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# DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

## Zaid Mahmood Farhat

BEE-FA06-099
Department of Electrical Engineering
Types of Oscillator
Wien-bridge Oscillator
Phase Shift Oscillator
Twin-T Oscillator
 Crystal-control Oscillator
 Colpitts Oscillator
 Clapp Oscillator
 Hartley Oscillator
 Armstrong Oscillator

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RC Phase Shift Oscillator

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Phase Shift
The displacement of a waveform in time. For example, if a
waveform is displaced by a complete waveform. it is
described as having a phase-shift of 360°. If it is
displaced by half a wavelength (i.e. 180°) one wave will
peak where the other is in a trough state and complete
cancellation will result. If they are at any other angle of
phase-shift, partial cancellation will result.

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Phase shift Oscillator
A phase shift oscillator is a simple sine wave
electronic oscillator. It contains an inverting
amplifier, and a feedback filter which 'shifts'
the phase by 180 degrees at the oscillation
frequency.

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RC Phase shift

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Cont.
The most common way of achieving this kind
of filter is using 3 cascaded resistor-capacitor
filters, at the oscillation frequency each filter
produces a phase shift of 60 degrees and the
whole filter circuit produces a phase shift of
180 degrees. Thus the total phase shift
produced by the three RC networks is 180°.
Therefore at the specific frequency fo the total
phase shift from the base of the transistor
around the circuit and back to the base is
360°
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Cont.
 The mathematics for calculating the oscillation frequency
and oscillation criteria for this circuit are surprisingly
complex, due to each R-C stage loading the previous ones.
The calculations are greatly simplified by setting all the
resistors (except the -ve feedback resistor) and all the
capacitors to the same values. In the diagram, if R1 = R2 =
R3 = R, and C1 = C2 = C3 = C, then:

## oscillation criteria is:

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Hartley oscillator
The Hartley oscillator was invented by Ralph.
V.L.Hartley while he was working for the Research
Laboratory of the Western Electric Company.
Hartley invented the design while overseeing Bell
System's transatlantic radiotelephone tests of
1915. who filed for a patent on June 1, 1915
and was awarded patent number 1,356,763
on October 26, 1920.

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Cont.
The Hartley oscillator is an LC electronic
oscillator that derives its feedback from a
tapped coil in parallel with a capacitor (the
tank circuit). Although there is no requirement
for there to be mutual coupling between the
two coil segments, the circuit is usually
implemented as such. A Hartley oscillator is
essentially any configuration that uses a pair
of series-connected coils and a single
capacitor.

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Cont.
Hartley oscillators may be series or shunt fed. A
Hartley oscillator is made up of the following:
Two inductors which need not be mutual (may
be a two-winding transformer)
One tuning capacitor

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Advantages of the Hartley oscillator include:
The frequency is varied using a variable
capacitor
The output amplitude remains constant over
the frequency range.
The feedback ratio of the tapped inductor
remains constant .

Disadvantages include:
Harmonic-rich content of the output.
It is not suitable for a pure sine wave.

## The Hartley oscillator was extensively used on

all broadcast bands including the FM 88- 14
Clapp Oscillator
The Clapp oscillator is one of several types
of electronic oscillator constructed from a
transistor (or vacuum tube) and a positive
feedback network. It was invented by James K.
Clapp in 1948.

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Cont.
the network is comprised of a single inductor
and three capacitors, with two capacitors (C1
and C2) forming a voltage divider that
determines the amount of feedback voltage
applied to the transistor input.

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The Clapp oscillator is a Colpitts oscillator with
an additional capacitor placed in series with
the inductor. The oscillation frequency in hertz
(cycles per second) for the circuit in the
figure, which uses a field-effect transistor
(FET), is

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Reason for using Clapp
Oscillator
A Clapp circuit is often preferred over a
Colpitts circuit for constructing a variable
frequency oscillator (VFO). In a Colpitts VFO,
the voltage divider contains the variable
capacitor (either C1 or C2). This causes the
feedback voltage to be variable as well,
sometimes making the Colpitts circuit less
likely to achieve oscillation over a portion of
the desired frequency range. This problem is
avoided in the Clapp circuit by using fixed
capacitors in the voltage divider and a
variable capacitor (C0) in series with the 18