 Selecting

observable empirical events

 Using

numbers or symbols to represent aspects of the events a mapping rule to connect the observation to the symbol.

 Applying

Wh at is M easured?
Objects: • Things of ordinary experience • Some things not concrete  Properties: • Characteristics of objects.

Characteristics of Data
 Classification  Order  Distance

(interval between numbers)  Origin of number series.

Data Types Order
Nominal none Ordinal Interval Ratio yes yes yes

none unequal equal or unequal equal

none none none zero

Nom inal Dat a / S cal e * **

Basic Characteristics Examples

Numbers identify & classify objects Store types, gender, members in teams Percentages, Mode Chi-square, Binomial test

Descriptive Inferential

Example - Nominal

Runner 7

Runner 11

Runner 3

Ordina l D ata / S ca le * **

Basic Characteristics

Numbers indicate relative position of objects but not magnitude of difference Quality rankings, market position, social class



Percentages, Median Rank-order Correlation, Friedman ANOVA

 


Example - Ordinal

Third Place

Second Place

First Place

Basic Characteristics

Differences between objects can be compared; zero point is arbitrary Temperature, Attitudes, Opinions, Index numbers Range, Mean, Standard Deviation Correlation, t-test, ANOVA, Regression, Factor Analysis

Examples Descriptive


In te rva l D ata / Scale ** *

Example - Interval

Rating 8.2

Rating 9.1

Rating 9.6

Ratio D ata / S cale ** *

Basic Characteristics

Zero point is fixed; Ratios of scale values can be computed Length, Weight, Age, Income, Costs, Sales Geometric & Harmonic Mean Coefficient of variation


Descriptive Inferential

Example - Ratio

15.2 seconds

14.1 seconds

13.4 seconds

Sources of Meas ur ement Diff erenc es
 Respondent  Situational

factors  Measurer or researcher  Data collection instrument.

Characteristics of Sound Measurement
 Validity

– Extent to which a test measures what we actually wish to measure  Reliability – Accuracy and Precision of a measurement procedure  Practicality – Wide range of factors of economy, convenience and interpretability.

Validity in Experimentation ***
 Internal

Validity:  Measure of accuracy in an experiment  Measures whether the manipulation of the independent variables, or treatments, actually caused the effects on the dependent variable (s).

Validity in Experimentation ***

 External

Validity:  Determination of whether the cause-and-effect relationships found in the experiment can be generalised.

 Content

Validity Validity

 Criterion-Related

•Predictive •Concurrent

 Construct


Conte nt V alid ity
 Degree

to which the content of items adequately represent the universe of all relevant items under study  Sometimes called face-validity ***
 Methods:

• Judgemental • Panel Evaluation.

Criterio n-R ela te d Va lid ity
 Degree

to which predictor is adequate in capturing the relevant aspects of the criterion

 Method:

• Correlation.

Conc urre nt Va lid ity

Description of the present; Criterion data are available at same time as predictor scores.

Pred ic tiv e Va lid ity

Prediction of the future; criterion data are measured after the passage of time.

Cons tru ct Va lid ity
 

What accounts for the variance in the measure? Identifies the underlying constructs being measured and how well the test represents it Methods: Judgemental; Correlation; Factor Analysis; Multi-variate Analysis.

Relia bility
 Stability

(Test-retest) (Parallel forms)

 Equivalence  Internal

Consistency (Split-half, KR20,

Cronbach’s alpha).

Tes t-R ete st (Sta bil ity )
 Same

test is administered twice to same subjects over an interval of less than six months Correlation.

 Method:

Stability means one can secure consistent results with repeated measurements with same instrument.

Bias Caused By...
  

Time delay between measurements Insufficient time between measurements Respondent thinks there is disguised purpose Respondent forms new opinion before retest (Topic sensitivity) Introduction of moderating variables between measurements.

Parallel Forms (Equivalence)

administered simultaneously or with a delay Correlation.


Equ iv ale nce

Concerned with variations at one point in time among observers and samples of items Interrater Reliability Delayed equivalent forms (to prevent “order of presentation” effect).

Cr onb ach’s Alph a (Int ernal Con sis ten cy )

 Degree

to which instrument items are homogenous and reflect the same underlying constructs Specialised Correlation formulae.

 Method:

Improving Reliability
Minimise External sources of variation  Standardise conditions under which measurement occurs  Improve investigator consistency  Broaden measurement questions  Add more observers or occasions  Improve internal consistency.


Economy Convenience Interpretability.

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