Objectives of Paper

(i)

To equip students with tools and techniques of research.

(ii) To make them define the problem and search for suitable methods. (iii) To make them draw appropriate conclusions.

Introduction
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1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17

Research - features Research - Types Research – Phases Research – Problem Formulation Business Research The Manager-Researcher relationship Styles of thinking The thought process Scientific attitude Understanding theory – components and connections Concepts Constructs Definitions Parameters Variables Propositions Hypothesis Theory and models

1.1 RESE ARCH FEA TURES

Sources of Knowledge
Empiricists attempt to describe, explain, and make predictions through observation  Rationalists believe all knowledge can be deduced from known laws or basic truths of nature  Authorities serve as important sources of knowledge, but should be judged on integrity and willingness to present a balanced case

The Essential Tenets of Science
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Direct observation of phenomena Clearly defined variables, methods, and procedures Empirically testable hypotheses Ability to rule out rival hypotheses Statistical justification of conclusions Self-correcting process

Ways to Communicate
Exposition descriptive statements that merely state and do not give reason Argument allows us to explain, interpret, defend, challenge, and explore meaning

The Building Blocks of Theory
Concepts Constructs Definitions Variables Propositions and Hypotheses Theories Models

What is Business Research?
A systematic Inquiry whose objective is to provide information to solve managerial problems.

W.J.GOODES & PAUL.K.HATT
Logical and systematized application of the fundamentals of science to the general and overall questions of a study, and scientific techniques which provide precise tools, specific procedures and technical, rather than philosophical, means for getting and ordering data prior to their manipulation.

FRANCIS RUMMEL
Research is a careful inquiry or examination to discover new information or relationships and to expand and to verify existing knowledge.

ROBERT ROSS
Research is essentially an investigation, a recording and analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge.

D.SLESINGER & M.STEPHENSON
The manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.

RESE ARCH – OBJ EC TI VES
 

To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. To explain accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or group. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. To test a hypothesis of a relationship between variables.

PROBLEMS ENC OUNT ERED B Y RES EAR CHERS
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Lack of scientific training in the methodology. Insufficient interactions between research units and potential targets. Concept of secrecy and suspicion. Overlapping and incomplete studies. No code of conduct for researchers. Inadequate secretarial and statistical assistance. Inadequate and indifferent library management. Insufficient / poorly maintained / inaccessible records and documents. Timely availability of published data. Conceptualisation and Methodology problems.

RESEARCH – SCOPE
FUNCTIONAL AREA Marketing SUB – AREAS Markets; Products, Sales, Services; Promotion; Distribution, Pricing, Physical Evidence, Demand, Advertising, etc. Recruitment, Selection, Training, Development, Grievances, Benefits, Compensation, Accounting, etc. Cost Budgeting, Control, Flows, Auditing Designs, Process, Automation, etc. Process, Layout, Location, Material Handling, Inventory, etc. Operations, Warehousing, Delivery, Supply, etc. Testing, Procedures, Documentation, Gaps, etc. Competitor, Industry, Economy, etc.

Personnel

Finance Systems Production Logistics Quality R & D / Intelligence

1. 2

RES EA RCH TYPES

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH It attempts to describe events or happenings but the researcher has no control on the variables i.e. it is mere report.
Preferences, Attitudes, Frequency of occurrence

ANALYTICAL RESEARCH
This research uses already available information, analyses it and makes critical evaluation of it.
Budgeting, Sales Forecasting

APPL IE D RESEAR CH
This research deals with finding a solution to a particular problem in any field.
Linear Programming, Unemployment

FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH
FUNDAMENTAL research helps gaining knowledge about ideas and concepts and leads to generalizations about the same
Day and Night

QUAN TI TATI VE RESEARCH
This research endeavour to measure quantities or amounts.
Statistical Analysis

QUA LITATI VE RESEARCH
This research tries to study the underlined motives and behaviour of people and other phenomena.
Motivation

CONC EPT UA L R ES EARCH CONCEPTUAL research deals with already existing ideas or theories that are generally acceptable and followed.
Any concept or theory

EMPIRICAL research tries to simulate certain conditions and relies on experiences and observations.
Genetic Engineering

BAS ED ON TI ME
Research can be ONE-TIME (short period) or Any Survey LONGITUDINAL (long period)
Manpower Planning

BAS ED ON ENVI RO NM ENT
SITUATION research can be done in a controlled atmosphere (lab) or the actual work place or any other geographical area (field setting).

BASED ON EVIDENCE
In the case of HISTORICAL research, evidence is found in the form of documents relics & other archeological pattern (study of the remains of the past) DIAGNOSTIC research goes by evidence that has to be created and noted.

BASED ON THE APPROACH

In CONCLUSION oriented research, the researcher can take up a problem, reorganize the enquiry and may possess alternative approaches in arriving at a conclusion. In DECISION oriented research, the researcher does not have a choice of approach in the sense that a scientific approach already exists and he has to merely follow that approach depending on what decisions needs to be taken.

1.3 RES EAR CH – PHA SES

Discover Management Dilemma  Define Management Question  Define Research Question(s)  Refine Research Question(s)  Research Proposal  Research Design  Design Strategy  Data Collection Design & Sampling Design  Question & Instrument Pilot testing

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Instrument Revision Data Collection & Preparation Data Analysis & Interpretation Research Reporting Management Decision

1.4 RESE ARCH – PR OB LE M FORMUL ATI ON

DEFINITION: RESEARCH PROBLEM
It refers to some difficulty which a researcher experience in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same.

CONSIDERATION IN DEFINITION / FORMULATION

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Technical terms, words or phrases with a special meanings should be clearly defined. Basic assumption if any should be clearly stated A straight forward statement of the value of the investigation (criteria for selection) should be provided. Suitability of time period and source of data must be considered Scope of the investigation and/or the limits within which the problem is to be studied must be mentioned explicitly.

TR AN SLATIO N OF MA NA GEM EN T PR OB LEM I NTO A RESE ARCH PR OBLEM
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Identify the management problem including problem area and related factors Identify important issues and the cause/effect relationship involved Divides the whole problem into sub-problem based on issues List the sub problem on a priority basis Identify important factor and hypothesis Formulate relevant hypothesis for each issue Combine related issues together so that investigation efforts will be exhaustive and economical Make statement of specific research problem or problems

SE LECTI NG A PROBL EM
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Subjects which have been over done should not be normally chosen Avoid controversial subjects Avoid too narrow or two-way problems The subject selected should be familiar and feasible Importance of the subject, qualification and training of the researcher, cost involved, time factor etc must be considered. Selection must be preceded by a preliminary study

MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS

RESEARCH PROBLEMS

Allocate advertising budget among media Decide whether to keep library open on Sunday

Estimate awareness generated by each media type Evaluate use of services on Sunday and determine if members can do these on weekdays Design a concept “test” through which likely acceptance and use can be assessed Design a test marketing situation such that the effect of the new programme can be estimated Measure current image of the product

Introduce a new health service Change the marketing programme

Increase the sales of a product

1. 5 BUSIN ESS RESEAR CH

What is Good Research?

Following the standards of the scientific method
– Purpose clearly defined – Research process detailed – Research design thoroughly planned – Limitations frankly revealed – High ethical standards applied

– Adequate analysis for decisionmaker’s needs – Findings presented unambiguously – Conclusions justified – Researcher’s experience reflected

1. 6 TH E MAN AGERRESEAR CH ER REL ATI ONSHIP

Why Managers need Better Information
Global and domestic competition is more vigorous  Organizations are increasingly practicing data mining and data warehousing

The Value of Acquiring Research Skills
To gather more information before selecting a course of action  To do a high-level research study  To understand research design  To evaluate and resolve a current management dilemma  To establish a career as a research specialist

The Manager-Researcher Relationship

Manager’s obligations – Specify problems – Provide adequate background information – Access to company information gatekeepers Researcher’s obligations – Develop a creative research design – Provide answers to important business questions

Management’s limited exposure to research  Manager sees researcher as threat to personal status  Researcher has to consider corporate culture and political situations  Researcher’s isolation from managers

Manager-Researcher Conflicts

When Research Should be Avoided
When information cannot be applied to a critical managerial decision  When managerial decision involves little risk  When management has insufficient resources to conduct a study  When the cost of the study outweighs the level of risk of the decision

1. 7

STYLES OF THINKI NG

Rationalism (Formal Structured proofs) Postulational ♣ ♣ Self-evident truth Scientific Method ♣ Idealism ♣ Method of (highly authority interpretativ e ideas) Literary ♣ ♣ Untested opinion Existentialism (Informal process) Empiricism (Observable, Concrete data)

1. 8 THE THOUGHT PR OCES S

Important Arguments in Research
Deduction is a form of inference that purports to be conclusive Induction draws conclusions from one or more particular facts

Deductive Thinking

Deductive Thinking
Theory

Deductive Thinking
Theory Hypothesis

Deductive Thinking
Theory Hypothesis Observation

Deductive Thinking
Theory Hypothesis Observation Confirmation

Inductive Thinking

Inductive Thinking

Observation

Inductive Thinking

Pattern Observation

Inductive Thinking

Tentative Hypothesis Pattern Observation

Inductive Thinking
Theory Tentative hypothesis Pattern Observation

1. 9

SCIENTIFI C ATTITUDE

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Purposiveness Rigour Testability Replicability Precision & Confidence Objectivity Generalizability Parsimony

UN DER STAND IN G THE OR Y – COMP ONE NT S AN D CONN EC TION S

1. 10

CONCEP TS

A concept is a bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects, conditions, situations, and behaviors Concepts have been developed over time through shared usage

The success of research hinges on:

how clearly we conceptualize how well others understand the concepts we use

1.1 1 CON STR UCTS

A construct is an image or idea specifically invented for a given research and / or theory-building purpose.

1.1 2 DEF INI TI ON S

Operational Definition
Definition stated in terms of specific testing or measurement criteria.

1.1 3 PARA MET ERS

Conditions or limitations for operation

1.1 4 VARI ABL ES
A characteristic, trait, or attribute that is measured; a symbol to which values are assigned; includes several different types: continuous, control, decision, dependent, dichotomous, discrete, dummy, extraneous, independent, intervening, and moderating variables.

Types of Variables
Independent  Dependent  Moderating  Extraneous  Intervening

1. 15 PR OP OSITI ONS

Statement about concepts that may be judged ad true or false if it refers to observable phenomena.

1.1 6 HYPO THESI S

The Role of the Hypothesis
Guides the direction of the study  Identifies facts that are relevant  Suggests which form of research design is appropriate  Provides a framework for organizing the conclusions that result

Hypothesis
Tentative theory or supposition provisionally adopted to explain certain facts and guide investigation

TYPES OF HY POTHES ES
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Null implies that there is no significant difference between two entities. Alternative implies that one entity is significantly different form the other. Descriptive concerns the existence, size, form or distribution of some concept subject to verification. Relational are proposed in order to test the relationship or linkage between two variables. Explanatory (causal) implies that change in one variable causes change in another variable

ERRORS WHILE TESTING HYPOTHESES
DECISION ACCEPT H0 H0 (true) Correct Decision TYPE II ERROR (β error) REJECT H0 TYPE I ERROR (α error) Correct Decision

H0 (false)

What is a Good Hypothesis?

A good hypothesis should fulfill three conditions:
– Must be adequate for its purpose – Must be testable – Must be better than its rivals

1. 17 THEOR Y A ND MOD ELS
A set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions and propositions that are advanced to explain or predict phenomena (facts); the generalizations we make about variables and the relationships among variables.

 Narrows the range The Value of aof facts we Theory

need to study  Suggests which research approaches will yield the greatest meaning  Suggests a data classification system  Summarizes what is known about an object of study  Predicts further facts that should be found

Representation of a system to study its aspects  Descriptive models  Explicative models  Simulational models  Static models  Dynamic models

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