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Texture Characterization via Joint Statistics of

Wavelet Coefficient Magnitudes

Presented by Hai Jiang
MCVL
Computer Engineering & Computer Science
University of Missouri-Columbia
12/22/1999
Definitions of Texture

• IEEE Standard 610.4-1990 for image processing & pattern
Recognition: texture is an attribute representing the
spatial arrangement of the gray levels of the pixels in a
region.
• R.C. Gonzalez & R.E.Woods: Digital Image Processing:
We intuitively view this descriptor as a measure of
properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity.
• A.K.Jain: Fundamentals of Image Processing: The term
texture generally refers to repetition of basic texture
elements called texels. The texel contains several pixels,
whose placement could be periodic, quasi-periodic or
random. Texture may be coarse, fine, smooth, granulated,
rippled regular, irregular, or linear.
We assume that the view angle for the texture is
perpendicular to the texture surface( =90°). However, the
rotation( θ ) and scale ( ξ ) are not restricted, and we explore
texture representations that approximate rotation- or scale-
invariance.
Assumptions of statistical model
for visual images
• Locality

• Stationarity

• Restricted forms of density
Texture Parameters
• First order texture parameters: integrated optical density
(IOD), the mean integrated optical density (MeOD) and the standard
deviation of the integrated optical density (SDOD), etc.
• Second order texture parameters
• Morphological parameters
• Wavelet texture parameters
Texture Parameters
• Second order texture parameters:
co-occurrence matrix,
1 aim at reflecting the statistics of

couple of pixels.
The co-occurrence matrix can be defined formally as:
Texture Parameters
Several parameters associated with the co-occurrence
matrix:
Texture Parameters
• Morphological parameters:
Notation Name description
M0 Area amount of pixels
M1 Perim perimeter
M2 Compac square of perimeter divided by area
M3 Dcirc square root of area times 2
M4 EIA major axe of ellips fitted around nucleus
M5 EIB minor axe of ellips fitted around nucleus
M6 Fshape ratio of Dmin and Dmax
M7 Fcircle 4 times area divided by perimeter squared
M8 Dmax longest diameter of the object
M9 Dmin shortest diameter of the object
M10 FDim fractal dimension of the object
M11 Rot symmetry factor which calculates the symmetry
accross the objects centre of gravity
M12 Sym length difference between lines perpendicular
to the major axis to the boundary
Texture Parameters
• Wavelet texture parameters:
A. Recall Wavelet transform, QMF and multi-
resolution Algorithm
CWT:
Base functions
Admission condition

Reconstruction from components

DWT and filter series:
Texture Parameters
Several Stages of the development of WT and important concepts:
wavelet decomposition & perfect reconstruction, wavelet series expanding,
tight wavelet(not very redundant), base response, overcomplete,
multi-resolution analysis, pyramid algorithm, subband coding,
fast wavelet algorithm(like fish-bone algorithm)
QMF(FB), bi-orthogonal transform

The following is the decomposition(top) and reconstruction(bottom) schemes
for computation of wavelet coefficients in 2 dimensions using quadrature
mirror filters.
Texture Parameters
The 2-D QMF FB partitions the 2-D s-f plane such that the image are
reconstructed by the partitions (subbands). Using the QMF filters, the
reconstruction is nearly perfect. The 2-D QMF wavelet FB produces the
particular set of subbands that are spaced at octaves in the 2-D s-f plane.

Figure: 2-D QMF filter bank (FB), (a) s-f plane partitioning, (b) subband interpretation.
Texture Parameters
B. Wavelet signature on co-occurrence matrix

θ

θ direction. The 8 common co-occurrence features listed before are then referred to as the
wavelet co-occurrence signatures.
Texture Parameters

• One method of texture retrieval
Steerable Pyramid
• Concept and block diagram
The Steerable Pyramid is a linear multi-scale, multi-orientation image decomposition
that provides a useful front-end for many computer vision and image-processing
applications. The basis functions are directional derivative operators, that come in
different sizes and orientations. The transformation is a type of overcomplete wavelet
transform (specifically, it is an approximation to a "tight frame"). An example
decomposition of an image of a white disk on a black background is shown to the right.
This particular steerable pyramid contains 4 orientation subbands, at 2 scales. The
smallest subband is the residual lowpass information. The residual highpass subband is
not shown.
Steerable Pyramid
• Advantages and disadvantages
The steerable pyramid performs a polar-separable decomposition in the
frequency domain, thus allowing independent representation of scale
and orientation. Since it is a tight frame, it obeys the generalized form
of Parseval's Equality: The vector-length (L2-norm) of the coefficients
equals that of the original signal.
More importantly, the representation is translation-invariant (i.e., the
subbands are aliasing-free, or equivariant with respect to translation)
and rotation-invariant (i.e., the subbands are steerable, or equivariant
with respect to rotation). This makes a big difference in applications that
involve representation of position or orientation of image structure. The
primary drawback is that the representation is overcomplete by a factor
of 4k/3, where k is the number of orientation bands. Also, the filter
design problem is messy, and the resulting implementation is not perfect-
reconstruction (although errors are small enough for most applications).
Steerable Pyramid
• Properties comparing with other transforms
Base filters in the experiment
• A set of oriented complex analytic filters
Base filters in the experiment
• High pass & low pass band filters
Texture Parameterization
• Image pixel statistics: Mean, variances, skewness, kurtosis,
minimum and maximum values ( 6 parameters ).
• Raw coefficient statistics: Central Samples of the autocorrelation of
each subband ( N*K*(M*M+1)/2 parameters ), and mean, variances,
minimum and maximum of lowpass and highpass residual bands ( 8
parameters ). These characterize the regularity of the texture.
• Coefficient magnitude statistics: Central samples of the
autocorrelation of each subband (magnitude) ( N*K*(M*M+1)/2
parameters ), cross-correlation of each subband withother
orientations at the same scale ( N*K*(K-1)/2 parameters), and cross-
correlation of each subband with other orientations at a coarser
scale( 4K*K(N-1) parameters). These represent significant structures
in images.

• In the experiment, N=4, K=4, M=7, resulting in a total of 1034
parameters. The local window size for autocorrelation is MxM.
Synthesis Techniques
• The synthesis technique uses repeated projections on the statistical
constraint surfaces, and bears a close resemblance to the projection onto
convex sets (POCS) approaches that have been used in image restoration.
• The block diagram
Synthesis Techniques

• Method of constraint data sets to specific correlation matrix
1) For autocorrelation matrix imposing we want to solve equation

O here is any orthonormal matrix. One choice for O is
Synthesis techniques
2) For cross-autocorrelation imposing
Synthesis techniques
3) Imposing mean, variances, skewness and kurtosis

4) Iterations and convergence
Results of experiments
• Some successful results
Results of experiments

• Synthesis failures • Results of image extension