteria enters the bloodstream or when bubonic plague or pneumatic plague is untreated. vomitting. severe headache.– Disease is transmitted through the bite of a infected flea.
– Secondary : Septicemic plague spreads into the lung tissue from the blood stream – Symptoms : Fever . headache and rapidly developing pneumonia .
bitten. during labour) Direct Contact Person to person (touch.Ways of Disease Transmission Mother to unborn child (through placenta. . body fluids) Animal to person (scratched. contact with animal waste.
Indirect Contact • Germs can linger on inanimate objects • Organisms from the environment like fungi Droplet transmission • Infected droplets are released during coughing or sneezing • Travel very close • Crowded rooms increase chances of infection .
Tuberculosis Water • Pathogens are carried by water and can enter water systems • Ex. Hepatitis A and cholera .Particle transmission • Germs travel in particle form in the air • Remain suspended in air and travel in air currents • Ex.
Escherichia Coli which can be found in certain kind of food .Bites and Stings (vector) • Insect carrier carries germ on body or in intestinal tract • Ex. Mosquito carries dengue virus Food contamination (vehicle) • Common-vehicle transmission • Germs spread wide through a single source • Ex.