Approaches to Hypothesis Testing

Classical Statistics

• sampling-theory approach • objective view of probability • decision making rests on analysis of available
sampling data

Bayesian Statistics

• extension of classical statistics • consider all other available information


Types of Hypotheses


• that no statistically significant difference exists
between the parameter and the statistic being compared


• logical opposite of the null hypothesis • that a statistically significant difference does

exist between the parameter and the statistic being compared.


Logic of Hypothesis Testing

Two tailed test

• nondirectional test • considers two possibilities • directional test • places entire probability of an unlikely

One tailed test

outcome to the tail specified by the alternative hypothesis


Decision Errors in Testing

Type I error

• a true null hypothesis is rejected • one fails to reject a false null hypothesis

Type II error


Testing for Statistical Significance
 State

the null hypothesis  Choose the statistical test  Select the desired level of significance  Compute the calculated difference value  Obtain the critical value  Interpret the test


Classes of Significance Tests

Parametric tests

• Z or t test is used to determine the statistical
significance between a sample distribution mean and a population parameter

 Assumptions:

• independent observations • normal distributions • populations have equal variances • at least interval data measurement scale


Classes of Significance Tests
Nonparametric tests

• Chi-square test is used for situations in which
a test for differences between samples is required

 Assumptions

• independent observations for some tests • normal distribution not necessary • homogeneity of variance not necessary • appropriate for nominal and ordinal data, may
be used for interval or ratio data


How to Test the Null Hypothesis

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) • the statistical method for testing the null hypothesis that means of several populations are equal


Multiple Comparison Tests
 Multiple

• test the difference between each pair of •

comparison procedures

means and indicate significantly different group means at a specified alpha level (<.05) use group means and incorporate the MSerror term of the F ratio


How to Select a Test
 Which

• one sample, • two samples • k samples

does the test involve?

 If

two or k samples,are the individual cases independent or related?  Is the measurement scale nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio?

K Related Samples Test
Use when:  The grouping factor has more than two levels  Observations or participants are

• matched . . . or • the same participant is measured more than
or ratio data

 Interval

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