You are on page 1of 28

# EGEE 102 Energy Conservation And Environmental Protection

Energy Efficiency

## Efficiency of Energy Conversion

If we are more efficient with the energy we already have there will be less pollution, less reliance on foreign oil and increased domestic security.

## EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

Energy Efficiency
Energy Input Energy Conversion Device
Useful Energy Output

## Useful Energy Output Efficiency Total Energy Input

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 3

Illustration
An electric motor consumes 100 watts (a joule per second (J/s)) of power to obtain 90 watts of mechanical power. Determine its efficiency ?

## Useful Energy Output Efficiency Total Energy Input

= 90 W x 100 100 W = 90 %

## Efficiency of Some Common Devices

Device
Efficiency 90 65 55 89

Electric Motor Home Oil Furnace Home Coal Furnace Steam Boiler (power plant) Power Plant (thermal) Automobile Engine Light Bulb-Fluorescent Light Bulb -Incandescent
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

36 25 20 5
5

## Vehicle Efficiency Gasoline Engine

25% Of the gasoline is used to propel a car, the rest is lost as heat. i.e an efficiency of 0.25
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati Source: Energy Sources/Applications/Alternatives 6

Heat Engine
A heat engine is any device which converts heat energy into mechanical energy. Accounts for 50% of our energy conversion devices

## EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

Carnot Efficiency
Maximum efficiency that can be obtained for a heat engine

## Temperature is in Kelvin !!!!!!!

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 8

Illustration

For a coal-fired utility boiler, The temperature of high pressure steam would be about 540C and T cold, the cooling tower water temperature would be about 20C. Calculate the Carnot efficiency of the power plant ?

## 293 CarnotEfficiency () 1 x100 64% 813

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 10

Inference
A maximum of 64% of the fuel energy can go to generation. To make the Carnot efficiency as high as possible, either T hot should be increased or T cold should be decreased.

11

## EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

12

Boiler Components
Chemical Energy Input (100 BTU Boiler ) ) )

## EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

13

Overall Efficiency
Overall Eff = Electric Energy Output (BTU) x 100 Chemical Energy Input (BTU) = 35 BTU x 100 100 BTU = 35% Overall Efficiency of a series of devices =

## (Thermal Energy)x(Mechanical Energy) x(Electrical Energy)

Chemical Energy Thermal Energy
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

Mechanical Energy
14

## Overall Efficiency Cont..

(Thermal Energy)x(Mechanical Energy) x(Electrical Energy)
Chemical Energy Thermal Energy Mechanical Energy

## E boiler E turbine E generator

x x
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 15

= 0.88

## x 0.41 x 0.97 = 0.35 or 35%

System Efficiency
The efficiency of a system is equal to the product of efficiencies of the individual devices (sub-systems)

16

## Efficiency of a Light Bulb

Step Step Efficiency Cumulative Efficiency

Extraction of Coal 96% Transportation 98% Electricity Generation 38% Transportation Elec 91% Lighting Incandescent 5% Fluorescent 20%
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

1.7% 6.6%
17

## System Efficiency of an Automobile

Step Step Efficiency

Cumulative Efficiency

Production of Crude 96% Refining 87% Transportation 97% Thermal to Mech E 25% Mechanical EfficiencyTransmission 50% Rolling Efficiency 20%
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

18

## EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

19

Heat Mover
Any device that moves heat "uphill", from a lower temperature to a higher temperature reservoir. Examples.
Heat pump. Refrigerator.
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 20

## EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

23

Example
Calculate the ideal coefficient of performance (C.O.P.) For an air-to-air heat pump used to maintain the temperature of a house at 70 F when the outside temperature is 30 F.

## EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

24

Solution Cont.
Thot = 70 F = 21C =21 + 273 =294K Tcold = 30 F = -1C =-1 + 273 =272K C.O.P = 294 294 - 272 = 294 22 = 13.3
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 25

Consequences
For every watt of power used to drive this ideal heat pump, 13.3 W is delivered from the interior of the house and 12.3 from the outside. Theoretical maximum is never achieved in practice This example is not realistic. In practice, a C.O.P in the range of 2 - 6 is typical.
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 26

More C.O.P.s
Compare the ideal coefficients of performance of the of the same heat pump installed in Miami and Buffalo. Miami: Thot = 70F, Tcold = 40F Buffalo: Thot = 70F, Tcold = 15F Miami: Thot = 294K, Tcold = 277K Bufalo: Thot = 294K, Tcold = 263K
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 27

Miami
= 294 (294-277) 17.3 =

Buffalo
294 (294-263) 9.5
28