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# Pictorial Sketching

Objectives
Be able to explain the difference between an axonometric projection and an oblique projection.

Be able to explain the difference between an
isometric projection and an isometric drawing/sketch. Be able to create an isometric and oblique sketches from an actual object and multiview drawing.

Axonometric & Oblique Projection

Axonometric Projection Parallel & normal to picture plane A B D A C B D C Line of sight .

Isometric b All angles are equal. A A C B B a D D Axonometric axis c 2. Trimetric b None of angles are equal. Dimetric b Two angles are equal.Axonometric Projection Type of axonometric drawing a Axonometric axis c 1. C a Axonometric axis c 3. .

Oblique Projection Parallel & oblique to picture plane A Line of sight A B C D D B C .

Oblique Projection Oblique drawing angle A B C A D C D B 30o 45o 60o Type of Oblique drawing 1) Cavalier Full scale 2) Cabinet Half scale 45o 45o .

Isometric Projection & Isometric drawing .

Isometric Projection Rotate 45 about vertical axis Tilt forward (35o16’) All edges foreshorten about 0. .8 time.

Isometric projection (True projection) Isometric drawing (Full scale) Forshorten Full scale .Isometric Drawing Isometric drawing is a drawing drawn on an isometric axes using full scale.

View point is looking up on the bottom of the object. .Positions of Isometric Axes Isometric axes can be arbitrarily positioned to create different views of a single object. Regular isometric Reverse axis isometric Long axis isometric View point is looking down on the top of the object. View point is looking from the right (or left) of the object.

Nonisometric lines Isometric axes . Isometric line is the line that run parallel to any of the isometric axes.Distance in Isometric Drawing True-length distances are shown along isometric lines.

Isometric Sketching .

Sketch from an actual object 1. Place the object in the position which its shape and features are clearly seen. Estimate the size an and relationship of each details. 3. 4. . 2. Sketching the enclosing box. Darken all visible lines. Define an isometric axis. 5.

Darken visible lines. 3. Add details. 4.Sketch from an actual object STEPS 1. Positioning object. 5. Sketch enclosing box. Select isometric axis. . 2.

Select isometric axis. Darken visible lines. 3. 5. Note In isometric sketch/drawing). Add details. 4. Sketch enclosing box. 2.Sketch from an actual object STEPS 1. . Positioning object. hidden lines are omitted unless they are absolutely necessary to completely describe the object.

Interprete the meaning of lines/areas in multiview drawing. .Sketch from multiview drawing 1. Locate the lines or surfaces relative to isometric axis. 2.

Example 1 : Object has only normal surfaces Top Top View Regular H Front W Side D Front View W Side View D H Bottom View Reverse Front Side Bottom .

Example 2 : Object has inclined surfaces Nonisometric line y H y D x x Front View W .

Example 3 : Object has inclined surfaces x C B A x B C A y x x y C B A Nonisometric line .

Example 4 Regular x y B C E D A B F Front View C A D F E Reverse .

Construct an isometric square. Sketching Steps 1. 3. . a circle appears as an ellipse. Locate the centre of an ellipse.Circle & Arc in Isometric In isometric drawing. Sketch arcs that connect the tangent points. 2.

4. 2. . Sketching Steps 1. Locate the centre of an ellipse. Locate the four centres. Draw the arcs with these centres and tangent to isometric square. 3. Construct an isometric square. 5. Construct a perpendicular bisector from each tangent point.Circle & Arc in Isometric Four-centre method is usually used when drawn an isometric ellipse with drawing instrument.

Example 5 .

Construct points along the curve in multiview drawing. Sketch the connecting lines.Irregular Curve in Isometric Steps 1. Locate these points in the isometric view. . 3. 2.

Oblique Sketching .

irregular shape surface parallel to frontal plane. hole.Object Orientation Guidelines Place complex features (arc. .

Object Orientation Guidelines The longest dimension of an object should be parallel to the frontal plane. GOOD GOOD WORSE WORSE .

Object Orientation Guidelines Which orientation is better ? .

Sketch from actual object ESTIMATE DEPTH D ESTIMATE LINES 45 .

Sketch from multiview drawing .

Sketch from multiview drawing .

Sketch from multiview drawing E D C B A .

Sketch from multiview drawing E D C B A .

Sketch from multiview drawing E D C B A .

Sketch from multiview drawing E D C B A .