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Individual Processes and

The Person
• Skills and
attitudes The Environment
• Personality • Organization
• Perception • Work Group
• Attribution • Job
• Attitudes • Personal life
• Values
• Ethics

Managers need to know about personality
characteristics in order to understand and
appreciate the differences in employees
and how it affects their performance at

1. Locus of Control
An individual’s generalized belief about internal
control (self-control) versus external control (control
by the situation or by others)

Internal locus control person have high job

satisfaction, job involvement and they will exercise
control in their work environment
External locus control person prefer to work in a
structured setting, may be more reluctant to
participate in decision making.

2. Generalized self-efficacy
A generalized belief about one’s own capabilities to
deal with the events and challenges in life.

High generalized self-efficacy person have more

confidence in their job-related abilities and other
personal resources ( energy, influence over others).
Low generalized self-efficacy person often feel
ineffective at work and may express doubt in
performing new tasks

Ex. A salesman with high self-efficacy may have

confidence in his ability to meet customer expectations,
but does not necessarily blame himself for all lost sales.

1. Self- Esteem
An individual’s general feeling of self-worth.
High self-esteem person have positive feelings
about themselves, recognizes their strength and
weaknesses and believes that strength is more
important than weaknesses. They perform better and
are more satisfied with their job.
Low self-esteem person view themselves negatively.
They are strongly affected by what other people think
of them.
Managers should encourage employees by giving
appropriate challenges and opportunities for success.

4. Self- Monitoring
The extent to which people base their behavior on
cues from other people and situations.

High self-monitor person pay attention to what

are the expectations of others and respond easily
to organizational culture because of flexibility .
Low self-monitor person is “I am who I am”

5. Positive/ Negative Affect

Positive affect person focuses on the positive
aspects of themselves, other people and the world
in general. They produces positive team affect that
leads to more cooperation and less conflict. An
asset in work settings.

Negative affect person emphasize the negative in

themselves, others and the world. They report
more work stress
Question: Can managers predict the behavior of
their employees by knowing their

Answer: Not completely. Because it depends on

any given situation.
How can we measure Personality?

• Projective Test
A personality test that reveals an individual’s
response to abstract stimuli.
Reliability? Low.
Why? The person may look at the same
picture and see different things at
different times.
Biases in interpreting the result.
How can we measure Personality?

• Behavioral Measures
Observing individual’s behavior in a controlled
Ex. Person’s sociability. The assessor counts the
number of times that the person approach a
stranger at a party.
Problem? Observer’s ability to stay focused and
interpretation. Also, the person being
observed may behave differently aware that
he/she is being observed
How can we measure Personality?

• Self-Report Questionnaire
Answering series of questions usually in a
agree/disagree, true/false format

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

(MMPI) – is comprehensive and assess a variety
of traits, neurotic or psychotic disorders.