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What is Communication ?

 a process which aims to transfer and

implement the meaning of symbol from one
person, group or organization to another

 a process by which we assign and convey

meaning in an attempt to create share

 Expressing feelings, conversing, speaking,

corresponding, writing, listening and
The Communication Process
Sender / Encoding
 It is the communicator who can be any person, group or
organization. These are information that exists in the mind of the
communicator or sender ex. Concept, idea, information, feelings
 The sender encodes the message, the process of selecting and
organizing message

 Elements of messages:

Content – or the language which are actual words or symbols of the


Context –a non verbal element of speech

Kinesics – facial and body movements
Proxemics – gaze, physical orientation, social
Paralanguage – voice, pitch, range, tone
The Communication Process
 Message are sent through symbols.

 Forms of messages
1. Verbal – divided into written & oral communication.
Oral communication refers to spoken words.
Written communication can be either email, letters &

2. Non verbal ex. Kinesics (facial & body movements ex. smiling),
proxemics (social distance- cultural norms dictate a comfortable
distance for interaction with others ex. leg swinging, gaze aversion or
dagger look) paralanguage (voice, pitch, tone, rhythm)
The Communication Process

 The sender selects the appropriate channel for transmitting the
message. The 3 typical communication channels are:

1. Two-way, Face-to-Face ex. Informal conversations, oral reports,

interviews, speeches and teleconferences

2. Two-way, Not Face-to-Face ex. Telephone conversation,

company announcements, text messages

3. One-way, Not face-to-Face ex. Written documents such as

letter, memos, reports, press releases prepared traditionally or
sent electronically by electronic mail, facsimile, voice mail
The Communication Process

 The destination of the message, it can be an individual, group or

 The receiver decodes the message, the process of interpreting

and translating the message into meaningful information

 The individual whose senses perceive the senders message

A communication has not taken place if the message has not reach
the receiver
Types of Communication

1. Number of People Involved

 Intrapersonal communication – occurs when the sender and the

receiver of the message is one and the same person. Ex.
daydreaming, conscience examination

 Interpersonal communication – requires two people interacting

with each other. Ex. Supervisor and Employee talking to each

 Group communication – involves several people. Ex. A meeting of

the supervisor and the employees

 Mass communication – indefinite number of people which some

would term as a faceless audience. Ex. Television, radio,
newspapers, magazines & billboards
Factors that Affect the Quality of Communication

1. Goal clarity
 The sender must clarify the goals. In an organization the use MBO
approach, the objectives or goals are jointly set by both supervisor
& subordinates. The MBO serves to ensure that the objectives
are clear to both the organization and the individuals
2. Sender
 The qualities, characteristics, role, status of the person affects
communication flow. A highly autocratic leader would most likely
be understood by self-governing staff, a demanding boss may be
misunderstood by a secretary

3. Receiver
 The recipient person. His qualities, role, status, emotional state
affects communication. It is the ability of the person to listen
that he can take the message clear.
Factors that Affect the Quality of Communication
4. Symbol
 Communication is largely symbolic. The content must be relevant to
the issue at hand or to the objectives of the organization. It
should be in good grammar, simple and easy to understand. In
non-verbal, it is the expression or action of the person. Ex. A
speaker would suddenly laugh in the midst of truly sad story

5. Information overload
 Managers are drowning in excessive information & data due to
various technologies. Failure to cope with information overload
creates serious problems in the organization ex. Information
from Radio, TV, telecommunications, newspapers, satellite network

6. Feedback
 The reaction by the recipient to the communication determines the
success or failure of the communication. Feedback is restating the
ideas of the sender into own words by the receiver. Ex. Manager
gives instruction to the employee, the employees gesture like a nod
means the message was understood.
Barriers to Communication
1. Culture
 Culture, background, allow us to use our past experience to
understand new things. When the meaning is changed it interferes
the communication process.
2. Noise
 Equipment or environmental noise impedes clear communication
because the sender and the receiver can no longer concentrate on
the messages being sent to each other.
3. Perception
 Preconceived attitudes affects our ability to listen. Ex. If a person
talks too fast of not fluently we set aside the person. But when a
person who speaks fluently, we listen uncritically.
4. Message
 Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than
what a sender prefer. Ex. The word Chairman instead of
Chairperson may cause you to focus on the word and not on the
5. Ourselves
 Focusing on ourselves rather than the person can lead to confusion
and conflict. Ex. Superiority (we feel we know more than the
other) ego (we feel we are the center of the activity)

We have two ears and one mouth so

that we can listen twice as much as
we speak -- Epictetus

If you have nothing good to say, then

say nothing
Types of Communication
2. Levels of Source and Receiver
 Downward
Message flows from higher to lower
Top Management authority

Middle Management Exemplified in work setting, leadership

is autocratic and the workers are shy
or afraid.
Ex. Communication messages such as
Rank & File policies and instructions

 Upward
Employees from lower authority feels
Rank & File free to initiate and suggest new
programs & projects which are
Supervisor welcomed by management. Higher
organizational levels are provided with
Middle Management information about what is going on
Top Management Ex. Feelings of employees about their
jobs, organization, complaints,
suggestions, clarifications.
Types of Communication
2. Levels of Source and Receiver
Communicate with the same level.
 Horizontal Supervisors group together to
Top Management discuss common problems. The main
motivation is “Task-oriented”

Ex. Coordination of work
Supervisors Supervisors assignments, sharing information &
plans, joint problem solving

 Circular

Rank & File

Communication starts at any level,
moves on to another level, moves
Top back & forth
Ex. Telling stories, gossips

Middle Management
Types of Communication
2. Levels of Source and Receiver
 Cross- Channel / Diagonal Communication

Top Management

Department 1 Department 2 Department 3

Middle Middle Middle
Management Management Management

Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor

Rank & File Rank & File Rank & File

The direction of communication is inter-unit exchange. Communication

flows across the chain of command.
Ex. Instructions on the requirements of each department