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Inorganic Nutrition of Plants

MEJIA, MINA, PASCUAL

INTRODUCTION

The Soil

Cation Exchange & Uptake

Essential Nutrients

Life cycle
Biological role (structural, physiological, biochemical, osmoregulatory)

Essential Nutrients
Macronutrients (9) Required quantity 0.1 to 45% ( >10 mmole kg-1 dry weight) Structural N, C, O, H, P, S, K, Mg, Ca Mobile (8) Symptoms first seen in Nutrients Older parts N, K, Mg, P, Cl, Na, Zn, Mo Micronutrients (8) 1x10-3 to 1x10-2 % (< 10 mmole kg-1 dry weight) Co-factors Activators Cl, Fe, Mn, B, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mo Immobile (5) Younger parts Ca, S, Fe, B, Cu

Roles Nutrients

When does a mineral become deficient?

Mineral Deficiencies
Deficiency in mineral = specific symptom
o Morphological o Anatomical o Physiological o Biochemical

Common Morphological Symptoms


Chlorosis
Yellowing Degradation of chlorophyll

Necrosis
Tissue death

Common Morphological Symptoms


Stunted growth Biomass accumulation (Hermans et al., 2006)

Shoot-to-root ratio
Modifications to shoot metabolism or carbohydrate translocation Increase in areas responsible for accumulation

Nutritional Studies
Hydroponics
Nutrient solution (Hoaglands solution) Individual nutrients removed Effect on growth and development

Nutritional Studies
Aeroponics

Nutrient film

Objectives and Limitations


Determine specific morphological aberrations per mineral deficiency Compared against control grown in Hoaglands solution Limitations:
Only 6 of the 17 essential minerals No foliar application

METHODOLOGY

METHODOLOGY
Mung beans (Vigna radiata) (+) easy accesibility (+) low maintenance in growth Surface sterilization with bleach (+) to avoid possible contamination from the outer covering of the seeds (+) removal of inviable seeds

METHODOLOGY
Hydroponic culture or solution (+) to lessen complexity of soil (+) more controlled environment Nutrient or Hoagland solution (+) appropriate concentrations to avoid toxicity or stress due to salinity (+) highest concentrations for sustainability, less replenishment

METHODOLOGY
Measure pH level (+) consistency of different solutions (+) to avoid changes in concentrations Aeration

(+) to ensure supply of oxygen for maximum growth


Oxygen aerobic respiration

MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY
MgSO47H2O NH4Cl

Magnesium
Macronutrient Mobile Biochemically: Group 3
Assimilated and restored as Mg2+

Reservoir: soils
Depletion: acidic, sandy soils

Roles of Magnesium
Phosphotransferase co-factor (photosynthesis, respiration, nucleic acid synthesis, ATP synthesis)

Enzyme activator (PEP & ribulose bisphosphatecarboxylase)


Stabilization of ribosome structure

Roles of Magnesium
Central component of chlorophyll
Porphyrin ring Site of electron transfers

Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency


Intervenal chlorosis
Yellow to white

Necrosis Premature leaf abscission Older shoots

Symptoms of Magnesium Deficiency


Failure of sucrose-loading
Mg-ATP: substrate for H+ pump

Biomass accumulated in leaves


Lowered carbohydrate translocation to roots Modified root metabolism

Downregulation of Cab2-encoding genes


Chlorophyll a/b binding protein Delayed chlorophyll reduction Reduced photosynthesis

Magnesium Deficiency Data


Magnesium Deficient
25 Averaged Measurements (cm) 20

15

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

10

0 Root A Root B Shoot A Shoot B Leaf Length Leaf Length Leaf Width Leaf Width A B A B

Plant Part

SULFUR DEFICIENCY
MgSO47H2O MgCl2

Sulfur
Macronutrient Immobile Biochemically: Group 1
Organic molecule component

Reservoir: soils & atmosphere


Decomposition Fossil fuels Natural phenomena (volcanic eruptions, geysers, sulfur springs, acid rain)

Sulfur Assimilation
Cysteine

SO42-

Cysteine

Glutathion e

Vacuole

S-pools

Methionine

Roles of Sulfur

Disulfide bonds
Protein tertiary structure

Symptoms of Sulfur Deficiency


Reduced protein synthesis Reduced chlorophyll-protein complexes Chlorosis of young leaves Reduction in photosynthesis

Reduction in ribulosebiosphosphate (respiration)

Symptoms of Sulfur Deficiency

Production of:
non-sulfur or low-sulfur compounds (-gliadi) High molecular weight subunits of glutenin

Roles of Sulfur
Component of:
Coenzyme A (respiration & fatty acid metabolism) Pyrophosphate (PPi) Ferrodoxin (electron transport) Secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, thiocyanates, isothiocyanates)

Symptoms of Sulfur Deficiency


N S

N:S ratio increases


High nitrogen: no release of S from vacuoles Young shoots: unable to support growth with protein stores Growth inhibited

Adaptations to Sulfur Deficiency


Depression in root hydraulic conductivity
Signal to aerial regions

Stomatal closure
Reduce CO2 assimilation reduce S requirement

Sulfur Deficiency Data

Sulfur Deficient
25 AveragedMeasurements (cm) 20

15
10 5 0 Root A Root B Shoot A Shoot B Leaf Length A Leaf Leaf Width Leaf Width Length B A B

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

Plant Part

Phosphorus Deficiency
NH4H2PO4 NH4Cl

Phosphorus
Macronutrient Mobile

Group 2 -- energy storage and structural integrity


Availability may vary depending on soil pH

Acidic (< 6.8) most readily absorbed


Neutral (6.8 -7.2) less readily absorbed Basic (> 7.2) unavailable

Role of Phosphorus
Nucleotides DNA, RNA

Sugar phosphates photosynthesis and respiration

Phospholipids (membranes) structural integrity

Symptoms of Phosphorus Deficiency


Rapid leaf senescence Death of old leaves Due to mobility Presence of P exported to young Lack of P old parts affected first

Symptoms of Phosphorus Deficiency


Stunted growth Production of slender, shorter stems Lack of sugar phosphates Decrease in ATP and NADPH Inefficient photosynthesis, respiration (oxidative phosphorylation)

Symptoms of Phosphorus Deficiency


Stunted growth Production of slender, shorter stems Lack of sugar phosphates Decrease in ATP and NADPH Inefficient photosynthesis, respiration (oxidative phosphorylation)

Symptoms of Phosphorus Deficiency


Dark green coloration of malformed leaves
Necrotic spots Lack of P for phospholipid membranes Increase in content of chlorophyll per leaf area w/o photosynthetic capability Reduced rate of cell and leaf expansion, but same rate of chlorophyll formation

Symptoms of Phosphorus Deficiency


Excess production of anthocyanin pigments

Stress response for photoprotection to safeguard cells against strong light

Symptoms of Phosphorus Deficiency


Increase root branching , Decrease shoot growth Stress response to search for P with highly branched root system, more root hairs, more lateral roots, but decreased primary root length

Dark green malformed leaves

Slender stem

P- deficient

NH4H2PO4 NH4Cl
Phosphorous Deficient
35

Averaged Measurements (cm)

30

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

25

20

15

10

Root A

Root B

Shoot A

Shoot B

Leaf Length Leaf Length B Leaf Width A Leaf Width B A Plant Part

Calcium Deficiency
Ca(NO3)2 NaNO3

Calcium
Macronutrient Immobile

Group 3 remain in ionic form


low or acidic pH abundance as a basic cation

Role of Calcium
Crosslinked in peptic chain of middle lamella of cell wall Polymerization of microtubules in mitosis

Membrane attracted to the negatively charged phosphate groups Secondary messenger that interact with calmodulin

Symptoms of Calcium Deficiency


Stunted growth or premature death

middle lamella of cell wall


Phospholipid layers of membrane Secondary messenger

Symptoms of Calcium Deficiency


Stunted growth or premature death
Crosslinked in peptic chain of middle lamella of cell wall
cell wall loosen for to extend for growth Auxin induces acidification apoplast route

replace of calcium ions naturally

malfunction of respiratory enzymes in the cytoplasm

leakage of respiratory substrates from vacuole

break compartmentalization

Symptoms of Calcium Deficiency


Stunted growth or premature death

attracted to (-) phosphate groups of membrane lipids


insufficiency cause constraints in membranes permeability to hydrophilic solutes Cause stress due to salinity

Symptoms of Calcium Deficiency


Stunted growth or premature death

secondary messenger that interact with calmodulin

balance of ions, expression of genes, metabolism of carbohydrates and even mitosis


Accelerated by stimuli from the environment Indirect changes = affect biological process

Symptoms of Calcium Deficiency


Deformation of young leaves hooked downward

Immobility = symptoms in young plant tissues Accumulate in leaves disrupt xylem transport distributed only at a certain distance

Symptoms of Calcium Deficiency


No leaf expansion

Polymerization of microtubules in the process of mitotic


Inefficient mitotic process abnormal cell division

Deformation of young leaves

Ca- deficient

Ca(NO3)2 NaNO3
30

Calcium Deficient

25

Averaged Measurements (cm)

Monday
20

Tuesday

Wednesday
15

Thursday Friday

10

Root A

Root B

Shoot A

Shoot B

Plant Part

Leaf Length A Leaf Length B Leaf Width A Leaf Width B

NITROGEN DEFICIENCY
NH4H2PO4 NaH2PO4
Ca(NO3)2 CaCl2

KNO3 KCl

Nitrogen
Macronutrient Mobile Group 1: Organic Molecule Component Atmosphere (Acid Rain), Fertilizers, Organic matter Easily taken up as nitrogenous compounds (NH4 and NO3-) by plants Deficiency due to nutrient robbing and leaching out

Ammonification Nitrification Dentrification (Organic matter NH4 NO2- NO3- NO N2)

Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation


Symbiosis with bacteria for built in Nitrogen source

Occurs in legume family


Bacteria involved is Rhizobium; different strains = different species

Roles of Nitrogen
Considered as the mineral most required in greatest amounts

For protein, amino acid, nucleic acid synthesis


Component of chlorophyll

Symptoms and Effects of Nitrogen Deficiency on

Growth
Chlorosis- leaves may become tan and fall-off (leaf senescence)
Provoked by lipid peroxidation and pigment loss

Growth inhibition
Less biomass production
Decrease in dry weight

Photosynthesis
Low photosynthetic rate Reduced Rubisco activity Change in source-sink balance Disrupt chloroplast structure when carbohydrate accumulation is high; thus, less CO2 uptake

Carbohydrate Accumulation
Increase in carbohydrate storage Carbon assimilates provide skeleton for amino acid synthesis Excess of soluble carbohydrates unable to be used in amino acid synthesis accumulate in plant parts May cause woody stems

Damping-out of Circadian Rhythm in stem diameter


Immediately after deficiency, Kanai et al. (2008) saw an increase in stem diameter in tomato plants Increase in sugar assimilates, increases water flux, maintaining turgor Suspected to have high phloem turgor to increase stem diameter

Relieved when roots depressed water potential and high sugar concentration cannot be held for too long

Oxidative Phosphorylation
During N-deficiency-induced senescence
Rise in reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress Superoxide ion Hydrogen peroxide

Prevented by cytokinins
Overexpression of genes

Results
Nitrogen Deficient CaCl2 Substitute
30 25

20 Measurements (cm)

Monday 15 Tuesday Wednesday 10 Thursday Friday

0 Root A Root B Shoot A Shoot B Leaf Length Leaf Length Leaf Width A Leaf Width B A B

Plant Part

Results
Nitrogen Deficient NaH2PO4Substitute
30 25

20 Measurements (cm)

Monday 15 Tuesday Wednesday 10 Thursday Friday

0 Root A Root B Shoot A Shoot B Leaf Length Leaf Length B Leaf Width A Leaf Width B A

Plant Part

Results
Nitrogen Deficient KCl Substitute
20 18 16

Averaged Measurements (cm)

14
12

Monday
10 8 Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

6
4 2 0 Root A Root B Shoot A Shoot B Leaf Length A Leaf Length B Leaf Width A Leaf Width B Plant Part

POTASSIUM DEFICIENCY
KNO3 NaNO3

Potassium
Macronutrient Mobile Group 3: Retained in Ionic Form K+ Naturally occurs in soil

Deficiency attributed to leaching out

Roles of Potassium
Regulates water potential Used in ion-gate channels for transport Enzyme activator in processes such as glycolysis, carbohydrate and protein synthesis Involved in protein, amino acid, nucleic acid synthesis

Symptoms and Effects of Deficiency


Chlorosis- marginal Necrosis- at leaf tips, margins then to bases Roots more susceptible to root-rotting fungi
Inhibit root growth, especially lateral root Due to negative photosynthetic rate and photosynthane transportation

When spread, may lead to lodging

Decreased photosynthesis Decreased CO2 uptake Decreased leaf expansion and transport of carbon assimilates
Evident after stem expansion was down-regulated Due to impaired root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates Kanai et al. (2010) tested effect of N deficiency in relation to aquaporin and K-channel inhibition

Results
Potassium Deficient
30 25

Measurements (cm)

20

Monday
15

Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday

10

0 Root A Root B Shoot A Shoot B Leaf Length Leaf Length Leaf Width Leaf Width A B A B

Plant Part

CONCLUSION and RECOMMENDATION

CONCLUSION
Essential nutrients are required for growth and development found in the environment and cannot be synthesized by an organism.

Deficiency of an essential nutrient leads to lapses in morphological, physiological or biochemical process. The experiment was partially successful quantitatively, but victorious qualitatively.

Possible sources of error


Human error Inconsistent measurements Solution preparation Limitation of set up Environmental factors

RECOMMENDATION
More appropriate environment must be provided for the seedlings such that constant source of light and protection from external factors like predation are available Consistent measurement of pH level Mechanical aeration Application of other techniques such as aeroponics and nutrient film growth may further confirm the quantitative and qualitative symptoms that are supposed to be observed

Inorganic Nutrition of Plants


MEJIA, MINA, PASCUAL