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Principles of Food, Beverage, and Labor Cost Controls, Ninth Edition

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Condition of facilities and equipment Arrangement of foods Location of facilities Security of storage areas Dating and pricing of stored foods

Temperature (next slide) Storage containers:

Staples (airtight, insect-proof); Perishables (packed to maintain original quality); - Fresh Fish (packed in ice); - Cooked foods & open cans (stainless steel containers)

Perishables (slatted shelving) Nonperishables (solid steel shelving)

Cleanliness: daily sweeping and cleaning

Fresh meats Fresh produce Fresh dairy products Fresh fish Frozen foods

34*F to 36*F 34*F to 36*F 34*F to 36*F 30*F to 34*F -10*F to 0*F

Availability according to use

Most frequently used items closest to entrance

Fixing definite location

Each item always found in the same location Separate facilities for storage of different classes of foods

Rotation of stock
Older quantities of food used before newer deliveries First-in, first-out method of stock rotation

Foods stored in appropriate containers or at improper temperatures One single item stored in several locations New delivers stored in front of old Increased pilferage if storage areas are not secured Values of issues unidentifiable because those issuing foods have not recorded item prices on requisitions

Often, foodservice managers create difficulties for their workers by developing a requisition system that is far too timeconsuming and complicated. The difficulty in such an approach usually arises because management hopes to equate products issued with products sold without taking a physical inventory.

1. Food,

beverages, and supplies should be requisitioned only as needed based on approved production schedules. 2. Required items (issues) should be issued only with management approval. 3. If a written record of issues is to be kept, each person removing food, beverages, or supplies from the storage area must sign, acknowledging receipt of the products. 4. Products that do not ultimately get used should be returned to the storage area, and their return recorded.

It is vital that a copy of the storeroom requisition form be sent to the purchasing agent after it has been used so that this individual will have a sense of the movement of product in and out of the storage areas.

Ethics have been defined as the choices of proper conduct made by an individual in his or her relationships with others. Ethics come into play in purchasing products because of the tendency for some suppliers to seek an unfair advantage over the competition by providing personal favors to the buyer.

Remember that storage costs money, in terms of the space for items, and the money that is tied up in inventory items.

In most establishments, the storage process consists of four parts: placing products in storage, maintaining product quality and safety, maintaining product security, and determining inventory value.

Speeds the storing and issuing of food Maximizes security Reduces labor requirements

FIFO (first in, first out) means that the operator intends to rotate stock in such a way that product already on hand is sold prior to the sale of more recently delivered products. FIFO is the preferred storage technique for most perishable and non-perishable items. Failure to implement a FIFO system of storage management can result in excessive product loss due to spoilage, shrinkage, and deterioration of quality.

Some operators require the storeroom clerk to mark or tag each delivered item with the date of delivery. Products are generally placed in one of three major storage areas: dry storage, refrigerated storage, or frozen storage.

Dry storage areas should generally be maintained at a temperature ranging between 65oF and 70oF. Shelving must be sturdy, easy to clean, and at least 6 inches above the ground to ensure proper ventilation. Dry goods should never be stored directly on the floor. Labels should face out for easy identification

Refrigerator temperatures should generally be maintained between 32oF (0oC) and 36oF (2oC). Refrigerators actually work by removing heat from the contents, rather than "making" food cold. Refrigerators should have easily cleaned shelving units that are at least six inches off the floor and are slotted to allow for good air circulation.

Freezer temperatures should be maintained between 0F and -10F (-18oC and -23oC). It is anticipated that in the future more and more foodservice storage space will be devoted to frozen food. Frozen food holding units must be regularly maintained, a process that includes cleaning inside and out, and constant temperature monitoring to detect possible improper operation.

Regardless of the storage type, food and related products should be stored neatly in some logical order. Food product quality rarely improves with increased storage time. The primary method for ensuring product quality while in storage is through proper product rotation and high standards of storeroom sanitation.

Storage areas are excellent breeding grounds for insects, some bacteria, and also rodents. To protect against these potentially damaging hazards, you should insist on a regular cleaning of all storage areas.
Both refrigerators and frozen food holding units should be kept six to ten inches from walls to allow for the free circulation of air around, and efficient operation of, the units.

Most foodservice operators attempt to control access to the location of stored products. It is your responsibility to see to it that the storeroom clerk maintains good habits in securing product inventory. As a general rule, if storerooms are to be locked, only one individual should have the key during any shift.

Ideally, frozen food holding units and refrigerators should have externally visible internal thermometers, whether they are read as a digital display, or in the more traditional temperature scale. In larger storage areas, hallways should be kept clear and empty of storage materials or boxes

Food or beverage products may be transferred from one food service unit to another. For example, it is likely that fruit juice, vegetables, and similar items are taken from the kitchen for use in the bar, while wine, sherry, and similar items may be taken from the bar for use in the kitchen. Transfers out of the kitchen are subtracted from the cost of food sold and transfers in to the kitchen are added to the cost of food sold.

Intraunit Transfers Between Bar and Kitchen

Between Kitchen and Kitchen

Cooking wines and spirits Fruits, juices and dairy products Large hotels that operate more than one kitchen

Interunit Transfers Transfers of food and beverage between units in a chain

Purchase Order Information

Item Name Purchase Order Number Spec #, if appropriate Date Ordered Quantity Ordered Delivery Date Quoted Price Ordered by____ Extension Price Received by_______ Total Price of Order Delivery Instructions Vendor Information


Written verification of quoted price Written verification of quantity ordered Written verification of the receipt of all goods ordered Written and special instructions to the receiving clerk, as needed Written verification of conformance to product specification Written authorization to prepare vendor invoice for paymentThe advantages of a written Purchase Order are many but include the following:

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2009