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Capacity Enhancement
3G RANOP RU30
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Course Content
KPI overview
Performance monitoring
Air interface optimization
Traffic Monitoring
Capacity Enhancement
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3 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
Module Objectives
At the end of the module you will be able to:
• Describe capacity enhancing R99 features
• Discuss the impact of R5 and R6 HSPA features on capacity
• Demonstrate the capacity enhancement potentials of HSPA
features introduced with R7 and beyond


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R99 Features
AMR
BLER target settings
Eb/No settings
Throughput based optimization
Maximum radio link power
4Rx diversity
HSDPA
HSUPA
HSDPA+
HSUPA+
Capacity Enhancement
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Voice calls performed as FR or HR calls in dependence on
• Non controllable load on DL
• Code tree occupation
• Iub throughput

For each criterion there is a load indicator having three thresholds
• Underload threshold
• Target threshold
• Overload threshold

FR call
• Voice codec sample = {12.2/7.95/5.9/4.75} Kbit/s
• DL SF = 128 fixed

HR call
• Voice codec sample = {5.9/4.75} Kbit/s
• DL SF = 128 or 256 in dependence on code tree occupation
AMR - Idea
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AMR - Role of Load
Load
Underload threshold
If no load indicator exceeds underload threshold
New calls start as FR
Running HR calls automatically switched to FR
At least one load indicator exceeds underload threshold
But no load indicator exceeds target threshold
New calls start as FR
Running HR calls remain HR
Target threshold
At least one load indicator exceeds target threshold
But no load indicator exceeds overload threshold
New calls start as HR
Running FR calls remain FR
Overload threshold
If one load indicator exceeds overload threshold
New calls start as HR
Running FR calls automatically switched to HR
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AMR - Role of Load
Load thresholds for non controllable load on DL
• Set relative to PtxTarget (default 40 dBm)
• AMRUnderTxNc (default -10 dB)
• AMRTargetTxNc (default -2 dB)
• AMROverTxNc (default -1 dB)

Load thresholds for code tree occupation
• AMRUnderSC (default 50%)
• AMRTargetSC (default 70%)
• AMROverSC (default 90%)

Load thresholds for Iub throughput
• AMRUnderTransmission (default 200 Kbit/s)
• AMRTargetTransmission (default 800 Kbit/s)
• AMROverTransmission (default 900 Kbit/s)
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AMR - Selection of SF for HR Calls
AMRSF set relative to maximum allowed RL power determined
by AC (default -2 dB)
In case of high RL power SF128 (NOT SF256) better for
voice transmission due to DPCCH overhead
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For R99 bearers the operator can define the BLER target controlled by outer
loop power control

Strict BLER target (low BLER)
• Little throughput degradation and delay by re-transmission → good quality for user
• But higher Eb/No needed → higher power consumption per radio link

Less strict BLER target (high BLER)
• Strong throughput degradation and delay by re-transmission → bad quality for user
• But less Eb/No needed → lower power consumption per radio link
BLER Target Settings - Idea
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BLER target can be defined for the following services
• SRB of 3.4 and 13.6 Kbit/s (EbNoDCHOfSRB34/136Qua, default 1%)
• Narrowband and wideband AMR (EbNoDCHOfCSN/WBAMRQua, default 1%)
• Streaming service
• NRT service

In case of streaming and NRT service one can define two BLER targets
• Strict target for low bit rate up to 64 Kbit/s (EbNoDCHOfPSStr/NRTPriQua, default = 1%)
• Less strict target for high bit rate > 64 Kbit/s (EbNoDCHOfPSStr/NRTSecQua, default = 5%)
• One can select per bit rate, which of the two BLER targets shall be used
BLER Target Settings - Role of Service
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BLER Target Settings - Example
Consider DL bearer with 256 Kbit/s

Default target 5%
Pedestrian → Eb/No = 3.6 dB
Fast vehicle → Eb/No = 7.3 dB

Less strict target 10%
Pedestrian → Eb/No = 3.4 dB (0.2 dB gain)
Fast vehicle → Eb/No = 6.9 dB (0.4 dB gain)
Source
J.J. Olmos, S.Ruiz, Transport Block
Error Rates for UTRA FDD
Downlink with Transmission Diversity
and Turbo Coding
In Proc. IEEE 13th PIMRC 2002, vol.1,
pp 31-35, Sept. 2002.
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BLER Target Settings - Example
v o q - + ÷ =
R W
N E
i
b
DL
/
/
] ) 1 [(
0

Consider load factor for previous example in typical macro cell
• Orthogonality α = 0.6
• Adjacent to own cell interference ratio i = 0.6
Consider activity factor = 1 for NRT service




5% BLER target
• 15.3% load for pedestrian
• 35.8% load for fast vehicle

10% BLER target
• 14.6% load for pedestrian (0.7% gain)
• 32.7% load for fast vehicle (3.1% gain)
Small capacity gain obtained
with less strict BLER target only
especially for slow moving user
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For R99 and HSUPA bearers the operator can define Eb/No values as well
• Eb/No settings cannot be treated as independent configuration, as Eb/No affects BLER
• Eb/No settings offered by NSN applied to initial radio link power only
• Afterwards Eb/No adjusted by outer loop power control to follow BLER target
• Thus Eb/No settings affect setup and access only, but not load in the network

High initial Eb/No
• High initial radio link power → high blocking probability
• But low initial BLER → low risk of drop during initial phase

Low initial Eb/No
• Low initial radio link power → low blocking probability
• But high initial BLER → high risk of drop during initial phase
Eb/No Settings - Restrictions
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The initial Eb/No can be defined for the following services
• SRB of 3.4 and 13.6 Kbit/s (EbNoDCHOfSRB34/136, default 8 dB)
• AMR 12.2 and 5.9 Kbit/s (EbNoDCHOfCSN/BAMR122/59, default 8 dB)
• Streaming service
• NRT service

In case of streaming and NRT service one can define Eb/No in dependence on
BLER target
• Strict target (EbNoDCHOfPSStr/NRTPri, default = 8 dB)
• Less strict target (EbNoDCHOfPSStr/NRTSec, default = 6.5 dB)

For the following situations gain factors can be specified
• Receive diversity (EbNoDCHRxDiv2/4, default 3 and 4 dB gain for 2 and 4 Rx diversity)
• Rate matching (one parameter for each type of service, up to 2 dB gain for effective coding
rate < 1:3)
Eb/No Settings - Role of Service
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Consider initial radio link power in typical macro cell
• Total power = 10 Watt
• CPICH power = 2 Watt
• Ec/Io = -10 dB
• Orthogonality α = 0.6
• R = 256 Kbit/s





5% BLER initially (Eb/No = 3.6 and 7.3 dB)
• 2.1 W power for pedestrian
• 5.0 W power for fast vehicle

10% BLER initially (Eb/No = 3.4 and 6.9 dB)
• 2.0 W power for pedestrian (0.1 W gain)
• 4.6 W load for fast vehicle (0.4 W gain)
Eb/No Settings - Example
|
|
.
|

\
|
· ÷ · · = r total_powe r CPICH_powe o
0
0
1
_ _
I
E
N
E
c
b
W
R
power RL Initial
Small power gain obtained with
less strict initial BLER only
especially for slow moving user
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Consider NRT DCH of low utilization
• Inactivity timers do not expire in case of frequent transmission of small packets
• Huge amount of resources might be reserved unnecessarily
• Code of low SF (blocks many codes of high SF)
• Channel elements
• Iub resources

Throughput based optimization
• Downgrade DCH to lower level in this case
• Can be enabled for each NRT traffic class individually
• Inactive with traffic handling priority 1/2/3
• Background
Throughput Based Optimization - Idea
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Actual throughput suddenly drops
Consider throughput averaged over sliding window
• Short window to react to strong drops
• Long window to react to moderate drops
Compare average throughput with thresholds
• Downgrade upper threshold (long time to trigger)
• Downgrade lower threshold (short time to trigger)
• Release threshold (short time to trigger)
Throughput Based Optimization - Mechanism
Actual DCH level
Downgrade upper threshold
Default 2 levels below actual DCH
Downgrade upper threshold
Default 3 levels below actual DCH
Release threshold
Default 256 Bit/s
Actual throughput
Average –
long window
Average –
short window
Short time
to triggger
Long time
to triggger
Time
Throughput
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Throughput Based Optimization - Example
AMR traffic → no impact, as not considered by feature
PS traffic → about 1/3 less CE occupied in the average
Feature OFF Feature ON
Usage of channel elements
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Throughput Based Optimization - Example
Feature OFF Feature ON
About 5% less resources reserved on Iub
Reservation of ATM resources on Iub
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Throughput Based Optimization - Example
Feature OFF Feature ON
Due to lower resource reservation
about 2/3 less blocking on Iub
Blocking on Iub
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Throughput Based Optimization – Example
Feature OFF Feature ON
Less downgrades required due to
• Preemption
• Overload control
• Dynamic link adaptation

But dramatic increase of downgrades due to TBO
Ping-Pong RB reconfiguration upgrade-downgrade
• Define bigger guard timer against consecutive bit
rate adaptations
• Enable TBO for certain traffic classes only
Downgrade causes
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Maximum Radio Link Power - Mechanism
Maximum radio link power set automatically by RNC
Three different thresholds based on different criteria
• 1) Relative to maximum cell power (same threshold for any service)
• 2) Relative to CPICH power (corrected by SF adjustment in dependence on service)
• 3) Absolute threshold (for PS services)
Finally lowest threshold is used
PtxDPCHMax (Default 3 dB)
CPICHtoRefRABOffset (Default 2 dB)
PtxCellMax (Default 43 dBm)
Maximum RL power
Criterion 1
PtxDLabsMax (Default 37 dBm)
PtxPSstreamAbsMax (Default 37 dBm)
PtxPrimaryCPICH (Default 33 dBm)
Maximum RL power
Reference service
(Default 12.2 Kbit/s voice)
Criterion 2
SF adjustment
Calculated by RNC
Maximum RL power
Any service
Criterion 2
Maximum RL power
PS service
Criterion 3
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Comparison of actual service with reference service based on
• SF
• Eb/No
If several bearers are running simultaneously, all of them are taken into account




Examples
• Reference service = voice → R = 12.2 Kbit/s, Eb/No = 7 dB
• Actual service PS → R = 64 Kbit/s, Eb/No = 7 dB
• Actual service PS → R = 384 Kbit/s, Eb/No = 5 dB

Results
• 64K PS → SF adjustment = (10
0.7
* 64) / (10
0.7
* 12.2) = 5.2 = 7.2 dB
Maximum RL power = 33 dBm – 2 dB + 7.2 dB = 38.2 dBm
• 384K PS → SF adjustment = (10
0.5
* 384) / (10
0.7
* 12.2) = 19.9 = 13.0 dB
Maximum RL power = 33 dBm – 2 dB + 13.0 dB = 44.0 dBm
In both cases cutoff due to criterion 3 at 37 dBm
ref ref
CCTrCH DCH
DCH DCH
R EbNo
R EbNo
adjustment SF
·
·
=
¿
e
_
Maximum Radio Link Power – SF Adjustment
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CPICHtoRefRABOffset
• Maximum power of reference service relative to CPICH power
• Shifts all services to higher or lower maximum radio link power
• Low power for reference service
• Low coverage in general
• But higher capacity, as no single user can take away too much power
• High power for reference service
• High coverage in general
• But lower capacity, as single user can take away much power

PtxDLAbsMax / PtxPSstreamAbsMax
• Maximum power of NRT / RT PS service
• Cutoff to avoid, that single user takes too much power
• Similar compromise between coverage and capacity needed as for CPICHtoRefRABOffset
Maximum Radio Link Power – Key Parameters
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BTS
UE
384kbps
128kbps
distance
Maximum Radio Link Power – Dynamic Link Optimization
Radio link power comes close to maximum power
• Reduce bit rate of NRT services by increasing SF
• Reduce bit rate of AMR voice service by taking more robust voice codec
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time
Triggering of DyLO (Default = 35 dBm)
DLOptimisationPwrOffset (Default = 2 dB)
Maximum Radio Link Power – Dynamic Link Optimization
BTS measures power of each radio links and sends periodic report to RNC
RNC averages reports over settable sliding window (default 4 reports)
Dynamic link optimization triggered if
Average RL power > Maximum RL power - DLOptimisationPwrOffset
Average RL power
Maximum RL power (Default for PS = 37 dBm)
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BTS
UE
384 K
distance
Maximum Radio Link Power – Dynamic Link Optimization
Dynamic link optimization not performed any more, if
• Actual bit rate ≤ MinAllowedBitRateDL (Default 8 Kbit/s) OR
• Actual bit rate ≤ HHoMaxAllowedBitRateDL (Default 32 Kbit/s)
In the latter case HHO will be triggered instead
In case of AMR voice HHO will be triggered, if even with the most robust codec
too much RL power is consumed
128 K 64 K 32 K HHO area
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2 Rx diversity
• Compensation of fast fading on the UL by usage of two receive paths
• Space diversity
– Horizontal separation (gain depends on azimuth)
– Vertical separation
• Polarization diversity
• Coverage gain on UL about 3 dB (less Eb/No and SIR target needed)
2-3 m




space
diversity
polarization
diversity
4Rx Diversity - Idea
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4 Rx diversity
• Enhanced compensation of fast fading on the UL by usage of four
receive paths
• Combined space and polarization diversity (two cross-polarized antennas)
• Pure space diversity (four single-polarized antennas)
• Additional coverage gain against 2 Rx diversity around 1-3 dB (again
less Eb/No and SIR target needed)
Combined space
and polarization
diversity






Pure space
diversity
4Rx Diversity - Idea
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• 4 Rx diversity can be realized together with the following features,
defined by the following implementation phases
• Phase 1 MIMO
• Phase 2 + Frequency domain equalizer
• Phase 3 + HSUPA Interference cancellation receiver
4Rx Diversity - Interoperability
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R
A
K
E


At least two additional strong
signals on RAKE input
• 2 additional
antennas
(one in case
dual beam
antenna)
• 2 times more
fibers
and jumpers
or feeders
4Rx Diversity – Impact on HW
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Consider UE transmission power during
drive test
2Rx diversity → average UE power 4.4 dBm
4Rx diversity → average UE power 1.6 dBm
Gain = 4.4 dBm – 1.6 dBm = 2.8 dB
Source
Antti Tölli and Harri Holma
Comparison of WCDMA UL antenna
solutions with 4Rx branches
In: Proceedings of the CDMA
International Conference (CIC), South
Korea, 25-28 October 2000, pp. 57-61
4Rx Diversity – Example
UE transmission power during drive test
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Coverage enhancement
• 3dB gain in UL
• Area size 1000 km
2

• Clutter type urban
• Output power 40W
32% less sites
2 Rx Diversity 4 Rx Diversity
Cell Range [km] 1.341 1.631
Site-to-Site Distance [sqkm] 2.011 2.447
Number of sites 857 579
Number of sites reduction
could be reached only in UL
limited scenarios
Total Network Cost
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
2Rx Diversity 4Rx Diversity
-27%
Include:
• Lower number of sites
• 2x more number of antennas
4Rx Diversity – Example
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Without feature With feature
Mean HSUPA throughput [kbps]
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
2Rx Diversity 4Rx Diversity
28%
• Active Users: 53
• Mean throughput: 248.7
• UL Power Outage: 4.79
• Active Users: 68
• Mean throughput: 318.5
• UL Power Outage: 4.44
Capacity enhancement

4Rx Diversity – Example
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R99 Features
HSDPA
Fractional DPCH
Dynamic BLER
72 HSPA users per cell
HSUPA
HSDPA+
HSUPA+
Capacity Enhancement
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Fractional DPCH - Idea
Available since RU20
Mapping of SRB on HS-DSCH, not on associated DCH
DPCH than needed for UL power control only → reduced to F-DPCH
Node B
RNC
Iub
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Fractional DPCH - Mechanism
Data block 1 TPC
TFCI
optional
Data block 2 Pilot Data block 1 TPC
TFCI
optional
Data block 2 Pilot
1 Slot = 2/3 ms = 2560 chip
TPC
F-DPCH slot: power control commands only
DPCH slot: full configuration
TX OFF TX OFF
SRB on associated DCH
• Full configuration of DPCH needed
• Dedicated to single user
SRB on HS-DSCH
• No data on DPCH any more
→ TFCI field not needed any more
• TPC used not only for power control, but also SIR measurements
→ pilot field not needed any more
• Can be shared by 10 users by time multiplex
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Fractional DPCH - Limitations
Fractional DPCH requires good performance on air interface
• CPICH coverage better than CPICHRSCPThreSRBHSDPA (Default -103 dBm)
• CPICH quality better than CPICHECNOSRBHSPA (Default -6 dB)

Due to strict quality requirements fractional DPCH available only if
• Low DL traffic
• Little adjacent cell interference (UE close to BTS)
BTS
UE
F-DPCH
Normal
DPCH
distance
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Fractional DPCH - Limitations
Further restriction if F-DPCH shall be setup in SHO area
Ec/Io of non serving cell must not exceed Ec/Io of serving cell by
HSDPASRBWindow (Default 1 dB)
CPICH 1 =
server
CPICH 2 =
non server
E
C
/I
0
time
HSDPASRBWindow
F-DPCH setup allowed Normal DPCH only
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Fractional DPCH - DL Power Consumption
Consider radio link power for SRB on associated DCH
• Total power = 8 Watt (low DL power, as otherwise Ec/Io = -6 dB not fulfilled)
• CPICH power = 2 Watt
• Ec/Io = -6 dB
• Orthogonality α = 0.6
• R = 13.6 Kbit/s
• Eb/No = 8 dB
RL power = 0.071 W = 18.5 dBm


|
|
.
|

\
|
· ÷ · · = r total_powe r CPICH_powe o
0
0
1
_ _
I
E
N
E
c
b
W
R
power RL Initial
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Fractional DPCH - DL Power Consumption
Consider radio link power for F-DPCH
• No power control
• Static power set relative to CPICH with PtxFDPCHMax (Default 9 dB)
• In SHO area more power allocated according PtxOffsetFDPCHSHO (Default 1 dB)
RL power = 24 / 25 dBm outside / within SHO area
• But shared among up to 10 users
• Effectively 14 / 15 dBm per user → gain of about 3-4 dB per user
PtxFDPCHMax (Default 9 dB)
PtxPrimaryCPICH (Default 33 dBm)
F-DPCH power outside SHO area
(Default 24 dBm)
PtxOffsetFDPCHSHO (Default 1 dB)
F-DPCH power within SHO area
(Default 25 dBm)
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Fractional DPCH - Code and CE Consumption
Associated DCH (13.6 Kbit/s)
• One SF128 per user → 72 x SF128 for 72 users → 9 codes with SF16 lost
• One CE per user → 72 CE for 72 users

F-DPCH
• One SF256 per 10 users → 8 x SF256 for 72 users → 1 code with SF16 lost
• One CE per 10 users → 8 CE for 72 users
• But in reality only few users get F-DPCH due to limitation Ec/Io ≥ -6 dB !
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RU20
• Non configurable BLER target, independent on the CQI
• 10% for static channel
• 25% for fading channel
RU30
• BLER target configurable, in dependence on
• fading
• CQI
• With stricter BLER target under good conditions up to 8 % more throughput
can be achieved
Dynamic BLER Target - Idea
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• BLER target settings can be done in dependence on the CQI
• Low range reported CQI < medCQIRangeStart
• Intermediate range medCQIRangeStart ≤ Reported CQI < highCQIRangeStart
• High range highCQIRangeStart ≤ Reported CQI
• The CQI ranges are defined by NodeB commissioning parameters
medCQIRangeStart
Default = 12
highCQIRangeStart
Default = 25
Low CQI Intermediate CQI High CQI
Dynamic BLER Target - CQI Scenarios
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• BLER target settings can be done in dependence on fading
• The amount of fading is expressed by the variance of the CQI
• Static channel Variance < 1
• Weak fading 1 < Variance < 1.5
• Intermediate fading 1.5 < Variance < 2.5
• Strong fading Variance > 2.5
• The fading scenarios are non configurable
• BLER targets can be set for the most extreme fading scenarios only
• Static channel
• Strong fading
• For the other fading scenarios the BLER targets still are non configurable
• Weak fading BLER target = 6%
• Intermediate fading BLER target = 10%
Static
BLER target configurable
Default =2-6 %
Weak fading
BLER target
=6%
Intermediate fading
BLER target
=10%
Strong fading
BLER target configurable
Default =25%
Dynamic BLER Target - Fading Scenarios
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• BLER targets for different CQI and fading scenarios configured with further
Node B commissioning parameters
• Each parameter can have four values only
• 2%
• 6%
• 10%
• 25%
• With RU20 10% under best fading conditions
• With RU30 2% under best fading and intermediate / good CQI conditions
• 10% - 2% = 8% gain for throughput achievable
Variance of
Reported CQI
Low CQI Range Medium CQI Range High CQI Range
0 to 1 6% 2% 2%
1 to 1.5 6% 6% 6%
1.5 to 2.5 10% 10% 10%
>2.5 25% 25% 25%
Dynamic BLER Target - Default Settings
Non configurable
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72 users
72 users
72 users
72 HSPA Users per Cell - Idea
HSPA cells have high capacity of several Mbit/s
But for RT services often low data rate per user
• AMR voice 4.75 - 12.2 Kbit/s
• Streaming e.g. 64 Kbit/s
Many users can have HSPA session simultaneously
Feature available since RU20
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36 users
12 users
24 users
72 HSPA Users per Cell - Limitations
Role of scheduler
• 72 HSPA users per cell requires
• Either RU20 dedicated scheduler (full baseband)
• Or RU30 scheduler
• Otherwise 72 HSPA users per shared scheduler only

Logical and physical connection
• 72 HSPA users referred to logical connection (MAC-d flow)
• Number of users served with packets simultaneously
restricted by MaxNbrOfHSSCCHCodes (≤ 4)
Shared scheduler
with 72 users
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72 HSPA Users per Cell - HS-SCCH
72 HSPA cells per user usually combined with code multiplexing
Up to 4 HS-SCCH running simultaneously
• Some 0.01 to 0.1 W needed per HS-SCCH in dependence on CQI
→ total loss of power about 0.1 to 1 W (0.5 to 5 % of capacity of 20 W cell)
• Code with SF128 needed per HS-SCCH
→ maximum of 14 codes for HSDPA
SF 16
SF 32
SF 64
SF 128
SF 256
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
HS-SCCH2
HS-SCCH3
HS-SCCH4
SF16,0 SF16,1
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72 HSPA Users per Cell - E-RGCH and E-HICH
For each HSUPA user individual E-RGCH and E-HICH signature needed
One channelization code can be shared by 40 signatures, i.e. 20 users
With 72 users 4 codes running simultaneously
• By default 22 dBm = 0.158 W needed per E-RGCH and E-HICH
→ with 4 codes 0.634 W needed for E-RGCH and E-HICH
→ altogether 1.268 W needed (6.3 % of capacity of 20 W cell)
• Code of SF128 needed for E-RGCH/E-HICH
→ still fits into second tree above SF16
SF 16
SF 32
SF 64
SF 128
SF 256
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
HS-SCCH2
HS-SCCH3
HS-SCCH4
SF16,0 SF16,1
E-RGCH /
E-HICH2 E-RGCH /
E-HICH3
E-RGCH /
E-HICH4
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R99 Features
HSDPA
HSUPA
2ms TTI
5.8 Mbit/s
HSDPA+
HSUPA+
Capacity Enhancement
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2ms TTI - Idea
Since RU20 HSUPA data channel E-DPDCH can operate on two time scales

10 ms TTI
• Re-transmission after 40 ms
• Peak data rate of 3.84 Mbit/s supported

2 ms TTI
• Re-transmission after 16 ms (i.e. less re-transmission delay)
• Peak data rate of 5.76 Mbit/s supported (i.e. higher peak data rate)
Node
B
associated DCH
Associated DCH
E - DPCCH
E-DPCCH
E - DPDCH
E-DPDCH
2 or 10 ms TTI
E - HICH
E-HICH
E - RGCH E-RGCH
E-AGCH
UE
Confidential
53 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
2ms TTI - UE Classes
E- DCH
Category
max.
E-DCH
Codes
min.
SF
2 & 10 ms
TTI E-DCH
support
max. #. of
E-DCH Bits* /
10 ms TTI
max. # of
E-DCH Bits* /
2 ms TTI
Modu-
lation
Reference
combination
Class
1 1 4 10 ms only 7296 - QPSK 0.73 Mbps
2 2 4 10 & 2 ms 14592 2919 QPSK 1.46 Mbps
3 2 4 10 ms only 14592 - QPSK 1.46 Mbps
4 2 2 10 & 2 ms 20000 5772 QPSK 2.92 Mbps
5 2 2 10 ms only 20000 - QPSK 2.0 Mbps
6 4 2 10 & 2 ms 20000 11484 QPSK 5.76 Mbps
7 4 2 10 & 2 ms 20000 22996 QPSK &
16QAM
11.5 Mbps
Confidential
54 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
E-DPDCH packet → 2 or 10 ms time scale
Layer 1 signaling information → always 2 ms time scale

10 ms TTI
• Signaling content can be repeated 5 time per E-DPCH packet
• Reliable signaling even at cell edge




2 ms TTI
• Signaling content can be transmitted just once per E-DPCH packet
• Reliable signaling at cell centre only
2ms TTI - Limitations
1
1 1 1 1 1
E-DPDCH packet
Signaling information
1 2 3 4 5
E-DPDCH packets
Signaling information
1 2 3 4 5
Confidential
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UE coming from Cell_DCH state
• Check of coverage
• Path loss must remain below CPICHRSCPThreEDCH2MS (Default 136 dB)
• Check includes following corrections
• Cable loss (if MHA used)
• UE power class P_MAX (if lower than maximum allowed UE power in cell UETxPowerMaxRef)




• With PtxPrimaryCPICH = 33 dBm, CableLoss = 3 dB and UE of high power class
RSCP = -106 dBm needed by default
2ms TTI - Limitations
PtxPrimaryCPICH - CableLoss - measured CPICH RSCP <
CPICHRSCPThreEDCH2MS + MAX(0, UETxPowerMaxRef – P_MAX)
BTS
UE
2 ms TTI
UE from Cell_DCH
10 ms TTI
Confidential
56 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
UE coming from Cell_FACH state
• Check of quality
• CPICH Ec/Io must be better than CPICHECNOThreEDCH2MS (Default -6 dB)
• In practise stricter limitation than for user coming from Cell_DCH
2ms TTI - Limitations
BTS
UE
2 ms TTI
UE from
Cell_DCH
10 ms TTI
2 ms TTI
UE from
Cell_FACH
Confidential
57 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
2ms TTI - Example
Simulation performed by Qualcomm based on 3GPP TR 25.896 specifications

Network assumptions
• Network with hexagonal cells of inter-site distance of 1000 m
• Users uniformly distributed

Receiver assumptions
• Rake receiver and 2Rx diversity at Node B
• Rake receiver or equalizer at UE, without or with 2Rx diversity

Voice transmission assumptions
• 12.2 Kbit/s
• VoIP with robust header compression
• DTX cycle of 8 TTIs for TTI = 2 ms and of 2 TTIs for TTI = 10 ms

Confidential
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2ms TTI - Example
Capacity results (UE per cell)
95 UE
103 UE
10 ms TTI 2 ms TTI
106 UE
136 UE
10 ms TTI 2 ms TTI
No DTX
(CPC not used)
DTX
(CPC used)
Without CPC about 10% gain with 2ms
TTI due to lower re-transmission delay
With CPC about 30% gain with
2ms TTI mainly due to DTX
Confidential
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5.8 Mbit/s - Mechanism
With 2ms TTI maximum HSUPA configuration available
• 2 codes SF2 + 2 codes SF4
• 1 code SF2 + 1 code SF4 on each branch of QPSK modulator

According 3GPP than no DPDCH
Thus SRB mapped onto E-DPDCH

SF2 SF4 SF8
Cch,2,0
Cch,2,1
Cch,4,0
Cch,4,1
Cch,4,2
Cch,4,3
E-DPDCH
(on I- and Q-branch
2×SF2 + 2×SF4)
Confidential
60 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
5.8 Mbit/s - Load per User
Consider load factor for 5.8 Mbit/s user under different conditions
• Macro cell i = 0.6
• Micro cell i = 0.2
• Pico cell i = 0

User profile
• R = 5.76 Mbit/s
• Eb/No about 1.3 dB according NSN EXCEL network planning sheet
• Activity factor = 1

Results
• Macro cell L = 1.07 > 1 → service not available
• Micro cell L = 0.80 close to 1 → service just available
• Pico cell L = 0.67 < 1 → service clearly available
( )
j j b
j
j
N E
R W
i
DPDCH E L
v
1
/
/
1
1
) (
0
- +
+
= ÷
Confidential
61 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
R99 Features
HSDPA
HSUPA
HSDPA+
Flexible RLC
64QAM and MIMO
Dual cell HSDPA
HS Cell_FACH
CS voice over HSPA
Continuous packet connectivity
HSUPA+
Capacity Enhancement
Confidential
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Prior to RU20 one IP packet segmented into many
small RLC packets of fixed size
Two options configurable by operator
• 336 bit RLC PDU (16 bit header + 320 bit user data)
• 656 bit RLC PDU (16 bit header + 640 bit user data)
Than several RLC packets concatenated into one
HSDPA packet
Number of concatenated RLC packets depends on CQI

Loss of capacity by following overheads
• RLC header
• Granularity
Example
• Actual CQI = 8
• Corresponds to HSDPA packet of 792 bit
• Can be filled with 2 RLC PDUs of 336 bit = 672 bit
• Remaining 792 - 672 = 120 bit remain unused

RLC - Static Handling
Segmentation
RNC
Node B
Concatenation /
Padding
MAC-hs Header
Good air interface
Bad air interface
Padding
Confidential
63 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
With RU20 size of RLC PDU adapted to size of IP packet
Than in dependence on CQI
• If low → one IP packet segmented into several HSDPA
packets
• If high → several IP packets concatenated into one
HSDPA packet

Much less loss of capacity
• Just one RLC header per IP packet
• Much less padding, as most HSDPA packets filled up to
the end with IP content
RLC - Flexible Handling
RNC
Segmentation /
Concatenation
Node B
Maximum 1500 byte
Padding
MAC-hs Header
Example for segmentation
of IP packet
Confidential
64 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
RLC - Flexible Handling
Example for concatenation
of IP packets
RNC
Segmentation /
Concatenation
Node B
Maximum 1500 byte
Padding
MAC-hs Header
Maximum 1500 byte
Maximum 1500 byte Maximum 1500 byte
Confidential
65 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
40%
45%
50%
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
Rel. 6 with RLC PDU Size of 336 bits
Rel. 6 with RLC PDU Size of 656 bits
Rel. 7 Flexible RLC
overhead
HSDPA packet size in byte
RLC - Flexible Handling
RLC overhead almost negligible with big HSDPA
packet size (high CQI)
Very high gain especially for small HSDPA packet
size (low CQI) due to much less padding
Confidential
66 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
QPSK
2 bits/symbol
16QAM
4 bits/symbol
64QAM
6 bits/symbol
R5/R6 HSDPA modulation
• QPSK and 16QAM
R7 HSDPA modulation
• QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM
64QAM - Principles
Confidential
67 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
Modulation
QPSK
Coding rate
1/4
2/4
3/4
15 codes
1.8 Mbps
3.6 Mbps
5.4 Mbps
16QAM
2/4
3/4
4/4
7.2 Mbps
10.8 Mbps
14.4 Mbps
64QAM
3/4
5/6
4/4
16.2 Mbps
18.0 Mbps
21.6 Mbps
HS-
DSCH
category
max. HS-
DSCH
Codes
min. *
Inter-TTI
interval
Modulation
MIMO
support
Peak
Rate
13 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
No 17.4 Mbps
14 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
No 21.1 Mbps
17 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ 64QAM or
Dual-Stream MIMO
17.4 or 23.4
Mbps
18 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ 64QAM or
Dual-Stream MIMO
21.1 or 28
Mbps
• HSDPA peak rate up to 21.1 Mbps
• UE categories 13,14,17 and 18 supported
• Available since RU20

64QAM - Principles
Confidential
68 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
• Good channel conditions required to apply / take benefit of 64QAM ÷ CQI > 26 !
• 64QAM requires 10 dB higher SINR than 16QAM
• Average CQI typically 20 in the commercial networks
21 Mbps 0 Mbps 10 Mbps 14 Mbps
no gain from 64QAM
some gain from
64QAM
only available
with 64QAM
64QAM QPSK 16QAM
1/4 2/4
2/4
1/6 2/4 3/4 3/4
3/4 5/6
4/4
CQI > 15 CQI > 25
64QAM - CQI Requirements
Confidential
69 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
1 136 1 QPSK 0
2 176 1 QPSK 0
3 232 1 QPSK 0
4 320 1 QPSK 0
5 376 1 QPSK 0
6 464 1 QPSK 0
7 648 2 QPSK 0
8 792 2 QPSK 0
9 928 2 QPSK 0
10 1264 3 QPSK 0
11 1488 3 QPSK 0
12 1744 3 QPSK 0
13 2288 4 QPSK 0
14 2592 4 QPSK 0
15 3328 5 QPSK 0
CQI TB Size # codes Modulation Power Offset
64QAM - CQI Requirements
Example
UE of category 13
3GPP 25.214 Annex Table 7F
Confidential
70 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
16 3576 5 16-QAM 0
17 4200 5 16-QAM 0
18 4672 5 16-QAM 0
19 5296 5 16-QAM 0
20 5896 5 16-QAM 0
21 6568 5 16-QAM 0
22 7184 5 16-QAM 0
23 9736 7 16-QAM 0
24 11432 8 16-QAM 0
25 14424 10 16-QAM 0
26 15776 10 64-QAM 0
27 21768 12 64-QAM 0
28 26504 13 64-QAM 0
29 32264 14 64-QAM 0
30 32264 14 64-QAM -2
64QAM - CQI Requirements
CQI TB Size # codes Modulation Power Offset
Example
UE of category 13
3GPP 25.214 Annex Table 7F
Confidential
71 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
UE Cat.14 (64QAM) Throughput, Flex. RLC, Flat030 channel
Average HSDPA SINR / dB ÷
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
p
u
t

/

M
b
p
s

÷
UE Cat. 10 (ref.)
UE Cat. 14
64QAM benefits
starts at 10 Mbps
UE category 10
UE category 14
Min SINR of 28 dB
required for 64QAM
64QAM - Throughput
Confidential
72 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
64QAM - Usage
64QAM usage
In macro cell negligible
In micro cell significant
Usage improved, if UE supports Rx diversity
Confidential
73 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
T
m
T
2
T
1
R
n
R
2
R
1






Input
M x N
MIMO
system
Output
MIMO
Processor
• M transmit antennas and N receive antennas form MxN MIMO system
• Huge data stream (input) distributed towards M spatial distributed antennas (M parallel
input bit streams 1..M)
• Spatial multiplexing generate parallel “virtual data pipes”
• MIMO uses multi-path effects instead of mitigating them
MIMO - Principles
Confidential
74 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
HS-
DSCH
category
max. HS-
DSCH
Codes
min. *
Inter-TTI
interval
Modulation
MIMO
support
Peak
Rate
15 15 1 QPSK/16QAM Yes 23.4 Mbps
16 15 1 QPSK/16QAM Yes 28 Mbps
17 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ 64QAM or
Dual-Stream MIMO
17.4 or 23.4
Mbps
18 15 1 QPSK/16QAM/ 64QAM or
Dual-Stream MIMO
21.1 or 28
Mbps
UE: 2 Rx
antennas
WBTS: 2 Tx
antennas
• RU20 (3GPP R7) introduces 2x2 MIMO with 2 Tx / 2 Rx
• Double transmit on BTS side, 2 receive antennas on UE side
• System can operate in dual stream (MIMO) or single (SISO, non-MIMO) mode
• MIMO 2x2 enables 28 Mbps peak data rate in HSDPA
• 28 Mbps peak rate in combination with 16QAM
• No simultaneous support of 64QAM and MIMO with RU20, but with RU30
• Not possible to enable MIMO and DC-HSDPA in parallel with RU20, but with RU30
• UE categories for MIMO support are 15, 16, 17 and 18

MIMO - Principles
Confidential
75 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
• When using Spatial Diversity (single stream) only primary TB is sent
• Weights w
1
and w
2
applicable
• When using Spatial Multiplexing (dual stream) primary and secondary TB are sent
• Weights w
1
, w
2
, w
3
and w
4
applicable
• Contributions from both transport blocks sent via both antennas
MIMO - NSN Implementation
Confidential
76 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
• With MIMO two CPICH are required
• 2
nd
CPICH orthogonal to first one
• 2
nd
CPICH has to operate with same power as first one
• UE measures CQI for each CPICH individually
• Both values reported via single HS-DPCCH
• MIMO offered only, if CQI difference does not exceed mimoDeltaCQIThreshold (hardcoded to 2)
• UE consideres sum of both CPICH at both Rx antennas
• Should be zero due to orthogonality
• But in reality at each Rx antenna non zero amplitude and phase due to multi-path
• Preferred weights
• w
1
, w
3
and w
4
fixed
• Only w
2
has to be estimated by UE on basis of downgraded orthogonality
• w
2
reported via HS-DPCCH

MIMO - NSN Implementation
Confidential
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MIMO - Throughput
Source
Christian Mehlführer, Sebastian Caban
and Markus Rupp
MIMO HSDPA Throughput Measurement
Results in an Urban Scenario
In: Proceedings of the IEEE, Anchorage,
USA, September 2009
2Tx 2Rx 2Tx+
2Rx
2x2
MIMO
2x2
MIMO
+2Tx
2x2
MIMO
+2Rx
4x4
MIMO
Urban cell with radius = 400 m
HSDPA power = 30 dBm
Hardly any gain with 2Tx
But about 100% gain with 2x2 MIMO
Confidential
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Peak throughput
• MIMO alone with 16QAM → 2 * 14 Mbps = 28 Mbps
• 64QAM alone without MIMO → 6 / 4 * 14 Mbps = 21 Mbps
• MIMO with 64QAM → 2 * 21 Mbps = 42 Mpbs

UE categories
• MIMO alone → Category 15 + 16
• 64QAM alone → Category 13 + 14
• 64 QAM OR MIMO → Category 17 + 18
• 64 QAM AND MIMO → Category 19 + 20
HS- DSCH
category
max. HS-
DSCH Codes
Modulation
MIMO
support
Peak
Rate
19 15 QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
Yes 35.3 Mbps
20 15 QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
Yes 42.2 Mbps
64QAM AND MIMO - Principles
Confidential
79 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
Selection of MIMO mode and modulation
• Both the MIMO mode and the modulation are offered in dependence on the air
interface
• Bad conditions → Single stream
• Good conditions → Dual stream
• Excellent conditions → Dual stream + 64QAM
• If both MIMO AND 64QAM is not possible, but either MIMO OR 64QAM, then MIMO is
preferred
Dual stream + 64QAM
Dual stream
Single stream
64QAM AND MIMO - Feature Selection
Confidential
80 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
MIMO + 64QAM requires
Very high SINR > 25 dB
Uncorrelated multi-path
components
From Landre et al., realistic performance
of HSDPA MIMO in macro cell
environment, Orange 2009
64QAM AND MIMO - Throughput
Confidential
81 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
5 MHz 5 MHz
F1 F2
MIMO (28 Mbps) or
64QAM (21 Mbps)
10 MHz
DC-HSDPA and
64QAM (42 Mbps)
2 UE, each using 5 MHz RF Channel
Peak Connection Throughput = 28 Mbps
1 UE, using 2 × 5 MHz RF Channels
Peak Connection Throughput = 42 Mbps
F1 F2
Dual Cell Approach Basic Approach
• Prior to 3GPP R8 HSDPA channel bandwidth limited to 5 MHz
• 3GPP R8 allows 2 adjacent channels to be combined ¬ effective HSDPA channel
bandwidth of 10 MHz
• 3GPP R8 dual cell HSDPA (RU20) can be combined with 64QAM but not with MIMO ¬
42 Mbps HSDPA peak rate
• 3GPP R9 (RU30) allows combination with both 64QAM and MIMO
Dual Cell HSDPA - Principles
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F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 F2
UE on top of ranking list
on both RF carriers
UE on top of ranking list
on RF carrier 1
UE on top of ranking list
on RF carrier 2
UE
x
UE
x
UE
1
UE
1
UE
1
• Dual cell HSDPA provides greater flexibility to HSDPA Scheduler (can allocated
resources in the frequency domain as well as in the code and time domains)
• UE categories for dual cell HSDPA support are 21, 22, 23 and 24
HS-
DSCH
category
max. HS-
DSCH
Codes
Modulation
MIMO
support
Peak
Rate
21 15 QPSK/16QAM No
23.4
Mbps
22 15 QPSK/16QAM No 28 Mbps
23 15
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
No
35.3
Mbps
24 15
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
No
42.2
Mbps
Dual Cell HSDPA - Principles
Confidential
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• Cells paired for dual cell HSDPA must obey the following rules
• Belong to same sector
• Have same Tcell value
• Thus belong to same logical cell group
• Dual cell HSDPA cells belonging to different sectors must fulfil the following rules
• Belong to different logical cell groups
• Thus have different Tcell value



SectorID = 1
Tcell = 0
RF Carrier 2
SectorID = 2
Tcell = 3
SectorID = 3
Tcell = 6
SectorID = 1
Tcell = 0
SectorID = 2
Tcell = 3
SectorID = 3
Tcell = 6
RF Carrier 1
Dual Cell HSDPA - Sector Configuration
Confidential
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• Serving cell (primary carrier) provides full set of physical channels
• Inner loop power control driven by serving cell by F-DPCH
• HARQ ACK/NACK and CQI for both carriers reported to serving cell
• Uplink data sent to serving cell
• Secondary carrier provides only HS-SCCH and HS-PDSCH
• The return channel must be HSUPA
HS-SCCH
HS-SCCH
HS-PDSCH
HS-PDSCH
HS-DPCCH
DPCCH
F-DPCH
E-DPDCH
E-DPCCH
Downlink
Channels
Uplink
Channels
Primary RF Carrier
Serving cell
Secondary RF Carrier
Dual Cell HSDPA - Physical Channel Configuration
Confidential
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• Scheduling metric calculated for each RF carrier individually
• Same schedulers available as for single carrier HSDPA
• Instantaneous Transport Block Size TBS generated for each carrier individually by
link adaptation
• Average TBS based upon previously allocated TBS in both cells belonging to the
DC-HSDPA cell pair, i.e. the total average throughput allocated to the UE
• An UE which is scheduled high throughput in cell 1 will have a reduced scheduling
metric for being allocated resources in cell 2
• UE served by both carriers at the same time, if it has highest scheduling metric for
both simultaneously
Cell2 Cell1
Cell1
Cell1
TBS Average
TBS
Metric
+
=
Cell2 Cell1
Cell2
Cell2
TBS Average
TBS
Metric
+
=
Shared Scheduler per
DC-HSDPA cell pair
DC-HSDPA
UE

Dual Cell HSDPA - Packet Scheduling
Confidential
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Peak throughput
• Dual cell HSDPA alone → 2 * 14 Mbps = 28 Mbps
• Dual cell HSDPA with 64QAM → 6 / 4 * 28 Mbps = 42 Mbps
• Dual cell HSDPA with MIMO → 2 * 28 Mbps = 56 Mbps
• Dual cell HSDPA with 64QAM + MIMO → 2 * 42 Mbps = 84 Mbps

UE categories
• Dual cell HSDPA alone → Category 21 + 22
• Dual cell HSDPA with 64QAM alone → Category 23 + 24
• Dual cell HSDPA with MIMO → Category 25 + 26
• Dual cell HSDPA with 64 QAM + MIMO → Category 27 + 28
Dual Cell HSDPA - Combination with MIMO
Confidential
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HS- DSCH
category
max. HS-
DSCH Codes
Modulation
MIMO
support
DC-
HSDPA
support
Peak
Rate
19 15
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
Yes No
35.3 Mbps
20 15
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
Yes No
42.2 Mbps
21 15 QPSK/16QAM No Yes 23.4 Mbps
22 15 QPSK/16QAM No Yes 28 Mbps
23 15
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
No Yes 35.3 Mbps
24 15
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
No Yes 42.2 Mbps
25 15 QPSK/16QAM Yes Yes 46.7 Mbps
26 15 QPSK/16QAM Yes Yes 56 Mbps
27 15
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
Yes Yes 70.6 Mbps
28 15
QPSK/16QAM/
64QAM
Yes Yes 84.4 Mbps
Single cell
Dual cell
Dual Cell HSDPA - Combination with MIMO
Confidential
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HS-DPCCH
Other common channels like
E-AGCH, E-RGCH, F-DPCH
Other common channels like
E-AGCH, E-RGCH, F-DPCH
UE
BTS
HS-SCCH
HS-SCCH
HS-DSCH
TBS3
TBS4
HS-DSCH
TBS1
TBS2
Primary Cell
Secondary Cell
Dual Cell HSDPA - Combination with MIMO
• With RU30 dual cell HSDPA can be combined with MIMO for NRT services
• 4 HSDPA packets can be transmitted simultaneously to one UE
• ACK/NACK for all of them transmitted to serving cell via single HS-DPCCH
Confidential
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Huge impact on cell coverage as
compared to normal HSDPA mode (r = 1)
Small Overhead on HS-DPCCH
S-CPICH needed for MIMO
Dual Cell HSDPA - Throughput
About 100% gain of throughput
with dual cell HSDPA
About 50% additional gain of
throughput with MIMO
Confidential
90 © Nokia Siemens Networks RN31576EN30GLA0
RU20
• Very low capacity available in Cell_FACH state only
• 32 kbps on DL (FACH, S-CCPCH)
• 16 kbps on UL (RACH, PRACH)
• Causes problems in case of applications requiring frequent transmission of small
amount of data
• High signaling load due to frequent state transitions
• High battery power consumption for UE
• Strong occupation of dedicated resources for low total throughput
RU30
• HSDPA available in Cell_FACH state, thus much higher capacity of 1.8 Mbps on DL
• UEs downloading small amount of data need not to enter Cell_DCH any more
• HSUPA in Cell_FACH NOT available yet
HS Cell_FACH - Principles
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• All logical channels up to now mapped onto FACH now can be mapped onto HS-
DSCH
• Even broadcast and paging information can be transmitted via HS-DSCH (to UEs
in Cell_PCH or URA_PCH)
HS Cell_FACH - Channel Mapping
Confidential
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HS Cell_FACH on DL, but not on UL
• Low UL performance (RACH used)
• No ACK/NACK and CQI sending
• Blind repetition for HARQ
• “Default CQI” value for link adaptation
• Mobility based on cell reselection as usual in Cell_FACH

HS-DPSCH
Example:
4 retransmissions
Original
transmissions
HS Cell_FACH - Air Interface Transmission
Confidential
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• Like for R99
• One can select for which RRC establishment cause HS Cell_FACH or HS Cell_DCH is
preferred
• Transition Cell_FACH to Cell_DCH triggered by high activity, i.e. huge amount of data in DL
RLC buffer

• In contradiction to R99
• Cell_FACH can be offered, until no resource available in this state any more
• Thresholds FachLoadThresholdCCH and PtxThresholdCCH are ignored
HS Cell_FACH - Channel Type Selection
Confidential
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[REF. WCDMA for UMTS – HSPA Evolution and LTE, HH AT]
Assumed IP Header Compression
• Two different voice transmission scenarios are being considered with HSPA
• VoIP
• UE connects with network as for standard packed data transmission
• Connection is established by using “web communicators”
• Hard to establish appropriate charging schemes
• CS voice over HSPA
• AMR voice frames being carried by HSPA transport channels transparent for the user
CS Voice over HSPA - Principles
Confidential
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for voice, SRB and
other services
• SRB must be mapped to HSPA
• Supported RAB combinations:
• Speech CS RAB
• Speech CS RAB + PS streaming RAB
• Speech CS RAB + 1...3 PS interactive / background RABs
• Speech CS RAB + PS Streaming RAB + 1...3 PS interactive / background RABs
• Codecs supported for CS voice over HSPA
• AMR FR set (12.2, 7.95, 5.9, 4.75), AMR HR set (5.9, 4.75), AMR with 12.2 alone
• AMR-WB set (12.65, 8.85, 6.6)
• Load based AMR selection algorithm not used while CS Voice is mapped on HSPA
• Priority class of CS voice over HSPA = 14
• Lower than SRB (15)
• Higher than streaming 13)
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PtxTargetTotMin (40 dBm)
CS Voice over HSPA - DL Admission Control
Common channels
DCH voice + SRB
DCH streaming
DCH NRT
HSDPA voice + SRB
HSDPA streaming
HSDPA NRT
PtxCellMax (43 dBm)
PtxTargetTotMax (41 dBm)
PtxTarget (40 dBm)
PtxNC
DCH

PtxNC
HSDPA

Power
New load target for total non controllable traffic PtxTargetTot
• Adjusted in dependence on DCH non controllable traffic PtxNC
DCH

• Adjusted within configurable limits PtxTargetTotMin and PtxTargetTotMax
Limitations
• Lower threshold PtxTargetTotMin ≥ PtxTarget
• Upper threshold PtxTargetTotMax ≤ PtxCellMax
Available
capacity for
total NCT
Available
capacity for
DCH NCT
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CS Voice over HSPA - DL Admission Control
PtxTargetTot depends on
• Actual DCH non controllable traffic PtxNC
DCH
(e.g. 38/39dBm = 6.3/7.9 W)
• Setting of maximum allowed target PtxTargetTotMax (e.g. 41 dBm = 12.6 W)
• Setting of classical DCH load target PtxTarget (e.g. 40 dBm = 10 W)




Example
• PtxNC
DCH
= 6.3 W → PtxTargetTot = 12.6 W – 6.3 W (12.6 W / 10 W – 1) = 11.0 W = 40.4 dBm
• PtxNC
DCH
= 7.9 W → PtxTargetTot = 12.6 W – 7.9 W (12.6 W / 10 W – 1) = 10.5 W = 40.2 dBm

Conclusions
• The higher the DCH non controllable traffic, the lower PtxTargetTot
• PtxNC
DCH
= PtxTarget → PtxTargetTot = PtxTarget
no capacity for CS voice over HSPA at all
• PtxNC
DCH
= 0 → PtxTargetTot = PtxTargetTotMax
maximum capacity for CS voice over HSPA
PtxTargetTot = PtxTargetTotMax - PtxNC
DCH

PtxTargetTotMax
PtxTarget
-1
(
)
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PtxNC
DCH
+ PtxNC
HSDPA
+ Pnew < PtxTargetTot
PtxNC
HSDPA
+ Pnew < PtxMaxHSDPA
Pnew = (GBR × Activity Factor) ×
Existing HSDPA Power
Existing Throughput
CS Voice over HSPA - DL Admission Control
To admit CS voice over HSPA, the following conditions must be fulfilled
Like for DCH voice, RT over NRT can be applied in case of lack of resources




The power Pnew needed for the new user is estimated as follows




Activity factor
• Initial value set by parameter RRMULDCHActivityFactorCSAMR (Default 50 %)
• Than measured on running connection

Example
• GBR = 12.2 Kbit/s, activity factor = 0.5, HSDPA power = 6 W, throughput = 1 Mbit/s
• Pnew = 12.2 Kbit/s * 0.5 * (6 W / 1000 Kbit/s) = 0.037 W = 16 dBm
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CS Voice over HSPA - UL Admission Control
DCH voice + SRB
DCH streaming
DCH NRT
HSUPA voice + SRB
HSUPA streaming
HSUPA NRT
PrxMaxTargetBTS (e.g. 6 dB)
PtxTargetMax (e.g. 4 dB)
PrxTarget (e.g. 3 dB)
PrxNC
DCH

PrxNC
HSUPA

RTWP
Analogue to DL new load target for total non controllable traffic PtxTargetAMR
• Adjusted in dependence on DCH non controllable traffic PrxNC
DCH

• Adjusted within configurable limits PtxTarget and PtxTargetMax
Limitations
• Lower threshold given by classical DCH load target PrxTarget
• Upper threshold PtxTargetMax ≤ PtxMaxTargetBTS
Available
capacity for
total NCT
Available
capacity for
DCH NCT
PrxNoise (e.g. -106 dBm)
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CS Voice over HSPA - UL Admission Control
According NSN documentation for PtxTargetAMR complex dependency on
• Power situation
• Throughput situation
Rearrangement of original NSN formulas gives, however, relationship analogue to DL




• Actual DCH non controllable traffic PrxNC
DCH
(e.g. 1/2 dB = 1.26/1.58)
• Setting of maximum allowed target PrxTargetMax (e.g. 4 dB = 2.51)
• Setting of classical DCH load target PrxTarget (e.g. 3 dB = 2.00)

Example
• PrxNC
DCH
= 1 dB = 1.26 → PtxTargetAMR = 2.51 – 1.26 (2.51 / 2.00 – 1) = 2.19 = 3.4 dB
• PrxNC
DCH
= 2 dB = 1.58 → PtxTargetAMR = 2.51 – 1.58 (2.51 / 2.00 – 1) = 2.11 = 3.2 dB

Same conclusions as for DL
PrxTargetAMR = PrxTargetMax - PrxNC
DCH

PrxTargetMax
PrxTarget
-1
(
)
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Load factor (q) [0..1]
Noise Rise [dB]
Noise floor e.g. -106 dBm
PrxTarget -103 dBm
PrxTargetMax -102 dBm
PrxTargetMax e.g. 4 dB
PrxNC
DCH
e.g. 2 dB
PrxNC
DCH
-104 dBm
PrxTargetAMR -102.8 dBm
PrxTarget e.g. 3 dB
CS Voice over HSPA - UL Admission Control
PrxTargetAMR 3.2 dB
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CPC “Sub-features”:
• UL DPCCH Gating (UL DTX)
• CQI Reporting reduction
• Discontinuous UL Reception (MAC DTX)
• Discontinuous DL Reception (DL DRX)
• Discontinuous UL DPCCH transmission and reception during UE UL traffic inactivity
(UL DPCCH gating + DRX at BTS)
• CQI reporting reduction (switched from periodical to synchronized with DPCCH burst)
• Stopping E-DPCCH detection at NodeB during DPCCH inactivity
• Discontinuous DL Reception (DRX at UE)
• Stop receiving HS-SCCH, E-AGCH and E-RGCH when not needed
• Faster response times
• Increased number of low activity packet users in CELL_DCH state
• Motivation and Benefits
• Increased capacity for low data rate applications
• Longer battery life
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• CPC eliminates the requirement for continuous transmission and reception during
periods when data is not transferred
• Exploits discontinuities in packet data services
• Designed to work with VoIP
UE Power Saving
Inactive HSPA UE
require less resource
Increased talk
time
USER GAIN SYSTEM GAIN
Reduced delay
for re-starting
data transfer
Increased
Capacity
Potential to keep
more inactive UE
in CELL_DCH
Uplink DTX
Downlink
DRX
Reduced CQI
Reporting
Uplink
DRX
Continuous Packet Connectivity - Principles
HS-SCCH Less
Operation
New Uplink DPCCH
Slot Format
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DPDCH
DPCCH
E-DPDCH
DPCCH
E-DPDCH
DPCCH
R99 service
Voice (20ms)
R6 Voice 2ms
(R6 VoIP)
R7 Voice 2ms (R7 VoIP)
UL DPCCH Gating
• UL Gating (UL DTX) reduces UL control channel (DPCCH) overhead
• If no data to sent on E-DPDCH or HS-DPCCH ¬ UE switches off UL DPCCH
• DPCCH Gating precondition for other CPC sub-features
Continuous Packet Connectivity - UL Gating
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E-DCH 2ms TTI example: CPCNRT2msTTI
10ms Radio Frame 10ms Radio Frame
2ms subframe
CFN
UE_DTX_Cycle_1
UE_DTX_Cycle_2
Inactivity Threshold for UE cycle 2
10ms Radio Frame
UE_DTX_Cycle_2
switch to UE cycle 2
cycle 1 cycle 2
E-DPDCH
Tx, 2ms TTI
DPCCH
pattern
DPCCH with
E-DCH, 2ms TTI
synch reference
CFN = Connection Frame Number
Used for any synchronized procedure in UTRAN
Pre/Postambles not shown here
no data on E-DPDCH
N2msUEDPCCHburst1
RNC; 1, 2, 5; 1 subframe
N2msUEDTXCycle1
RNC; 1, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20; 8 subframes
N2msInacThrUEDTXCycl2
RNC; 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256; 64 TTIs
N2msUEDPCCHburst2
RNC; 1, 2, 5; 1 subframe
N2msUEDTXCycle2
RNC; 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 32, 40,
64, 80, 128, 160; 16 subframes
Continuous Packet Connectivity - UL Gating
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Reduced CQI reporting takes
place only if the CQI reporting
pattern defined by the last
HS-DSCH transmission and
CQI cycle overlaps the UL
DPCCH burst of the UE DTX
pattern
CQI Reporting Reduction reduces the CQI reporting when
there are no data transmitted on HS-DSCH for a longer
period of time

ACK/NACK
transmission


CQI period 2ms

CQI period 4ms

CQI period 8ms

CQI transmission time defined by CQI period, but not overlapping with DPCCH transmission
no CQI transmission

CQI Transmission

DPCCH
pattern

UE_DTX_cycle_1

UE_DTX_cycle_1

UE_DTX_cycle_2

UE_DTX_cycle_2

7.5
slots

HS-DSCH reception

CQI_DTX_TIMER

UE_DTX_cycle_2

CQI_DTX_Priority set to 1

CQI_DTX_Priority set to 0

N2msCQIFeedbackCPC
CQI feedback cycle (when CQI reporting not reduced)
RNC; 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 ; 10 ms
N2msCQIDTXTimer
RNC; 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
256, 512, infinity; 64 subframes
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UE can transmit E-DPDCH data only
at predefined time instances
N2msMACInacThr
RNC; infinity, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128,
256, 512; infinity subframes
N2msMACDTXCycle
length of MAC DTX Cycle
RNC; infinity, 1, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20; 8 subframes
DTX
Continuous Packet Connectivity - Discontinuous UL Reception
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UE battery power
consumption
Cell_DCH
No CPC
Cell_DCH
With CPC
Cell_FACH
Cell_PCH
optimization for RTT measurements OR
CPC currently not active for UE
No delayed transition, as with Cell_PCH
lowest power consumption
optimization for battery power consumption AND
UE can power down in Cell_PCH
Moderate delay for transition
Cell_DCH with CPC better than Cell_FACH
But worse than Cell_PCH for power consumption
optimization for battery power consumption AND
UE can NOT power down in Cell_PCH
Strong delay for transition
Cell_DCH with CPC better than Cell_FACH
Continuous Packet Connectivity - Battery Power Optimization
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R99 Features
HSDPA
HSUPA
HSDPA+
HSUPA+
Interference cancellation receiver
Frequency domain equalizer
Capacity Enhancement
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RU20
• Users with low level services (usually with 10ms TTI) strongly interfered by
users with high level services (usually with 2ms TTI)

RU30
• Interference contribution of 2ms TTI users subtracted from total signal
arriving at BTS before demodulating and decoding the signals of 10ms TTI
users
• Less power needed by 10ms TTI users due to cancelled interference of 2ms TTI
users
• 2ms TTI users less interfered by 10ms TTI users due to lower power
• Optionally interference contribution of individual 2ms TTI users subtracted
before demodulating and decoding other 2ms TTI users
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Types of users
• IC users
• Users whose interference contribution is cancelled from the total signal
• Users mapped on E-DCH with 2ms TTI (usually those with highest power)
• Do not get any direct benefit from interference cancellation
• Non-IC users
• Users for which interference is reduced, as the contribution of the non IC users is cancelled from the total
signal
• Remaining users mapped on E-DCH with 2ms TTI (usually such ones with lower power)
• All 10ms TTI E-DCH users
• All DCH users
RTWP
Time
IC Users = interferers to be
cancelled
Non IC Users = users for which
interference is reduced
Interference Cancellation - Principles
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Re-modulate
2ms HSUPA
De-modulate
2ms HSUPA
2ms HSUPA
user data
Total UL signal from
antenna
De-modulate
other
10ms HSUPA
DCH
user data
2ms HSUPA
Interference cancelled
¬ Non-IC users signal
(Residual signal)
“IC users”
“Non-IC users”
E
Parallel interference cancellation PIC
• Total UL signal received with rake receiver or frequency domain equalizer
• Turbo decoding to obtain (strongest) 2 ms TTI E-DCH signals
• Decoded data used to reconstruct original 2 ms TTI signals (= interferers for other
users). Reconstruction includes turbo encoding, spreading and modulation
• Cancel interference from (strongest) 2 ms TTI user: Reconstructed signals are
summed up and subtracted from the original total antenna signal ¬ non-IC users’
signal (residual signal)
• Individual non-IC user signals demodulated on the residual signal, benefiting from
lower interference level ¬ improving cell coverage and capacity
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Benefit
• Part of received total wideband power is cancelled
• RTWP = P
Noise
+ P
R99
+ P
10ms
+ P
2ms
• Residual RTWP = P
Noise
+ P
R99
+ P
10ms
+ (1-β) * P
2ms
• Achievable interference reduction factor β highly dependent on
• Quality of signal that should be cancelled
• Data rate of UE to be cancelled
• Radio channel of the UE (multi-path profile, velocity)
Noise
R99 users
HSUPA
10 ms
HSUPA 2
ms
Noise
R99 users
HSUPA
10 ms
HSUPA 2 ms
RTWP Residual
RTWP
Interference Cancellation - Basic Algorithm
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Residual stream reconstruction RSR
• Basic PIC
• IC users do not benefit directly from the reduced interference
• Their signals are demodulated in parallel on the original antenna signal
• Enhanced PIC
• Demodulate signals of IC users again after residual signal reconstruction for
these signals (to gain from basic interference cancellation)
• Residual Stream Reconstruction RSR
• For each 2 ms TTI user, his individual signal is reconstructed
• The reconstructed signal is added to the common residual signal
• Interference introduced by 2 ms TTI users canceled from the signals of other 2 ms TTI users
Interference Cancellation - Enhanced Algorithm
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Total UL signal from
antenna
De-mod
all others
2ms HSUPA
interference
cancelled
RSR
De-mod
2ms HS
10ms HSUPA
DCH
user data
“Non-IC users”
2ms HSUPA
user data
“IC users”
Common
residual signal
First stage detected
IC users data
Individual residual signal after
interference cancellation and
residual stream reconstruction
Second stage detected
IC users data
Re-modulate
2ms HSUPA
De-modulate
2ms HSUPA
E
Interference Cancellation - Enhanced Algorithm
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PIC pool handling
• IC can be enabled only, if a cell belongs to a PIC pool
• One pool supports up to 6 cells
• 3 cells may perform IC simultaneously
• One BTS supports up to 4 pools
• Basic IC requires 48 channel elements per pool
• A cell is assigned to a specific PIC pool by the parameter
AssignedPICPool
f1 f2
Cells in PIC pool
Cells with IC
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With 2x diversity
• Up to 6 cells per PIC pool (6x2 antennas)
• Up to 3 of them can perform IC simultaneously (3x2 antennas)

With 4x diversity
• Up to 3 cells per PIC pool (3x4 antennas)
• Only 1 of them can perform IC simultaneously (1x4 antennas)

f1
2 Rx 4 Rx
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• The total traffic is checked against the following thresholds
• Total RTWP before IC against PrxMaxOrigTargetBTS (Default 8 dB)
• Residual RTWP after IC against PrxMaxTargetBTS (Default 6 dB)
• The R99 RT traffic is checked against
• PrxTargetOrig before IC (Default 4 dB)
• PrxTarget after IC (Default 4 dB)
RTWP
PrxNoise
PrxMaxOrigTargetBTS
PrxTargetOrig
PrxMaxTargetBTS
PrxTarget
R99 users
HSUPA
10 ms
HSUPA 2
ms
R99 users
HSUPA
10 ms
HSUPA 2 ms
Interference Cancellation - Modified Load Targets
With interference cancellation 2dB higher
load target for total traffic
8dB corresponding to 84% load instead of
6dB corresponding to 75% load
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Interference gain
Example
2 Rx diversity
10 users in HSUPA cell

With interference cancellation
user experiences about ½ to 1
dB less noise rise effectively
From Sambhwani et al., UL interference
cancellation in HSPA, Qualcomm 2009
Interference Cancellation - Effective Noise Rise
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Example
2 Rx diversity
10 users in HSUPA cell

With lower experienced
noise rise about 2 times
more throughput
From Sambhwani et al., UL interference
cancellation in HSPA, Qualcomm 2009
Interference Cancellation - Throughput
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Handling of multi-path propagation
• Identify time delays at which significant energy arrives and allocation of the
rake fingers to those peaks
• Track fast changes of phase and amplitude originating from fast fading by
each rake finger
• Combine demodulated and phase adjusted symbols across all active fingers
and present them to decoder for further processing
Rake Receiver - Principles
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Problem
• With HSUPA very short spreading codes (SF down to 2) introduced
• Very sensitive to inter-symbol interference introduced by time delay
• Maximum data rate of e.g. 5.8 Mbit/s not achieved, saturation at e.g. ≈ 4
Mbit/s even under very good signal-to-noise-ratio conditions
Rake Receiver - Problems
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Idea
• Reduce inter-symbol interference by combination of
• Linear equalization
• Fast convolution
• Obtain peak data rates closer to the limits of
• HSUPA 5.8 Mbit/s (2xSF2 + 2xSF4 with QPSK
• HSUPA 11.5 Mbit/s (2xSF2 + 2xSF4 with 16QAM)
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• Frequency domain equalizer is a combination of linear equalization and fast
convolution
• Linear equalization → current and the past values of received signal linearly
weighted by equalizer coefficients and summed up to produce output
• Fast convolution → filtering of signal not done in time domain, but after FFT by
multiplication in frequency domain (low pass filter)
• Reduces effects of inter-symbol-interference arising from user’s own signal due to
multipath propagation
• Applied to users with granted 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 (QPSK or 16-QAM)
signal FFT
pilot
Channel
estimation
IFFT
Despreading
and detection
bits
Time domain
Frequency domain
MMSE filter
coefficient
calculation
Frequency Domain Equalizer - Principles
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x(k) h(k)
Before
filtering
After filtering
High frequencies
removed by low
pass
Frequency Domain Equalizer - Principles
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non-boosted mode
DPCCH DPCCH
E-DPCCH E-DPCCH
E-DPDCH
E-DPDCH
low E-TFC high E-TFC
• Frequency domain equalizer requires reliable decoding of E-DPCCH
• In case of 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 E-DPCCH very strongly interfered by E-DPDCH
• Boosted mode
• Power of E-DPCCH not related to power of DPCCH
• But related to power of E-DPDCH
boosted mode
DPCCH DPCCH
E-DPCCH
E-DPCCH
E-DPDCH
E-DPDCH
low E-TFC high E-TFC
boosted mode
E-DPCCH power proportional
to E-DPDCH power
non-boosted mode
E-DPCCH power goes
parallel to DPCCH power
Frequency Domain Equalizer - E-DPCCH Boosted Mode
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Data rate vs average CIR @ 10% BLER after 1st Tx (Ped A 3)
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
-20.0 -15.0 -10.0 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0
CIR @ 10% BLER
T
p

[
k
b
i
t
s
]
FDE 16QAM -
boosted
FDE QPSK
RAKE QPSK
Throughput versus average CIR (10% BLER after first
transmission) – pedestrian fading channel A3
FDE + 16QAM =>
77,8% higher
throughput achievable

FDE + QPSK =>
22,2% higher
throughput achievable
FDE enables achieving
higher data rates for users
closer to the antenna
Frequency Domain Equalizer - Throughput