Model of Buying Behavior

Marketing Other stimuli stimuli
Product Price Place Promotion Economic Technological Political Cultural

Buyer’s Buyer’s decision characteristics process
Cultural Social Personal Psychological Problem recognition Information search Evaluation Decision Postpurchase behavior

Buyer’s decisions
Product choice Brand choice Dealer choice Purchase timing Purchase amount

Cultural Factors
Culture Subculture Social Class

Buyer

Culture
A set of values, perceptions , preferences, and that guide one’s behaviors.

Culture Subculture Social Class

Buyer

Subculture

Smaller cultures that provide more specific identification and socialization for their members: nationalities, religions, racial groups, geographical regions

Culture Subculture Social Class

Buyer

Social Class

Relatively homogeneous divisions in a society, hierarchically ordered. In the US, they are based upon income, occupation, and education.

Culture Subculture Social Class

Buyer

Upper-middle-class

Michelob - Upper-middle-class product position: super premium price; prestige themes; status/professional backgrounds Budweiser - Middle-class product position: premium price; achievement, sharing themes; middle-class backgrounds Busch - Working-class product position: popular price; sports themes; working-class backgrounds

Middle-class

Working-class

Model of Buying Behavior
Marketing Other stimuli stimuli
Product Price Place Promotion Economic Technological Political Cultural

Buyer’s Buyer’s decision characteristics process
Cultural Social Personal Psychological Problem recognition Information search Evaluation Decision Postpurchase behavior

Buyer’s decisions
Product choice Brand choice Dealer choice Purchase timing Purchase amount

Social Factors
Reference Groups Family Roles & Statuses

Roles
Republican Church member College student Basketball player INDIVIDUAL Roommate

Bookstore employee AMA member

Daughter

Model of Buying Behavior
Marketing Other stimuli stimuli
Product Price Place Promotion Economic Technological Political Cultural

Buyer’s Buyer’s decision characteristics process
Cultural Social Personal Psychological Problem recognition Information search Evaluation Decision Postpurchase behavior

Buyer’s decisions
Product choice Brand choice Dealer choice Purchase timing Purchase amount

Influences on Consumer Behavior
Personal Influences
Age and Family Life Cycle Stage Occupation & Economic Circumstances Lifestyle Personality & Self-Concept

Family Life Cycle

Young Single Young Married Full nest 1 (> 35) Single parent 1 Middle aged single (36-65) Full nest 2 (36-65) Single Parent 2 (36-65) Empty Nest 1 (36-65) Older Single (<65) Empty Nest 2 (<65)

Kids at home Yes No          

Marital status S M          

http://future.sri.com/VALS/VALSindex.shtml

Dimensions of a Consumer’s Self-Concept
Dimensions of Self-Concept Actual Self-Concept How I actually see myself. How others actually see me. Ideal Self-Concept How I would like to see myself. How I would like others to see me.

Private Self

Social Self

Model of Buying Behavior
Marketing Other stimuli stimuli
Product Price Place Promotion Economic Technological Political Cultural

Buyer’s Buyer’s decision characteristics process
Cultural Social Personal Psychological Problem recognition Information search Evaluation Decision Postpurchase behavior

Buyer’s decisions
Product choice Brand choice Dealer choice Purchase timing Purchase amount

Psychological Factors

Motivation Beliefs & Attitudes Perception Learning

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Selfactualization
(self-development and realization)

5

(self-esteem, recognition)

4 Esteem needs

Social needs 3 (sense of belonging, love)

2 1

Safety needs (security, protection) Psychological needs (food, water, shelter)

EXPECTANCY MODEL OF MOTIVATION

1. Expectancy -

If I try, can I achieve a given level of performance?

2. Instrumentality - If I achieve a given level of performance, will I be rewarded? 3. Valence Do I value the reward?

Attitudes and Beliefs
Attitudes are the enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotions, and actions toward some object or idea. Beliefs are descriptive thoughts that a person holds about something.

Learning
Changes in behavior caused by information and experience.

Four Types of Buying Behavior
High Involvement Significant differences between brands Few differences between brands Low Involvement

Complex Buying Behavior DissonanceReducing Buying Behavior

VarietySeeking Behavior Habitual Buying Behavior

Consumer Buying Process
Problem recognition Information search Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Postpurchase behavior

Sources of consumer information
Personal: Family, friends, neighbors, acquaintances

Commercial: Advertising, salespeople, dealers, packaging, displays, web sites. Public: Mass media, consumer ratings organizations

Experiential : handling, examining, using the product.  Which is most influential?  Which supplies the largest quantity of information?

How much searching will a consumer do?
Depends upon….
 Amount of information one starts with  Ease of obtaining information  Value of additional information  Satisfaction derived from searching  Importance of the product to the person

Attribute evaluation process
Attributes Computer Memory Graphics A B C D Weight 10 8 6 4 .4 8 9 8 3 .3 Weight 6 8 10 7 .2 Price 4 3 5 8 .1

Attribute evaluation process cont..
Computer A = 0.4(10) + 0.3(8) + 0.2(6) + 0.1(4) = 8 Computer B = 0.4(8) + 0.3(9) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(3) = 7.8 Computer C = 0.4(6) + 0.3(8) + 0.2(10) + 0.1(5) = 7.3 Computer D = 0.4(4) + 0.3(3) + 0.2(7) + 0.1(8) = 4.7

Decision Making Sets
Total Set Awareness Set Consideration Set

Choice Set

Decision

Postpurchase Evaluation in Services
Word-of-mouth communications Consumer Personal needs Expected service Gap 5 Perceived service Service delivery (including pre- and post-contacts) Gap 3 Gap 2 Management perceptions of consumer expectations External communiGap 4 cations to consumers Past experience

Gap 1 Marketer

Translation of perceptions to service-quality specifications

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful