You are on page 1of 11

The structure of the atom

The Ancient Greeks used to believe that everything was made up of very small particles. I did some experiments in 1808 that proved this and called these particles ATOMS:

24/09/2013

Dalton

NEUTRON neutral, same mass as proton (1)

PROTON positive, same mass as neutron (1)

ELECTRON negative, mass nearly nothing

Mass and atomic number


Particle Relative Mass

24/09/2013

Relative Charge

Proton
Neutron Electron

1
1 Very small

+1
0 -1

MASS NUMBER = number of protons + number of neutrons

SYMBOL
PROTON NUMBER = number of protons (obviously)

Mass and atomic number

24/09/2013

How many protons, neutrons and electrons?

Isotopes

24/09/2013

An isotope is an atom with a different number of neutrons:

Notice that the mass number is different. How many neutrons does each isotope have?

Each isotope has 8 protons if it didnt then it just

wouldnt be oxygen any more.

Electron structure
Consider an atom of Potassium:

24/09/2013

Potassium has 19 electrons. These electrons occupy specific energy levels shells The inner shell has __ electrons The next shell has __ electrons The next shell has __ electrons

Nucleus

Electron structure

The next shell has the remaining __ electron

= 2,8,8,1

Periodic Table Introduction

24/09/2013

Periodic table
The periodic table arranges all the elements in groups according to their properties. Vertical columns are called GROUPS

24/09/2013

Mendeleev

Horizontal rows are called PERIODS

The Periodic Table


Fact 1: Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outer shell (this corresponds to their group number)
H Li Na K Be Mg Ca Fe Ni Cu Ag Pt Au Hg Zn B Al C Si N P

24/09/2013

He O S F Cl Br I Ne Ar Kr Xe

E.g. all group 1 metals have __ electron in their outer shell

These elements have __ electrons in their outer shells

These elements have __ electrons in their outer shell

The Periodic Table


Fact 2: As you move down through the periods an extra electron shell is added:
E.g. Lithium has 3 electron H in the configuration 2,1

24/09/2013

He B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Br I Hg Ne Ar Kr Xe

Li Na K

Be Mg Ca

Ni Sodium hasFe 11 electrons in the configuration 2,8,1 Pt

Cu Ag Au

Zn

Potassium has 19 electrons in the configuration __,__,__,__

The Periodic Table


Fact 3: Most of the elements are metals:

24/09/2013

H Li Na K Be Mg Ca

These elements are metals


B Al Fe Ni Cu Ag Pt Au Hg Zn C Si N P O S F Cl Br I

He Ne Ar Kr Xe

This line divides metals from nonmetals

These elements are non-metals

The Periodic Table


Fact 4: (Most important) All of the elements in the same group have similar PROPERTIES. This is how I thought of the periodic table in the first place. This is called PERIODICITY.
H Li Na K Be Mg Ca Fe Ni Cu Ag Zn B Al C Si N P

24/09/2013

He O S F Cl Br I Ne Ar Kr Xe

Pt Au 1 Hg E.g. consider the group metals. They all:

1) Are soft

2) Can be easily cut with a knife


3) React with water