The Future of TCP/IP (IPv6

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Chapter 33 Evolution of TCP/IP intertwined with evolution of the global Internet
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Internet is largest installed internet Funding comes from organizations that are Internet users Most researchers use Internet daily

Chapter purpose is to consider ongoing evolution of TCP/IP
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Why Change?

New computer and communication technologies

New technologies = new possibilities and needs New ways to use Internet means new protocols needed Massive growth means old ways strained
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New applications

Increases in size and load

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Motivation for Changing IPv4
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New countries with differing administrative policies IPv4 same for about 20 years Since IPv4 designed
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Enhanced processor performance Memory size increased Network bandwidth for Internet backbone increased New LAN technologies Number of hosts on Internet risen to over 56 million
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Road to New Version of IP

Several suggested designs

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Make IP more sophisticated at expense of increased complexity and processing overhead Use a modification of OSI CLNS protocol Retain most of ideas in IP but make simple extensions to accommodate larger addresses
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Simple IP – (SIP) Still include new ideas from other suggested protocols
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Features of IPv6

Despite many conceptual similarities IPv6 changes most protocol details Completely revises datagram format

Replace IPv4 variable length fields with a series of fixed format headers

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Still supports connectionless delivery Allows sender to choose datagram size but requires sender to specify maximum hops
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Features of IPv6
Includes facilities for fragmentation and source routing  Main changes introduced are 1. Larger Addresses: IPv6 quadruples the size from 32 bits to 128 bits 2. Extended Address Hierarchy: Creates ability to have additional address levels on an internet

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IPv4 Addresses – 2 levels, Network and Host IPv6 Addresses – Can define a hierarchy of ISPs as well as hierarchy within a site
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Features of IPv6
3. Flexible Header Format: Datagram format entirely different

Defines a fixed size (40 octets) header with optional extended headers Has same options as IPv4 plus some new ones Move away from protocol that fully specifies all details to one that permits additional features
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4. Improved Options:

5. Provision for Protocol Extension:

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Features of IPv6
6. Support for Autoconfiguration and Renumbering:

Allows computers on an isolated network to assign themselves addresses and begin communicating without depending on a router or manual configuration Facility to permit a manager to renumber networks dynamically
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Features of IPv6
7. Support for Resource Allocation:

Two facilities for pre-allocation of network resources
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a Flow abstraction a Differentiated Services specification

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IPv6 Address Space
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How big is 2128 ? So large that everyone on earth will have enough addresses to have their own internets with as many addresses as the current Internet has So large that there would be 1024 internet addresses per each square meter on earth So large that the address space is greater than 3.4 * 1038

If addresses are assigned at the rate of 1,000,000 every microsecond (1/1,000,000th of a second), it would take more than 1020 years to assign all possible addresses
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IPv6 Colon Hexadecimal Notation

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128 bit number expressed as dotted decimal
104.230.140.100.255.255.255.255.0.0.17.128.150.10.255.255 becomes 68E6:8C64:FFFF:FFFF:0:1180:96A:FFFF

Hex notation allows zero compression

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A string of repeated zeros is replaced with a pair of colons FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:B3 becomes FF05::B3 Can be applied only once in any address
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Zero Suppression
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0:0:0:0:0:0:128.10.2.1 becomes ::128.10.2.1 Looks quite similar to IPv4 12AB::CD30:0:0:0:0/60 says use first 60 bits and becomes 12AB00000000CD3

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Basic IPv6 Address Types

Unicast – Destination address specifies a single computer. Route datagram along shortest path. Anycast – Destination is a set of computers, possibly at different locations, that all share a single address. Route datagram along shortest path and deliver to exactly one member of the group (i.e. closest member)
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Basic IPv6 Address Types

Multicast - Destination is a set of computers, possibly at different locations. One copy of the datagram will be delivered to each member of the group using hardware multicast or broadcast if viable.

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Encoding IPv4 Addresses in IPv6
80 zero bits 16 bits 32 bits

0000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0000 0000 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0000

0000 FFFF

IPv4 Address IPv4 Address

• 16-bit field contains 0000 if node also has a conventional IPv6 address and FFFF if it does not. RESERVED
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DATAGRAM IDENTIFICATION
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General Form of IPv6 Datagram
Optional Base Header Extension Header 1 Extension Header N Data

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40 octets

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IPv6 Base Header Format
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See Base Header figure Alignment changed from 32 bit to 64 bit multiples Header length eliminated – Replaced with PAYLOAD LENGTH field Size of source and destination addresses changed to 16 octets Fragmentation information moved out of fixed fields in base header to extension header
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IPv6 Base Header Format

TIME-TO-LIVE field changed to HOP LIMIT SERVICE-TYPE field renamed to TRAFFIC CLASS and extended with FLOW LABEL field PROTOCOL field replaced with a field that specifies type of next header
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Base Header Format
0 VERS 4 TRAFFIC CLASS 12 16 24 FLOW LABEL NEXT HEADER SOURCE ADDRESS HOP LIMIT 31

PAYLOAD LENGTH

DESTINATION ADDRESS

Base Header Size: 4 + 4 + 16 + 16 = 40 Octets
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Base Header Format

PAYLOAD LENGTH is length of all extension headers plus data

i.e. Total length – 40 octets (Base Header)

IPv6 datagram can contain up to 64K octets of data

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Traffic Class
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IPv4 SERVICE CLASS renamed to TRAFFIC CLASS New IPv6 mechanism allows for resource reservation! A router can associate with each datagram a given resource allocation

Abstraction called a FLOW

A FLOW is a path through an internet along which intermediate routers guarantee a certain level of quality of service
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Traffic Class

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FLOW LABEL in the base header contains a label that routers use to map a datagram to a certain specific flow and priority Flows can also be used within an organization to manage network resources Example

Two applications that need to send and receive video can establish a flow over which the bandwidth and delay are guaranteed
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IPv6 Extension Headers
Base Header NEXT=TCP One Base Header Base Header NEXT=ROUTE Two Base Headers Base Header NEXT=ROUTE Three Base Headers
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TCP Segment

Route Header NEXT=TCP

TCP Segment

Route Header NEXT=AUTH

Auth Header NEXT=TCP

TCP Segment

IPv6 Fragmentation
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As with IPv4, IPv6 arranges for destination to perform re-assembly In IPv6 however, changes were made that avoid fragmentation by routers IPv4 requires intermediate routers to fragment any datagram that is too large for the maximum transfer/transmission unit (MTU) of network over which it must travel IPv6 fragmentation is end-to-end
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IPv6 Fragmentation

No fragmentation done on intermediate routers Source which is responsible for fragmentation has two choices
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Use guaranteed minimum MTU (1280 octets) Perform Path MTU Discovery

Identifies minimum MTU along path to the destination
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IPv6 Fragmentation
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Either case, the source fragments data IPv6 fragmentation inserts a small extension header after the base header in each fragment
8 16 RESERVED 24 FRAG. OFFSET 29 31 RS M

0 NEXT HEADER

DATAGRAM IDENTIFICATION RS is set t 0 and reserved. M marks last fragment. ID unique for re-assembly. Fragments must be a multiple of 8 octets.
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