Power and Political Behavior Part III

Power and Political Behavior

Managing Political Behavior in Organizations
Managing political behavior at work is important. The perception of dysfunctional political behavior can lead to dissatisfaction.

When employees perceive that there are dominant interest groups or cliques at work, they are less satisfied with pay and promotions. When they believe that the organization’s reward practices are influenced by who you know rather than how well you perform, they are less satisfied. and Political Behavior Power

On How Managers Prevent The Negative Consequences Of Political Behavior
Open communication Clear expectations about performance and rewards Participative decision-making practices Workgroup cooperation Effective management of scarce resources Supportive organizational climate

Power and Political Behavior

Managing Up: Managing the Boss
Make Sure You Understand Your Boss And His Context, Including: His goals and objectives. The pressures on him. His strengths, weaknesses, blind spots. His preferred work style. Assess Your Needs, Including: Your own strengths and weaknesses. Your personal style. Your predisposition toward dependence on authority figures. Develop And Maintain A Relationship That: Fits both your needs and styles. Is characterized by mutual expectations. Keeps your boss informed. Is based on dependability and honesty. Selectively uses your boss’s time and resources.
Power and Political Behavior

Sharing Power: Empowerment
Empowerment- sharing power within an organization.

Empowerment is easy to advocate but difficult to put into practice. “Creating conditions for heightened motivation through the development of a strong sense of personal self-efficiency.”
Power and Political Behavior

Jay Conger

Jay Conger is recognized throughout the world as an expert on leadership, training and development of leaders and managers, organizational change, and boards of directors; Senior Research Scientist
Jay Conger

Empowerment should begin with job content and proceed to job context. Because the workforce is so diverse, managers should recognize that some employees are more ready for empowerment than others. Managers must diagnose situations and determine the degree of empowerment to extend to employees. The empowerment process also carries with it a risk of failure. When you delegate responsibility and authority, you must be prepared to allow employees to fail; and failure is not something most managers tolerate well.
Power and Political Behavior

Four Dimensions Comprise the Essence of Em

Meaning Competence Self-determination Impact

Power and Political Behavior

Four Dimensions Comprise the Essence of Empowerment
• Meaning is a fit between the work role and the employee’s values and beliefs. • Competence is the belief that one has the ability to do the job well. • Self-determination is having control over the way one does his or her work. • Impact is the belief that one’s job makes a difference within the organization.
Power and Political Behavior

Guidelines on How Leaders Can Empower Others
Managers should express confidence in employees and set high performance expectations. Managers should create opportunities for employees to participate in decisionmaking.

Managers should remove bureaucratic constraints that stifle autonomy. Managers should set inspirational or
Power and Political Behavior

Implementation/ Follow-up

Point D Mission Defining

Point E SelfManagement

Alternative Choice

Alternative Evaluation

Point C Participatory Empowerment

Alternative Development

Problem Identification

Point A No Discretion
Problem Identification Alternative Development Alternative Evaluation

Point B Task Setting
Alternative Choice

Implementation/ Follow-up

Decision-Making Authority over Job Context

Employee Empowerment Grid

No Discretion (Point A)
Represents the traditional, assemblyline job: • Highly routine and repetitive • With no decision-making power If these jobs have a demanding pace and if workers have no discretion, distress will result.
Power and Political Behavior

Task Setting (Point B)
Is the essence of most empowerment programs in organizations today. In this case, the worker is empowered to make decisions about the best way to get the job done, but has no decision responsibility for the job context.

Power and Political Behavior

Participatory Empowerment (Point C)
Represents a situation that is typical of autonomous work groups that have some decision-making power over both job context. Their job involvement is in problem identification, developing alternatives, and evaluating alternatives, but the actual choice of alternatives is often beyond their power. Participatory empowerment
Power and Political Behavior

Mission Defining (Point D)
Is an unusual case of empowerment and is seldom seen. Here, employees have power over job context but not job content.

Power and Political Behavior

Self-Management (Point E)
Represents total decision-making control over both job content and job context. It is the ultimate expression of trust.

Power and Political Behavior

Managerial Implications: Using Power Effectively
Use power in ethical ways. Understand and use all the various types of power and influence. Seek jobs that allow you to develop your power skills. Use power tempered by maturity and selfcontrol. Accept that influencing people as an important
Power and Political Behavior

Thank You!! Muchas Gratias!! 謝謝 你們 !! ありがとう みんな ~ さ ん !!


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