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HYPOTHESIS

TESTING

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Approaches to Hypothesis
Testing
• Classical Statistics
• sampling-theory approach
• objective view of probability
• decision making rests on analysis of available
sampling data
• Bayesian Statistics
• extension of classical statistics
• consider all other available information
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Types of Hypotheses
• Null
• that no statistically significant difference exists
between the parameter and the statistic being
compared
• Alternative
• logical opposite of the null hypothesis
• that a statistically significant difference does
exist between the parameter and the statistic
being compared.
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Logic of Hypothesis Testing
• Two tailed test
• nondirectional test
• considers two possibilities
• One tailed test
• directional test
• places entire probability of an unlikely
outcome to the tail specified by the alternative
hypothesis

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Decision Errors in Testing
• Type I error
• a true null hypothesis is rejected
• Type II error
• one fails to reject a false null hypothesis

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Testing for Statistical
Significance
 State the null hypothesis
 Choose the statistical test

 Select the desired level of significance

 Compute the calculated difference value

 Obtain the critical value

 Interpret the test

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Classes of Significance Tests
• Parametric tests
• Z or t test is used to determine the statistical
significance between a sample distribution
mean and a population parameter
 Assumptions:

• independent observations
• normal distributions
• populations have equal variances
• at least interval data measurement scale
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Classes of Significance Tests
Nonparametric tests
• Chi-square test is used for situations in which
a test for differences between samples is
required
 Assumptions

• independent observations for some tests


• normal distribution not necessary
• homogeneity of variance not necessary
• appropriate for nominal and ordinal data, may
8 be used for interval or ratio data
How to Test the Null Hypothesis
• Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
• the statistical method for testing the null
hypothesis that means of several
populations are equal

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Multiple Comparison Tests
 Multiple comparison procedures
• test the difference between each pair of
means and indicate significantly different
group means at a specified alpha level (<.05)
• use group means and incorporate the MSerror
term of the F ratio

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How to Select a Test
 Which does the test involve?
• one sample,
• two samples
• k samples
 Iftwo or k samples,are the individual
cases independent or related?
 Is the measurement scale nominal,
ordinal, interval, or ratio?
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K Related Samples Test
Use when:
 The grouping factor has more than two
levels
 Observations or participants are

• matched . . . or
• the same participant is measured more than
once
 Interval or ratio data
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