You are on page 1of 28

EGEE 102 Energy Conservation And Environmental Protection

Energy Efficiency

Efficiency of Energy Conversion


If we are more efficient with the energy we already have there will be less pollution, less reliance on foreign oil and increased domestic security.

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

Energy Efficiency
Energy Input Energy Conversion Device
Useful Energy Output

Energy Dissipated to the Surroundings

Useful Energy Output Efficiency Total Energy Input


EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 3

Illustration
An electric motor consumes 100 watts (a joule per second (J/s)) of power to obtain 90 watts of mechanical power. Determine its efficiency ?

Useful Energy Output Efficiency Total Energy Input


= 90 W x 100 100 W = 90 %

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

Efficiency of Some Common Devices


Device
Efficiency 90 65 55 89

Electric Motor Home Oil Furnace Home Coal Furnace Steam Boiler (power plant) Power Plant (thermal) Automobile Engine Light Bulb-Fluorescent Light Bulb -Incandescent
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

36 25 20 5
5

Vehicle Efficiency Gasoline Engine

25% Of the gasoline is used to propel a car, the rest is lost as heat. i.e an efficiency of 0.25
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati Source: Energy Sources/Applications/Alternatives 6

Heat Engine
A heat engine is any device which converts heat energy into mechanical energy. Accounts for 50% of our energy conversion devices

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

Carnot Efficiency
Maximum efficiency that can be obtained for a heat engine

Temperature is in Kelvin !!!!!!!


EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 8

Illustration

For a coal-fired utility boiler, The temperature of high pressure steam would be about 540C and T cold, the cooling tower water temperature would be about 20C. Calculate the Carnot efficiency of the power plant ?

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

540 C = 540 +273 K = 813 K 20 C = 20 + 273 = 293 K

293 CarnotEfficiency () 1 x100 64% 813


EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 10

Inference
A maximum of 64% of the fuel energy can go to generation. To make the Carnot efficiency as high as possible, either T hot should be increased or T cold should be decreased.

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

11

Schematic Diagram of a Power Plant

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

12

Boiler Components
Chemical Energy Input (100 BTU Boiler ) ) )

Thermal Energy (88 BTU Turbine

Mech. Energy (36 BTU Generator

Elec. Energy Output (10.26 Wh

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

13

Overall Efficiency
Overall Eff = Electric Energy Output (BTU) x 100 Chemical Energy Input (BTU) = 35 BTU x 100 100 BTU = 35% Overall Efficiency of a series of devices =

(Thermal Energy)x(Mechanical Energy) x(Electrical Energy)


Chemical Energy Thermal Energy
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

Mechanical Energy
14

Overall Efficiency Cont..


(Thermal Energy)x(Mechanical Energy) x(Electrical Energy)
Chemical Energy Thermal Energy Mechanical Energy

E boiler E turbine E generator


x x
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 15

= 0.88

x 0.41 x 0.97 = 0.35 or 35%

System Efficiency
The efficiency of a system is equal to the product of efficiencies of the individual devices (sub-systems)

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

16

Efficiency of a Light Bulb


Step Step Efficiency Cumulative Efficiency

Extraction of Coal 96% Transportation 98% Electricity Generation 38% Transportation Elec 91% Lighting Incandescent 5% Fluorescent 20%
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

96% 94% (0.96x0.98) 36 % (0.96x0.98x0.38) 33%


1.7% 6.6%
17

System Efficiency of an Automobile


Step Step Efficiency

Cumulative Efficiency

Production of Crude 96% Refining 87% Transportation 97% Thermal to Mech E 25% Mechanical EfficiencyTransmission 50% Rolling Efficiency 20%
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

96% 84% 81% 20% 10% 6.6%


18

Efficiency of a Space Heater

Electricity = 24% Fuel Oil = 53% Natural Gas = 70%

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

19

Heat Mover
Any device that moves heat "uphill", from a lower temperature to a higher temperature reservoir. Examples.
Heat pump. Refrigerator.
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 20

Heat Pump Heating Cycle

Source: http://energyoutlet.com/res/heatpump/pumping.html EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 21

Heat Pump Cooling Cycle

Source: http://energyoutlet.com/res/heatpump/pumping.html EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 22

Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P)

Effectiveness of a heat pump is expressed as coefficient of performance (C.O.P)

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

23

Example
Calculate the ideal coefficient of performance (C.O.P.) For an air-to-air heat pump used to maintain the temperature of a house at 70 F when the outside temperature is 30 F.

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati

24

Solution Cont.
Thot = 70 F = 21C =21 + 273 =294K Tcold = 30 F = -1C =-1 + 273 =272K C.O.P = 294 294 - 272 = 294 22 = 13.3
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 25

Consequences
For every watt of power used to drive this ideal heat pump, 13.3 W is delivered from the interior of the house and 12.3 from the outside. Theoretical maximum is never achieved in practice This example is not realistic. In practice, a C.O.P in the range of 2 - 6 is typical.
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 26

More C.O.P.s
Compare the ideal coefficients of performance of the of the same heat pump installed in Miami and Buffalo. Miami: Thot = 70F, Tcold = 40F Buffalo: Thot = 70F, Tcold = 15F Miami: Thot = 294K, Tcold = 277K Bufalo: Thot = 294K, Tcold = 263K
EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati 27

Miami
= 294 (294-277) 17.3 =

Buffalo
294 (294-263) 9.5
28

EGEE 102 - S. Pisupati