You are on page 1of 111

# Lecture 3

Stoichiometry

Contents
Elements Atomic number, mass number, atomic mass Mole concepts, Avogadros number Conversions between mole and number of atoms Relationship between mole and mass Molar mass Percent composition Empirical formula, molecular formula
2

Stoichiometry is:
Study of the quantities of materials consumed and produced in chemical reactions Mole/mass relationships between reactants and products

## The Periodic Table of Elements

Atomic number Element symbol Atomic mass

Atomic number, Z
the number of protons in the nucleus the number of electrons in a neutral atom the integer on the periodic table for each element

Mass Number, A
integer representing the approximate mass of an atom equal to the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

Masses of Atoms
Carbon-12 Scale Masses of the atoms are compared to the mass of C-12 isotope having a mass of 12.0000 amu The masses of all other atoms are given relative to this standard

Mass Spectrometer
the most accurate methods for comparing masses of atoms

## Atomic Masses and Isotopic Abundances

natural atomic masses = sum[(atomic mass of isotope) (fractional isotopic abundance)] C-12 98.89% mass 12 amu C-13 1.11% mass 13.003355 amu The average atomic mass for natural carbon is: 12amu x 0.9889+13.0034amu x 0.0111= 12.01amu
9

The Mole
a unit of measurement, quantity of matter present The number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure C-12 (6.022 1023) Avogadros Number 6.022 1023 particles
10

11

Chemical PackagesMoles
Mole = Number of things equal to the number of atoms in 12 g of C-12.
1 atom of C-12 weighs exactly 12 amu. 1 mole of C-12 weighs exactly 12 g.

## In 12 g of C-12 there are 6.022 x1023 C-12 atoms.

6.022 10 atoms 1 mole
23

12

## Molecular Mass - Molar Mass ( M )

The Molecular mass of a compound expressed in amu is numerically the same as the mass of one mole of the compound expressed in grams, called its molar mass. For water: H2O
Molecular mass = (2 x atomic mass of H ) + atomic mass of O = 2( amu) + amu = amu Mass of one molecules of water = amu

Molar mass = ( 2 x molar mass of H ) + (1 x molar mass of O) =2( g)+ g = g g H2O = 6.022 x 1023 molecules of water = 1 mole H O 132

## Molecular Mass - Molar Mass ( M )

The Molecular mass of a compound expressed in amu is numerically the same as the mass of one mole of the compound expressed in grams , called its molar mass. For water: H2O
Molecular mass = (2 x atomic mass of H ) + atomic mass of O = 2 ( 1.008 amu) + 16.00 amu = 18.02 amu Mass of one molecules of water = 18.02 amu Molar mass = ( 2 x molar mass of H ) + (1 x molar mass of O) = 2 ( 1.008 g ) + 16.00 g = 18.02 g per mole H2O 18.02 g H2O = 6.022 x 1023 molecules of water = 1 mole H2O 14

Molar Mass
The mass in grams of one mole of molecules or formula units of a substance, also called molar mass or molecular weight Molar mass of: C - 12.01 g/mole O - 16.00 g/mole Fe 55,85 g/mole
15

## Conversion factors between Moles, Number of particles, Grams

6.022 10 atoms 1 mole
23

## 1 mole 6.022 1023 atoms

1 mol S 32.07 g

18.02 g 1 mol H 2 O
16

Example 1. A Silver Ring Contains 1.1 x 1022 Silver Atoms. How Many Moles of Silver Are in the Ring?
Given: Find: Solution Map: 1.1 x 1022 atoms Ag moles Ag atoms Ag mol Ag
1 mol 6.022 10 23 atoms

Relationships: Solution:

1.1 10

22

## 1.8266 10- 2 mol Ag 1.8 10- 2 mol Ag

Check: Since the number of atoms given is less than Avogadros number, the answer makes sense.
17

Example: A silver ring contains 1.1 x 1022 silver atoms. How many moles of silver are in the ring? Write down the given quantity and its units.

Given:

## 1.1 x 1022 Ag atoms

18

Example: A silver ring contains 1.1 x 1022 silver atoms. How many moles of silver are in the ring?

## Write down the quantity to find and/or its units.

Find: ? moles

19

Example: A silver ring contains 1.1 x 1022 silver atoms. How many moles of silver are in the ring?

## 1 mole Ag atoms = 6.022 x 1023 Ag atoms.

20

Example: A silver ring contains 1.1 x 1022 silver atoms. How many moles of silver are in the ring?

Information: Given: 1.1 x 1022 Ag atoms Find: ? moles Conversion Factor: 1 mole = 6.022 x 1023

## Write a solution map for converting the units:

atoms Ag moles Ag

## 1 mole Ag 6.022 10 23 Ag atoms

21

Example: A silver ring contains 1.1 x 1022 silver atoms. How many moles of silver are in the ring? Apply the solution map:

Information: Given: 1.1 x 1022 Ag atoms Find: ? moles Conversion Factor: 1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 Solution Map: atoms mole

22

22

23

## Practice 1 Calculate the Number of Atoms in 2.45 Mol of Copper, Continued.

Given: Find: Solution Map: mol Cu 2.45 mol Cu atoms Cu atoms Cu
6.022 1023 atoms 1 mol

Relationships: Solution:

## 6.022 10 23 atoms 2.45 mol Cu 1 mol 1.48 10 24 atoms Cu

Since atoms are small, the large number of atoms makes sense.
24

Check:

## Relationship Between Moles and Mass

The mass of one mole of atoms is called the molar mass. The molar mass of an element, in grams, is numerically equal to the elements atomic mass, in amu. The lighter the atom, the less a mole weighs. The lighter the atom, the more atoms there are in 1 g.
25

## Mole and Mass Relationships

Substance Pieces in 1 mole
Hydrogen Carbon Oxygen Sulfur Calcium Chlorine Copper 6.022 x 1023 atoms 6.022 x 1023 atoms 6.022 x 1023 atoms 6.022 x 1023 atoms 6.022 x 1023 atoms 6.022 x 1023 atoms 6.022 x 1023 atoms

Weight of 1 mole
1.008 g 12.01 g 16.00 g 32.06 g 40.08 g 35.45 g 63.55 g

26

## Example 2 Calculate the Moles of Sulfur in 57.8 G of Sulfur.

Given: Find: Solution Map: 57.8 g S mol S

gS

1 mol S 32.07 g

mol S

## 1 mol 57.8 g S 32.07 g 1.80 mol S

Since the given amount is much less than 1 mol S, the number makes sense.
27

Check:

## Example 2: Calculate the number of moles of sulfur in 57.8 g of sulfur.

28

Example: Calculate the number of moles of sulfur in 57.8 g of sulfur. Write down the given quantity and its units.

Given:

57.8 g S

29

Find: ? moles S

30

31

## Write a solution map for converting the units:

gS

moles S

1 mole S 32.07 g S

32

## Example: Calculate the number of moles of sulfur in 57.8 g of sulfur.

Information: Given: 57.8 g S Find: ? moles S Conversion Factor: 1 mole S = 32.07 g Solution Map: g moles

## 1 mole S 57.8 g S moles S 32.07 g S

= 1.802307 moles S
Significant figures and round:

= 1.80 moles S
33

## Practice 2 How Many Copper Atoms Are in a Penny Weighing 3.10 g?

34

Practice 2 How Many Copper Atoms Are in a Penny Weighing 3.10 g?, Continued
Given: Find: Solution Map: 3.10 g Cu atoms Cu g Cu
1 mol 63.55 g

mol Cu

atoms Cu

## 6.022 1023 atoms 1 mol

Relationships: Solution:

## 1 mol Cu 6.022 10 23 atoms 3.10 g Cu 63.55 g Cu 1 mol

2.94 10 22 atoms Cu Check: Since the given amount is much less than 1 mol Cu, the number makes sense.
35

## Molar Mass of Compounds

The relative weights of molecules can be calculated from atomic weights. Formula mass = 1 molecule of H2O = 2(1.01 amu H) + 16.00 amu O = 18.02 amu. Since 1 mole of H2O contains 2 moles of H and 1 mole of O. Molar mass = 1 mole H2O = 2(1.01 g H) + 16.00 g O = 18.02 g.
36

## Example 3Calculate the Mass of 1.75 Mol of H2O.

Given: Find: Solution Map: 1.75 mol H2O g H2O mol H2O
18.02 g 1 mol H 2 O

g H2O
H 2 1.01 amu O 1 16.00 amu H 2O 18.02 amu

## 18.02 g 1.75 mol H 2 O 1 mol 31.535 g 31.5 g H 2 O

Check: Since the given amount is more than 1 mol, the mass being > 18 g makes sense.
37

Practice 3 How Many Formula Units Are in 50.0 g of PbO2? (PbO2 = 239.2), Continued
Given: Find: Solution Map: 50.0 g PbO2 formula units PbO2 g PbO2
1 mol 239.2 g

mol PbO2

units PbO2

## 6.022 10 23 molecules 1 mol

Relationships: Solution:

## 1 mol PbO2 = 239.2 g,1 mol = 6.022 x 1023

1 mol PbO 2 6.022 10 23 units 50.0 g PbO 2 239.2 g PbO 2 1 mol 1.26 10 23 units PbO 2

Check: Since the given amount is much less than 1 mol PbO2, the number makes sense.
38

Wednesday, October14.
Percent composition Empirical formula Molecular formula Chemical equation Balancing chemical equation Mass - to - mass conversion
39

Percent Composition
Percentage of each element in a compound.
By mass. The formula of the compound. The experimental mass analysis of the compound.

## part Percentage 100% whole

mass of element X in 1 mol Percentage 100% mass of 1 mol of the compound 40

## Example 4 Find the Mass Percent of Cl in C2Cl4F2.

Given: Find: Solution Map: C2Cl4F2 % Cl by mass
4 molar mass Cl Mass % Cl 100% molar mass C 2Cl4 F2
mass element X in 1 mol Mass % element X 100% mass 1 mol of compound
molar mass C 2Cl4 F2 2(12.01) 4(35.45) 2(19.00) 203.8 g/mol 141.8 g/mol Mass % Cl 100% 69.58% 203.8 g/mol

Relationships:

## Solution: 4 molar mass Cl 4(35.45 g/mol) 141.8 g/mol

Check: Since the percentage is less than 100 and Cl is much heavier than the other atoms, the number makes 41 sense.

## Practice 4 Determine the Percent Composition of the Following, Continued:

CaCl2
Mass % Ca molar mass Ca 100% molar mass CaCl2 2 molar mass Cl Mass % Cl 100% molar mass CaCl2

2 molar mass Cl 2(35.45 g/mol) 70.90 g/mol molar mass CaCl2 1(40.08) 2(35.45) 110.98 g/mol 40.08 g/mol Mass % Ca 100% 36.11% 110.98 g/mol 70.90 g/mol Mass % Cl 100% 63.88% 110.98 g/mol
42

Empirical Formulas
The simplest, whole-number ratio of atoms in a molecule is called the empirical formula.
Can be determined from percent composition or combining masses.

## The molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula.

100g %A 100g %B mass B (g) mass A (g) MMA moles A

MMB

moles A moles B
moles B
43

## Empirical Formulas, Continued

Hydrogen Peroxide Molecular formula = H2O2 Empirical formula = HO Benzene Molecular formula = C6H6 Empirical formula = CH Glucose Molecular formula = C6H12O6 Empirical formula = CH2O
44

45

## Practice 5 Determine the Empirical Formula of Benzopyrene, C20H12, Continued

Find the greatest common factor (GCF) of the subscripts.
20 factors = (10 x 2), (5 x 4) 12 factors = (6 x 2), (4 x 3) GCF = 4

## Divide each subscript by the GCF to get the empirical formula.

C20H12 = (C5H3)4 Empirical formula = C5H3
46

## Finding an Empirical Formula

1. Convert the percentages to grams.
a. Skip if already grams.

## 2. Convert grams to moles.

a. Use molar mass of each element.

3. Write a pseudoformula using moles as subscripts. 4. Divide all by smallest number of moles. 5. Multiply all mole ratios by number to make all whole numbers, if necessary.
a. If ratio ?.5, multiply all by 2; if ratio ?.33 or ?.67, multiply all by 3, etc. b. Skip if already whole numbers after Step 4.
47

## Example 6 Finding an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data

48

Example: A laboratory analysis of aspirin determined the following mass percent composition. Find the empirical formula. C = 60.00% H = 4.48% O = 35.53%

49

Example: Find the empirical formula of aspirin with the given mass percent composition. Write down the given quantity and its units. Given: C = 60.00% H = 4.48% O = 35.53% Therefore, in 100 g of aspirin there are 60.00 g C, 4.48 g H, and 35.53 g O.

50

Example: Find the empirical formula of aspirin with the given mass percent composition.

## Find: empirical formula, CxHyOz

51

Example: Find the empirical formula of aspirin with the given mass percent composition.

## 1 mole C = 12.01 g C 1 mole H = 1.01 g H 1 mole O = 16.00 g O

52

Example: Find the empirical formula of aspirin with the given mass percent composition. Write a solution map:
gC mol C

Information: Given: 60.00 g C, 4.48 g H, 35.53 g O Find: empirical formula, CxHyOz Conversion Factors: 1 mol C = 12.01 g; 1 mol H = 1.01 g; 1 mol O = 16.00 g

gH
gO

mol H
mol O

pseudoformula

mole ratio

## whole number ratio

empirical formula

53

Example: Find the empirical formula of aspirin with the given mass percent composition. Apply the solution map:

Information: Given: 60.00 g C, 4.48 g H, 35.53 g O Find: empirical formula, CxHyOz Conversion Factors: 1 mol C = 12.01 g; 1 mol H = 1.01 g; 1 mol O = 16.00 g Solution Map: g C,H,O mol C,H,O mol ratio empirical formula

Calculate the moles of each element. 1 mol C 60 .00 g C 4.996 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 4.48 g H 4.44 mol H 1.01 g H 1 mol O 35.53 g O 2.221 mol O 16.00 g O
54

Example: Find the empirical formula of aspirin with the given mass percent composition. Apply the solution map:
Write a pseudoformula.

Information: Given: 4.996 mol C, 4.44 mol H, 2.221 mol O Find: empirical formula, CxHyOz Conversion Factors: 1 mol C = 12.01 g; 1 mol H = 1.01 g; 1 mol O = 16.00 g Solution Map: g C,H,O mol C,H,O mol ratio empirical formula

C4.996H4.44O2.221

55

Example: Find the empirical formula of aspirin with the given mass percent composition. Apply the solution map:

Information: Given: C4.996H4.44O2.221 Find: empirical formula, CxHyOz Conversion Factors: 1 mol C = 12.01 g; 1 mol H = 1.01 g; 1 mol O = 16.00 g Solution Map: g C,H,O mol C,H,O mol ratio empirical formula

## C 4.996 H 4.44 O 2.221

2.221 2.221 2.221

C 2.25H 2O1
56

Example: Find the empirical formula of aspirin with the given mass percent composition. Apply the solution map:

Information: Given: C2.25H2O1 Find: empirical formula, CxHyOz Conversion Factors: 1 mol C = 12.01 g; 1 mol H = 1.01 g; 1 mol O = 16.00 g Solution Map: g C,H,O mol C,H,O mol ratio empirical formula

57

## Example 7 Finding an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data

58

Example: Find the empirical formula of oxide of titanium with the given elemental analysis. Write a solution map:
g Ti mol Ti

Information: Given: 3.24 g Ti, 5.40 g compound Find: empirical formula, TixOy Conversion Factors: 1 mol Ti = 47.88g;1 mol O = 16.00g

pseudoformula
gO mol O

mole ratio

## whole number ratio

empirical formula

59

Molecular Formulas
The molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula. To determine the molecular formula, you need to know the empirical formula and the molar mass of the compound.
Molar massreal formula = Factor used to multiply subscripts Molar massempirical formula
60

ExampleDetermine the Molecular Formula of Cadinene if it has a Molar Mass of 204 g and an Empirical Formula of C5H8.

## 1. Determine the empirical formula.

May need to calculate it as previous. C5H8

## 2. Determine the molar mass of the empirical formula.

5 C = 60.05, 8 H = 8.064 C5H8 = 68.11 g/mol
61

ExampleDetermine the Molecular Formula of Cadinene if it has a Molar Mass of 204 g and an Empirical Formula of C5H8, Continued. 3. Divide the given molar mass of the compound by the molar mass of the empirical formula. Round to the nearest whole number.

## 204 g/mol 3 68.11 g/mol

62

ExampleDetermine the Molecular Formula of Cadinene if it has a Molar Mass of 204 g and an Empirical Formula of C5H8, Continued. 4. Multiply the empirical formula by the factor above to give the molecular formula. (C5H8)3 = C15H24

63

## Periodic Table of the Elements

IA 1 1 II A III B IV B VB VI B VII B VIII B IB II B III A IV A VA VI A VII A 1 VIII A 2

H
1.008

H
1.008

He
4.0026 10

3 2

Li
6.939

Be
9.0122

B
10.811

C
12.011

N
14.007

O
15.999

F
18.998

Ne
20.183

11 3

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Na
22.99

Mg
24.312

Al
26.982

Si
28.086

P
30.974

S
32.064

Cl
35.453

Ar
39.948

19 4

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

K
39.102

Ca
40.08

Sc
44.956

Ti
47.89

V
50.942

Cr
51.996

Mn
54.938

Fe
55.847

Co
58.932

Ni
58.71

Cu
63.54

Zn
65.37

Ga
69.72

Ge
72.59

As
74.922

Se
78.96

Br
79.909

Kr
83.8

37 5

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

Rb
85.468

Sr
87.62

Y
88.906

Zr
91.224

Nb
92.906

Mo
95.94

Tc
* 98

Ru
101.07

Rh
102.91

Pd
106.42

Ag
107.9

Cd
112.41

In
114.82

Sn
118.71

Sb
121.75

Te
127.61

I
126.9

Xe
131.29

55 6

56

57

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

Cs
132.91

Ba
137.33

**La
138.91

Hf
178.49

Ta
180.95

W
183.85

Re
186.21

Os
190.2

Ir
192.22

Pt
195.08

Au
196.97

Hg
200.29

Tl
204.38

Pb
207.2

Bi
208.98

Po
* 209

At
* 210

Rn
* 222

87 7

88

89

104

105

106

107

108

109

110 * 269 63

111 * 272 64

112 * 277 65

114

116

118

Fr
* 223

Ra ***Ac
226.03 227.03

Rf
* 261

Ha
* 262 58

Sg
* 263 59

Ns
* 262 60

Hs
* 265 61

Mt
* 268 62

Uuq

Uuh
70

Uuo
*293
S.M.Condren 2001

## *285 *289 Based on symbols used by ACS 66 67 68 69

71

* Designates that **Lanthanum all isotopes are Series radioactive *** Actinium Series

Ce
140.12

Pr
140.91

Nd
144.24

Pm
* 145

Sm
150.36

Eu
151.96

Gd
157.25

Tb
158.93

Dy
162.51

Ho
164.93

Er
167.26

Tm
168.93

Yb
173.04

Lu
174.97

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

Th
232.04

Pa
231.04

U
238.03

Np
237.05

Pu
* 244

Am
* 243

Cm
* 247

Bk
* 247

Cf
* 251

Es
* 252

Fm
* 257

Md
* 258

No
* 259

Lr
* 260

64

## Release or Absorption of Heat

Color Change

Emission of Light

Formation of a Gas

## Formation of Solid Precipitate

65

Chemical Equations
Short-hand way of describing a reaction. Provides information about the reaction.
Formulas of reactants and products. States of reactants and products. Relative numbers of reactant and product molecules that are required. Can be used to determine masses of reactants used and products that can be made.
66

Conservation of Mass
Matter cannot be created or destroyed.
Therefore, the total mass cannot change. And the total mass of the reactants will be the same as the total mass of the products.

In a chemical reaction, all the atoms present at the beginning are still present at the end.
If all the atoms are still there, then the mass will not change.
67

Chemical Equations
CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) CH4 and O2 are the reactants, and CO2 and H2O are the products. The (g) after the formulas tells us the state of the chemical. The number in front of each substance tells us the numbers of those molecules in the reaction.
Called the coefficients.

68

## Chemical Equations, Continued

CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) CO2(g) + 2 H2O(g) This equation is balanced, meaning that there are equal numbers of atoms of each element on the reactant and product sides.
To obtain the number of atoms of an element, multiply the subscript by the coefficient.

69

## Symbols Used in Equations

Symbols used to indicate state after chemical.
(g) = gas; (l) = liquid; (s) = solid. (aq) = aqueous = dissolved in water.

## Energy symbols used above the arrow for decomposition reactions.

D = heat. hn = light. shock = mechanical. elec = electrical.
70

## Writing Balanced Chemical Equations

1. 2. Write a skeletal equation by writing the formula of each reactant and product. Count the number of atoms of each element on each side of the equation.
Polyatomic ions may often be counted as if they are one element. If an element is found in only one compound on both sides, balance it first.
Metals before nonmetals.

3.

## Pick an element to balance.

Leave elements that are free elements somewhere in the equation until last.
Balance free elements by adjusting the coefficient where it is a free element.
71

## Writing Balanced Chemical Equations, Continued

4. Find the least common multiple (LCM) of the number of atoms on each side.
The LCM of 3 and 2 is 6.

5. Multiply each count by a factor to make it equal to the LCM. 6. Use this factor as a coefficient in the equation.
If there is already a coefficient there, multiply it by the factor. It must go in front of entire molecules, not between atoms within a molecule.

## 7. Recount and repeat until balanced.

72

Example 1
When magnesium metal burns in air, it produces a white, powdery compound magnesium oxide. Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s)
2. Count the number of atoms on each side.

## Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) 1 Mg 1 2O1

73

Example 1, Continued
Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) 3. Pick an element to balance. Do free elements last. Since Mg already balanced, pick O. 4. Find the LCM of both sides 5. and multiply each side by factor so it equals LCM. LCM of 2 and 1 is 2.

## Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) 1 Mg 1 2O1

1x

x2
74

Example 1, Continued
Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) 6. Use factors as coefficients in front of the compound containing the element.
We do not write 1 as a coefficient, its understood.

## Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) 1 Mg 1 1x2O1x2 2

75

Example 1, Continued
When magnesium metal burns in air, it produces a white, powdery compound magnesium oxide.
Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s) RecountMg not balanced nowThats OK!

7.

## Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s) 1 Mg 2 2O2

7. and Repeatattacking an unbalanced element.

## 2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s) 2 x 1 Mg 2 2O2

76

Example 2
Under appropriate conditions at 1000C, ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas to produce gaseous nitrogen monoxide and steam 1. write the skeletal equation a) first in words identify the state of each chemical ammonia(g) + oxygen(g) nitrogen monoxide(g) + water(g) b) then write the equation in formulas identify diatomic elements identify polyatomic ions determine formulas

## NH3(g) + O2(g) NO(g) + H2O(g)

77

Example 2, Continued
NH3(g) + O2(g) NO(g) + H2O(g)
2) count the number of atoms of on each side

## NH3(g) + O2(g) NO(g) + H2O(g) 1 N 1 3H2 2O1+1

78

Example 2, Continued
Under appropriate conditions at 1000C ammonia gas reacts with oxygen gas to produce gaseous nitrogen monoxide and gaseous steam NH3(g) + O2(g) NO(g) + H2O(g) avoid element in multiple compounds on same side - O

## 3) pick an element to balance - H

4) find least common multiple of both sides (6) 5) multiply each side by factor so it equals LCM NH3(g) + O2(g) NO(g) + H2O(g) 1 N 1 2x3H2 x3 2O1+1
79

Example 2, Continued
6) use factors as coefficients in front of compound containing the element

## 2 NH3(g) + O2(g) NO(g) + 3 H2O(g) 1 N 1 2x3H2x3 2O1+1

80

Example 2, Continued
7) Recount N & O not balanced 2 NH3(g) + O2(g) NO(g) + 3 H2O(g) 2 N 1 6H6 2O1+3 7) and Repeat attack the N 2 NH3(g) + O2(g) 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g) 2 N 1 x 2 6H6 2O1+3
81

Example 2, Continued
7) Recount Again Still not balanced and the only element left is O! 2 NH3(g) + O2(g) 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g) 2 N 2 6H6 2O2+3

82

Example 2, Continued
7) and Repeat Again
A trick of the trade - when you are forced to attack an element that is in 3 or more compounds find where it is uncombined. You can find a factor to make it any amount you want, even if that factor is a fraction! 2 NH3(g) + ? O2(g) 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g) 2 N 2 6H6 2O2+3 We want to make the O on the left equal 5, therefore we will multiply it by 2.5

## 2 NH3(g) + 2.5 O2(g) 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g) 2 N 2 6H6 2.5 x 2 O 2 + 3

83

Example 2, Continued
7) You cant have a coefficient that isnt a whole number. Multiply all the coefficients by a number to eliminate fractions
If ?.5, then multiply by 2; if ?.33, then 3; if ?.25, then 4

## {2 NH3(g) + 2.5 O2(g) 2 NO(g) + 3 H2O(g)} x 2 4 NH3(g) + 5 O2(g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H2O(g) 4 N 4 12 H 12 10 O 4 + 6

84

Example 3
When aluminum metal reacts with air, it produces a white, powdery compound called aluminum oxide.
Reacting with air means reacting with O2: Aluminum(s) + oxygen(g) aluminum oxide(s)

## Al(s) + O2(g) Al2O3(s)

85

Example 3, Continued
When aluminum metal reacts with air, it produces a white, powdery compound called aluminum oxide.
Reacting with air means reacting with O2: Aluminum(s) + oxygen(g) aluminum oxide(s)

Al(s) + O2(g) Al2O3(s) 2Al(s) + O2(g) Al2O3(s) 2Al(s) + 1.5O2(g) Al2O3(s) {2Al(s) + 1.5O2(g) Al2O3(s)}x2 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) 2 Al2O3(s)

86

Example 4
Acetic acid reacts with the metal aluminum to make aqueous aluminum acetate and gaseous hydrogen.

Acids are always aqueous. Metals are solid except for mercury. Al(s) + HC2H3O2(aq) Al(C2H3O2)3(aq) + H2(g) Al(s) +3 HC2H3O2(aq) Al(C2H3O2)3(aq) +1.5 H2(g) {Al(s) +3 HC2H3O2(aq) Al(C2H3O2)3(aq) +1.5 H2(g)}x2 2 Al(s) + 6 HC2H3O2(aq) 2 Al(C2H3O2)3(aq) + 3 H2(g)

87

Example 5
Combustion of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) in flamb (a brandied flaming dessert).
Combustion is burning, and therefore, reacts with O2. Combustion of compounds containing C and H always make CO2(g) and H2O(g) as products.

## C2H5OH(l) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g)

88

Example 5, Continued
Combustion of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) in flamb (a brandied flaming dessert).
Combustion is burning, and therefore, reacts with O2. Combustion of compounds containing C and H always make CO2(g) and H2O(g) as products.

C2H5OH(l) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) + H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) + O2(g) 2CO2(g) +3H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) +3O2(g) CO2(g) 3H2O(g) C2H5OH(l) + 3 O2(g) 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(g)
89

Example 6
Combustion of liquid butane (C4H10) in a lighter.

## C4H10(l) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g)

90

Example 6 Continued
Combustion of liquid butane (C4H10) in a lighter.

C4H10(l) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g) C4H10(l) + O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(g) C4H10(l) +6.5 O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(g) {C4H10(l) +6.5 O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(g)}x2 2 C4H10(l) + 13 O2(g) 8 CO2(g) + 10 H2O(g)

91

## Mole Relationships in Chemical Formulas

Since we count atoms and molecules in mole units, we can find the number of moles of a constituent element if we know the number of moles of the compound.
Moles of compound 1 mol NaCl 1 mol H2O 1 mol CaCO3 1 mol C6H12O6 Moles of constituents 1 mol Na, 1 mol Cl 2 mol H, 1 mol O 1 mol Ca, 1 mol C, 3 mol O 6 mol C, 12 mol H, 6 mol O
92

## Example Calculate the Moles of Oxygen in 1.7 Moles of CaCO3.

Given: Find: Solution Map: 1.7 mol CaCO3 mol O

mol CaCO3

mol O

## 3 mol O 1.7 mol CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 5.1 mol O

Since the given amount is much less than 1 mol S, the number makes sense.
93

Check:

## Example Find the Mass of Carbon in 55.4 g C10H14O.

Given: Find: Solution Map: 55.4 g C10H14O gC g C10H14O
1 mol 150.2 g

mol C10H14O

Relationships: Solution:

O 1 1 mol C10H14O = 150.2 g, 1 mol C = 12.01 g, C10 H14O 10 mol C : 1 mol C10H14O

mol C

gC

## 16.00 amu 150.2 amu

1 mol C10 H14O 10 mol C 12.01 g C 55.4 g C10 H14O 44.3 g C 150.2 g 1 mol C10 H14O 1 mol C

Check:

Since the amount of C is less than the amount of C10H14O, the answer makes sense.
94

## Making Molecules Mole-to-Mole Conversions

The balanced equation is the recipe for a chemical reaction. The equation 3 H2(g) + N2(g) 2 NH3(g) tells us that 3 molecules of H2 react with exactly 1 molecule of N2 and make exactly 2 molecules of NH3 or: 3 molecules H2 1 molecule N2 2 molecules NH3 Since we count molecules by moles: 3 moles H2 1 mole N2 2 moles NH3
95

ExampleHow Many Moles of NaCl Result from the Complete Reaction of 3.4 Mol of Cl2? 2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2 NaCl
Given: Find: Solution Map: 3.4 mol Cl2 mol NaCl mol Cl2
2 mol NaCl 1 mol Cl2

mol NaCl

## Relationships: 1 mol Cl2 2 NaCl Solution:

2 mol NaCl 3.4 mol Cl2 1 mol Cl2 6.8 mol NaCl
.
96

Mass-to-Mass Conversions
We know there is a relationship between the mass and number of moles of a chemical. 1 mole = Molar Mass in grams. The molar mass of the chemicals in the reaction and the balanced chemical equation allow us to convert from the amount of any chemical in the reaction to the amount of any other.

97

Example How Many Grams of Glucose Can Be Synthesized from 58.5 g of CO2 in Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis: 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(g) C6H12O6(s) + 6 O2(g) The equation for the reaction gives the mole relationship between amount of C6H12O6 and CO2, but we need to know the mass relationship, so the solution map will be:
g CO2 mol CO2 mol C6H12O6
98

g C6H12O6

Example: How many grams of glucose can be synthesized from 58.5 g of CO2 in the reaction? 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) 6 O2(g) + C6H12O6(aq)

Information: Given: 58.5 g CO2 Find: g C6H12O6 Conversion Factors: 1 mol C6H12O6 = 180.2 g 1 mol CO2 = 44.01 g 1 mol C6H12O6 6 mol CO2

## Write a solution map:

g CO2
1 mol CO 2 44.01 g CO 2

mol CO2

mol C6H12O6
1 mol C6 H12O 6 6 mol CO2

g C6H12O6

## 180.2 g C6 H12O6 1 mol C6 H12O6

99

Example: How many grams of glucose can be synthesized from 58.5 g of CO2 in the reaction? 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l) 6 O2(g) + C6H12O6(aq)

Information: Given: 58.5 g CO2 Find: g C6H12O6 Conversion Factors: 1 mol C6H12O6 = 180.2 g 1 mol CO2 = 44.01 g 1 mol C6H12O6 6 mol CO2 Solution Map: g CO2 mol CO2 mol C6H12O6 g C6H12O6

## Apply the solution map:

1 mole CO2 1 mol C6 H12O6 180.2 g C6 H12O6 58.5 g CO2 44.01 g CO2 6 mol CO2 1 mole C6 H12O6

## = 39.9216 g C6H12O6 Significant figures and round: = 39.9 g C6H12O6

100

Carvone (C10H14O) is the main component in spearmint oil. It has a pleasant odor and mint flavor. It is often added to chewing gum, liqueurs, soaps, and perfumes. Find the mass of carbon in 55.4 g of carvone.

101

## Example: Find the mass of carbon in 55.4 g of carvone, (C10H14O).

Information: Given: 55.4 g C10H14O Find: g C Conversion Factors: 1 mol C10H14O = 150.2 g 1 mol C10H14O 10 mol C 1 mol C = 12.01 g

## Write a solution map for converting the units:

g C10H14O mol C10H14O
10 mol C 1 mol C10 H14O

mol C
12.01 g C 1 mol C

g C

102

## Example: Find the mass of carbon in 55.4 g of carvone, (C10H14O).

Information: Given: 55.4 g C10H14O Find: g C Conversion Factors: 1 mol C10H14O = 150.2 g 1 mol C10H14O 10 mol C 1 mol C = 12.01 g Solution Map: g C10H14O mol C10H14O mol C g C

## Apply the solution map:

1 mole C10 H14O 10 mol C 12.01 g C 55.4 g C10 H14O 150.2 g C10 H14O 1 mol C10 H14O 1 mole C

103

## THE LIMITING REACTANT

The limiting reactant present in a mixture of reactants is the reactant that will run out first, and thus, it determines the amount of product that can be produced. A useful approach to solving limiting reactant problems is to calculate the amount of product that could be produced by each of the quantities of reactant that are available. The reactant that gives the least amount of product is then the limiting reactant.

104

Example What Is the Limiting Reactant and Theoretical Yield When 0.552 Mol of Al React with 0.887 Mol of Cl2? 2 Al(s) + 3 Cl2(g) 2 AlCl3
Given: Find: Solution Map: 0.552 mol Al, 0.887 mol Cl2 mol AlCl3 mol Al mol AlCl3

Pick least Limiting 2 mol AlCl 3 amount reactant 2 mol Al and Relationships: mol Cl2 mol AlCl3 theoretic 2 mol AlCl 3 al 3 mol Cl2 yield 3 mol Cl 2 AlCl ; 2 mol Al 2 mol AlCl
2 3 3

2 mol AlCl 3 Solution: Limiting 0.552 mol Al 2 mol Al Reactant 0.552 mol AlCl 3

## 0.58 47 mol AlCl 3 Theoretical

Yield
105

Example: What is the limiting reactant and theoretical yield when 0.552 mol of Al react with 0.887 mol of Cl2? 2 Al(s) + 3 Cl2(g) 2 AlCl3 Write a solution map:
mol Al
2 mol AlCl 3 2 mol Al

Information: Given: 0.552 mol Al, 0.877 mol Cl2 Find: limiting reactant, theor. yield Conversion Factors: 2 mol AlCl3 2 mol Al, 2 mol AlCl3 3 mol Cl2

mol AlCl3

mol Cl2

106

mol AlCl3

## Smallest amount is theoretical yield

Example: What is the limiting reactant and theoretical yield when 0.552 mol of Al react with 0.887 mol of Cl2? 2 Al(s) + 3 Cl2(g) 2 AlCl3 Apply the solution map:

Information: Given: 0.552 mol Al, 0.877 mol Cl2 Find: limiting reactant, theor. yield Conversion Factors: 2 mol AlCl3 2 mol Al, 2 mol AlCl3 3 mol Cl2 Solution Map: mol each reactant mol AlCl3

Limiting reactant = Al

2 mol AlCl 3 2 mol AlCl 3 0.877 mol Cl2 0.552 mol Al 3 mol Cl2 2 mol Al 0.552 mol AlCl 3 0.5847 mol AlCl 3
Smallest amount Theoretical yield = 0.552 mol AlCl3
107

PracticeHow Many Grams of N2(g) Can Be Made from 9.05 g of NH3 Reacting with 45.2 g of CuO? 2 NH3(g) + 3 CuO(s) N2(g) + 3 Cu(s) + 3 H2O(l) If 4.61 g of N2 Are Made, What Is the Percent Yield?, Continued

Given: Find:

## 9.05 g NH3, 45.2 g CuO g N2 mol NH3 mol N2 g N2

1 mol 28.02 gChoose

Solution Map: g NH 3
1 mol 17.03 g

1 mol N 2 2 mol NH 3

g CuO
1 mol 79.55 g

mol CuO

mol N2

smallest g N2
1 mol 28.02 g

## Actual Yield 100% Percent Yield Theoretica l Yield

Relationships:
1 mol NH3 = 17.03g, 1 mol CuO = 79.55g, 1 mol N2 = 28.02 g 2 mol NH3 = 1 mol N2, 3 mol CuO = 1 mol N2

PracticeHow Many Grams of N2(g) Can Be Made from 9.05 g of NH3 Reacting with 45.2 g of CuO? 2 NH3(g) + 3 CuO(s) N2(g) + 3 Cu(s) + 3 H2O(l) If 4.61 g of N2 Are Made, What Is the Percent Yield?, Continued

Solution:

## 1 mol NH 3 1 mol N 2 28.02 g N 2 9.05 g NH 3 7.42 g N 2 17.03 g NH 3 2 mol NH 3 1 mol N 2

1 mol CuO 1 mol N 2 28.02 g N 2 45.2 g CuO 5.30 g N 2 79.55 g CuO 3 mol CuO 1 mol N 2 Theoretical

## 4.61 g N 2 100% 87.0% Yield 5.30 g N 2

Check:

yield

Since the percent yield is less than 100, the answer makes sense.

REACTION YIELDS
The amount of product calculated in the last three examples are not the amounts that would be produced if the reactions were actually done in the laboratory. In each case, less product would be obtained than was calculated. There are numerous causes. Some materials are lost during transfers from one container to another and side reactions take place that are different from the one that is intended to take place. The amount of product calculated in the examples is called the theoretical yield. The amount of product actually produced is called the actual yield. These two quantities are used to calculate the percentage yield using the following equation:

110

Example: Suppose the mixture of reactants calculated earlier to give 73.7 g SO2 was done in the laboratory and only 42.7 g of SO2 was collected. What is the percentage yield of the reaction?

Solution:

111