0 Up votes0 Down votes

64 views59 pagesSep 23, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

64 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- International and Domestic Trading of Steel
- En 10088 Stainless Standards
- BS1449-2 1983
- 08 r05310303 Production Technology
- Tolerances and Machining Allowances
- M T 1
- xrd-residual stress
- ANURAG PORWAL`
- 1831.full
- vol6_no3
- Martin Sec a A
- 05-46 Blocking Die Impression Shape Design for Web
- Tit Bits on Materials for Process Equipments
- Section a Material Science Notes Complete
- Rolling n Forging
- 0803134592
- CHF_15
- CHF_21
- Steel Asia
- FE-Civil-CBT-specs.pdf

You are on page 1of 59

Working Processes

Mechanical

Working

Cold Working Hot Working

Done at temp < Trec Done at temp > Trec

Recrystallization temperature :

0.3 to 0.6 Tm

The Effect of Temperature on

Working Processes

Cold Working

after deformation

metal hardens

deform metal

finish

very good

dimensional tolerance

Hot Working

metal recrystallizes

after deformation

deform metal

forms SCALES at

the skin

poor dimensional

tolerance

Rolling

Process of reducing the thickness of

metals by allowing it to pass through a

pair of rotating rolls

More metal is rolled

than the total of all the

other working processes

Products of Rolling

Roll Stand

Rolls for I-beams

Two-high

mill

Two-high

Reversing mill

Three-high

mill

Types of Rolling Mills

Types of Rolling Mills

Four-high

mill

Six-high

mill

Cluster mill

(Sendzimir Mill)

Cluster or Sendzimir Mill

Planetary Mill

Rolling Sequence

Rolling Sequence

Rolling Defects

ALLIGATORING

Misaligned Rolls

Wavy Edges

Edge Cracking

Rolling Load Calculation

No friction involved

Friction involved

load

Terminologies used in Rolling

Rolling Load Analysis

h = draft = ho - hf

Vo = entry speed

Vf = exit speed

R = roll radius

= angle of bite

= angle between

entrance plane and

centerline

Ideal Rolling Load

Pressure = Load

Area

Rolling Load = Roll Pressure x Area

h R W RL

y

RL = Rolling Load

y

= flow stress (yield stress)

W = Width

R = Roll Radius

h = draft

Considerations on

Actual Rolling Load

At any point in

the arc of contact,

2 forces act on

the metal:

Pr = Rolling Load

F = Friction Load

For unaided entry: Fcos = P

r

sin

= tan

and F = Pr

Maximum Reduction Possible

R

h

h

R

h R

2

tan

= tan

( h)max =

2

R

Sample Problem

Determine the maximum reduction possible

on a piece of metal when using 500 mm

diameter rolls and during cold rolling when

= 0.1 and hot rolling when = 0.6

Determine the final height of an aluminum

sheet with initial thickness 60 mm if

subjected to cold rolling ( = 0.2) using

300 mm diameter rolls and assuming

maximum reduction (also consider 3%

elastic rebound).

Sample Problem

Observations in Actual Rolling

Assuming constant volume passing through

one point at any given time

V

roll

Vo

Vf

A B

Neutral Point

or No-Slip

point

Friction Hill

At the Neutral

Point, there is no

slipping between

the metal and the

Rolls

At the Neutral

Point, Friction is

at a maximum!

N

Actual Rolling Load

Condition

Condition

Plain Strain 1.155 < 0.5

Slipping Friction

Homogenous

Deformation

1.0 > 0.5

Sticking Friction

1/2

Plane Strain

when

Slipping Friction

is found in cold

working

Sticking Friction

is found in hot

working

'

+

2

2

1

1

h

h

h R

h R W RL

y Actual

5 >

h R

W

Sample Problem

Calculate the rolling load required to reduce

steel 600 mm wide and 30 mm thick by

20%. The roll diameter used is 800 mm,

= 0.15 and flow stress of steel is 150 MPa.

Sample Problem

Explain the Design of Cluster Mill.

Forging

The act of

shaping metal by

hammering or

pressing

Forging is done in

special molds

called "dies"

Forging Products

Dies used in Forging

Types of Forging

Press Forging

Impact (Smith)

Forging

Types of Forging

OPEN-DIE

FORGING

CLOSED-DIE

FORGING

Closed-Die Forging

Examples of Forging

UPSETTING

COGGING

SWAGING

FULLERING

EDGING

HEADING

Examples of Forging

Precision Forging

Precision Forging Operation

Forging of Bevel Gear

Forging Defects

Defects in Forging

Laps Formed in

Forged Metal

Calculation of Forging Load

UPSET FORGING

P

Ideal vs Actual

HOMOGENOUS

DEFORMATION

NONHOMOGENOUS

DEFORMATION

Nonhomogenous Deformation

BARRELING

Grain Texture in Forged Metal

Effect of Friction on Forging

Pressure

Pressure builds-up at

the center creating a

pressure hill!

Effect of Friction on Forging

Load

The build-up of

pressure also creates

a Friction Hill

-Forging Load Calculation-

The SLAB METHOD

ASSUME PLANE STRAIN (WIDTH IS CONSTANT)

b = tool bite

Equilibrium of forces in the horizontal direction:

Analysis of Stresses using

Slab Method

( ) 0 2 + + h dx h d

x y x x

0

2

+ dx

h

d

y

x

Since both

x

and

y

are unknown, another equation must be

obtained using yield criteria; specifically, the distortion-energy

criterion for plane strain is used.

Y Y

y x

3

2

Hence

y x

d d

and

The two equations for the stresses

can now be solved:

( ) h x a

y

e Y p

/ 2

h x

y

y

y

Ce dx

h

d

/ 2

2

The value of the constant, C, is found

using the boundary conditions. At x=a,

x=0

and

y=

Y`

h a

e Y C

/ 2

conditions. At x=a,

x=0

and

y=

Y`. The pressure is then

Analysis of Stresses using

Slab Method

Simplification of Forging

Pressure Equation

( ) h x a

y

e Y p

/ 2

]

) ( 2

1 [ '

h

x a

Y p

y

+

Sample Problems

A copper slab was upset to give a final

dimension of 60 x 20 x 10 mm (L x W x H). If

the yield stress of copper is 40 MPa and the

coefficient of friction is 0.15, determine the

Forging Pressure at the following points on

the billet:

i. At the middle

ii. At the ends

iii.(1/3)a distance from the middle

P

The average pressure can

be approximated from the

mean of the maximum and

the minimum pressure

,

_

h

a

Y p

avg

1

The forging load, F, is

( )( ) ( ) width a p F

avg

2

Average Forging Pressure, P

avg

Reminders on P and P

avg

,

_

h

a

Y p

avg

1 ]

) ( 2

1 [ '

h

x a

Y p

y

+

Condition Flow

Stress

Condition

Plane

Strain

Y = 1.155 < 0.5

Slipping Friction

Homogenous

Deformation

Y > 0.5

Sticking Friction

1/2

Plane Strain W/b > 4

when

Slipping Friction

is found in cold

working

Sticking Friction

is found in hot

working

Sample Problems

A copper slab was upset to give a final

dimension of 60 x 20 x 10 mm (L x W x H). If

the yield stress of copper is 40 MPa and the

coefficient of friction is 0.15, determine the

average forging pressure of this process.

P

Sample Problem

Determine the Forging Load required to

reduce the thickness of half of a steel billet

100x40x10 mm (LxWxH) by 40%

(assume plane strain). Assume that the

yield stress of steel is 240 MPa and =

0.65.

F

- International and Domestic Trading of SteelUploaded bypawanludhiana
- En 10088 Stainless StandardsUploaded bypaulenew
- BS1449-2 1983Uploaded byRajlić Zoran
- 08 r05310303 Production TechnologyUploaded byandhracolleges
- Tolerances and Machining AllowancesUploaded byItalo Venegas
- M T 1Uploaded bysumikannu
- xrd-residual stressUploaded byAri Jackie Wibowo
- ANURAG PORWAL`Uploaded bysoumya chatterjee
- 1831.fullUploaded bySagar Dharmadhikari
- vol6_no3Uploaded byeherskovic
- Martin Sec a AUploaded byAlberto Garrido
- 05-46 Blocking Die Impression Shape Design for WebUploaded byLungani Sibindi
- Tit Bits on Materials for Process EquipmentsUploaded bydip_maan
- Section a Material Science Notes CompleteUploaded byAkeel Aijaz Malik
- Rolling n ForgingUploaded byolenbear
- 0803134592Uploaded byYap Wen Khong
- CHF_15Uploaded byoiii88
- CHF_21Uploaded byoiii88
- Steel AsiaUploaded byAimee Layson Polanco
- FE-Civil-CBT-specs.pdfUploaded bykyle
- Rolling Metal FormingUploaded byabhinavjag
- Chapter 19-Bulk Deformation Processes I.pptUploaded byMohsin Ali
- paper6.pdfUploaded byrony16nov
- Metal ForgingUploaded bySufi
- A Numerical Investigation of the Continuous Bending Under Tension TestUploaded byShaukat Khan
- A729Uploaded byrobertotoccaceliblas
- ASTM A 694Uploaded byAlexander Monroy
- A370-18 1.03Uploaded byMohammad Zaki Usman
- astm-b160Uploaded byKevin Almeida
- Introduction to Machines (1)Uploaded byAli sheraz Ilyas

- Sanity Check PresentationUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Palawan MainteUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Energy Mgt PalawanUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Energy Design GuidelineUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- LeakUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Judix,Grieza,AlfaUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Hanna,PhilipUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- ActivityUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT34Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT33Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT32Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT31Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT30Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT29Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT28Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT27Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT26Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT25Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT24Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT23Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT22Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT21Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT20Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT19Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT18Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- EHPT1Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Rio Tuba FR Vol_I Main Report 090618Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Bailey Net 90Uploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca
- Rig PartsUploaded bySergioBernardes
- McCoyDrillingCompletionsCatalog-LowResUploaded byAlvin Garcia Palanca

- Noise TutorialUploaded byyuli4anto
- ASME 9 BMPUploaded byAnonymous LpCD3h
- Control Systems Lesson PlannerUploaded bymujju433
- QHDM DrainageUploaded byAnonymous 94TBTBRks
- Www Cquestions ComUploaded byBikash Karmokar
- Taurus FactUploaded byhm0815
- INSIGHT 20 Operators GuideUploaded bylevi
- Magnesium SulphateUploaded bynikhilrane91_7522800
- Experiment2 - Heat Transfer LabUploaded byPuti Fikri
- Intro to Communication Systems Chap 3Uploaded byTahir Hussain
- Service Manual SonyUploaded byGane Chandra Shekhar Rao
- Construction Contract - Designing Buildings WikiUploaded bymarx0506
- AutoLisp Examples - Requested Programs.pdfUploaded byAvk Sanjeevan
- d Sundararajan LpaperUploaded bysoumensahil
- An Improved Battery Characterization Method Using a Two Pulse Load TestUploaded bysweet85s
- Problem SetUploaded byChristopher Pangilinan
- Suportes e RTD EuropaUploaded byPaulo Costa
- Managing Corrosion in Sulfur Storage Tanks - ProcitanoUploaded byNenad
- Production Management in construction-IntroUploaded by22noelg
- Ctries SnapshotUploaded bydiogines
- ARPRASADUploaded byramanjijntu10
- Abdur Rahman .0126 (Badda).6p.7sUploaded byhabib
- solid state chemistryUploaded byvijay
- Hi 93701 Instruction ManualUploaded bymegacob
- Test 2Uploaded byVenkataramanan Suresh
- Paint DefectsUploaded byAdriana Jones
- Recent Applications of Phased Array Inspection for Turbine Components and Welded Structures.docxUploaded bykoohestani_afshin
- Failure Criteria PDFUploaded byShan
- Scada Software Install Procedure.docxUploaded byferdyermawan92
- Balancing of Rotating MassesUploaded byKiran Varma

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.