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BEE-FA06-099

Department of Electrical Engineering

Types of Oscillator

Wien-bridge Oscillator

Phase Shift Oscillator

Twin-T Oscillator

Crystal-control Oscillator

Colpitts Oscillator

Clapp Oscillator

Hartley Oscillator

Armstrong Oscillator

3

RC Phase Shift Oscillator

4

5

Phase Shift

The displacement of a waveform in time. For example, if a

waveform is displaced by a complete waveform. it is

described as having a phase-shift of 360°. If it is

displaced by half a wavelength (i.e. 180°) one wave will

peak where the other is in a trough state and complete

cancellation will result. If they are at any other angle of

phase-shift, partial cancellation will result.

6

Phase shift Oscillator

A phase shift oscillator is a simple sine wave

electronic oscillator. It contains an inverting

amplifier, and a feedback filter which 'shifts'

the phase by 180 degrees at the oscillation

frequency.

7

RC Phase shift

8

Cont.

The most common way of achieving this kind

of filter is using 3 cascaded resistor-capacitor

filters, at the oscillation frequency each filter

produces a phase shift of 60 degrees and the

whole filter circuit produces a phase shift of

180 degrees. Thus the total phase shift

produced by the three RC networks is 180°.

Therefore at the specific frequency fo the total

phase shift from the base of the transistor

around the circuit and back to the base is

360°

9

Cont.

The mathematics for calculating the oscillation frequency

and oscillation criteria for this circuit are surprisingly

complex, due to each R-C stage loading the previous ones.

The calculations are greatly simplified by setting all the

resistors (except the -ve feedback resistor) and all the

capacitors to the same values. In the diagram, if R1 = R2 =

R3 = R, and C1 = C2 = C3 = C, then:

10

Hartley oscillator

The Hartley oscillator was invented by Ralph.

V.L.Hartley while he was working for the Research

Laboratory of the Western Electric Company.

Hartley invented the design while overseeing Bell

System's transatlantic radiotelephone tests of

1915. who filed for a patent on June 1, 1915

and was awarded patent number 1,356,763

on October 26, 1920.

11

Cont.

The Hartley oscillator is an LC electronic

oscillator that derives its feedback from a

tapped coil in parallel with a capacitor (the

tank circuit). Although there is no requirement

for there to be mutual coupling between the

two coil segments, the circuit is usually

implemented as such. A Hartley oscillator is

essentially any configuration that uses a pair

of series-connected coils and a single

capacitor.

12

Cont.

Hartley oscillators may be series or shunt fed. A

Hartley oscillator is made up of the following:

Two inductors which need not be mutual (may

be a two-winding transformer)

One tuning capacitor

13

Advantages of the Hartley oscillator include:

The frequency is varied using a variable

capacitor

The output amplitude remains constant over

the frequency range.

The feedback ratio of the tapped inductor

remains constant .

Disadvantages include:

Harmonic-rich content of the output.

It is not suitable for a pure sine wave.

all broadcast bands including the FM 88- 14

Clapp Oscillator

The Clapp oscillator is one of several types

of electronic oscillator constructed from a

transistor (or vacuum tube) and a positive

feedback network. It was invented by James K.

Clapp in 1948.

15

Cont.

the network is comprised of a single inductor

and three capacitors, with two capacitors (C1

and C2) forming a voltage divider that

determines the amount of feedback voltage

applied to the transistor input.

16

The Clapp oscillator is a Colpitts oscillator with

an additional capacitor placed in series with

the inductor. The oscillation frequency in hertz

(cycles per second) for the circuit in the

figure, which uses a field-effect transistor

(FET), is

17

Reason for using Clapp

Oscillator

A Clapp circuit is often preferred over a

Colpitts circuit for constructing a variable

frequency oscillator (VFO). In a Colpitts VFO,

the voltage divider contains the variable

capacitor (either C1 or C2). This causes the

feedback voltage to be variable as well,

sometimes making the Colpitts circuit less

likely to achieve oscillation over a portion of

the desired frequency range. This problem is

avoided in the Clapp circuit by using fixed

capacitors in the voltage divider and a

variable capacitor (C0) in series with the 18

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