You are on page 1of 68

European UMTS Field Experience

Wireless Network Engineering October , 2003

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Agenda
RF Design
WCDMA Principles Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages First Tuning Principles First Tuning Process

Tools
Some Real examples

Lessons Learnt

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Agenda
RF Design
WCDMA Principles
Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages First Tuning Principles First Tuning Process

Tools
Some Real examples

Lessons Learnt
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

WCDMA RF Characteristics
Coverage quality sensitive to traffic load. Capacity usually limited by downlink Interference.

All neighbor cells are Co Channel interferers


Faster Handover Processing & Power Control essential There will be a complex traffic mix, being really asymmetric. The mobility pattern will also have direct impact in the final system behavior. Interference Control Critical for all CDMA-based Technologies. Cloverleaf Pattern with 65 Deg Beam preferred for Macro cells with optimized azimuth.

Microcells can be Co Channel to Macro Layer.

Goal to Balance QOS, Coverage, Capacity, cost


NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 3

Comparison GSM vs UMTS (1/2)


UMTS radio network design requirements

are more complex compared to Traditional GSM


GSM 2G network designed primarily for Voice services, some data traffic has been included with GPRS UMTS - 3G network designed primarily for multi-services (Packet
Data Services, Circuit Data Services, Voice)

Users with variety QoS demands under various RF environments


(Note: GSM has one)

A more detailed interference planning and capacity analysis is required Interference estimation is even more crucial in the coverage prediction phase (Cell breathing phenomenon) The whole planning process has to be done iteratively through air interface simulation as each user is influencing the others
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 4

Comparison GSM vs UMTS (2/2)


GSM
Capacity is closely related to the installed equipment Quality of channels primarily impacted by co- & adj- channel interference. Sequential planning process
Coverage, Capacity largely sequential Capacity can be obtained by HW increase with no impact on coverage

UMTS
Capacity is not only related to the installed hardware Quality and capacity impacted by both intra-cell and inter-cell effects Interrelated process
Coverage and Capacity: find balance

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 5

Initial Inputs To be considered


Geographic
Environment Antenna height Penetration factors / Propagation Model

Services (QoS, guarantee along areas & traffic)


Speech CS data PS data

Product Performances
BS MS

Quality of coverage
Coverage areas and associated Area reliability Type of coverage UE
BTS
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 6

BTS

Impact of the services in the network Design


Higher rate services have a shorter possible distance
SF = 256

Spreading Factor
SF = 32

SF = 8 Low speed Data High speed Data Node B (BTS)

Speech

Relative distance

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 7

Impact of the services in the network Design


As seen, the higher the throughput of the RAB is, the lower is the Cell Range (Higher power is allocated to each user) The final traffic will be a mix of all the available RABs, with a certain weight distribution, and also with a certain activity factors (strongly driven by the application that will be finally used) In the initial stages, the load in the network will be light, thus an initial good basic radio design should be able to warranty a good radio quality As the number of users will start increasing, the forecasted load will increase also; an important role will be played by the per RAB user profile:
If the activity factor is high, the radio conditions will be under a severe load. If the activity factor is low, the radio conditions will remain, as there will be blocking due to parameter configuration

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 8

A simple solution is the best...


The traffic profile is something unpredictable. The user behavior is also unpredictable. The final site locations are also unknown. The environment impacts performance, and the way it changes is also unpredictable
All those variables have got a direct impact on the performance of the network, and they are not controlled by the operator; therefore a simplified design approach is the only sensible one...

A simple approach would be the most effective solution

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 9

Agenda
RF Design
WCDMA Principles

Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages First Tuning Principles First Tuning Process

Tools
Some Real examples

Lessons Learnt
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Simple approach (1/2)


Define a link budget based on the most restrictive RAB that will be used in the system; the main goal of the link budget will be to find out the allowed Path loss. Define the inter-site distance that will be used in each of the environments for the design based on a calibrated propagation model. Generate a nominal design, based on the estimated inter-site distance, tuned with the knowledge of the traffic distribution in the area; this nominal design should be generated with a WCDMA planning tool (like iPlanner).
A calibrated model should be used. An initial traffic estimation would be needed to have an initial idea of the load that can be expected to be supported by Radio Network. The predictions will never have the same level of accuracy than the real data coming from statistics from the field; the real user behavior and mobility is unpredictable...

This initial steps will drive the evolution of the network rollout
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 11

Simple approach(2/2)
Look for real concrete candidates for each of the nominal cell sites:
The candidate should have an average height regarding its surrounding clutter; if it is too tall it will interfere too much and Radio will be uncontrollable; if it is too low, it may not achieve the coverage objective. The candidates should be achievable; this will depend on the acquisition particularities of each region. There must be enough space in the roof to place properly the antennas, there is a significant impact of the right antenna with the right layout on the site performance. Coordination with other operators may be needed.

Validation of the site construction project would be needed. Once the site has been installed, it should be commissioned and integrated with the initial parameter settings. Pre-launch optimization phase should be started once a significant amount of sites in a cluster has been integrated

The most important steps are the ones impacting the detailed implementation of the network like candidate selection and antenna layout
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 12

Actual Radio Design

Used values in our project:


ISD ~ 400m / 200m Antenna Height ~ 25m Horizontal BW 65 Vertical BW 7 VET up to 7

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 13

Cell Planning Considerations


Key RF Design Considerations
Control of Coverage & Interference is critical ! Minimize out-of-cell interference
Maximum use of sectorization in Urban areas Minimize Soft Handoff levels & Pilot pollution where possible Clear Dominant Server required

Use of regular Site Spacing & Antenna heights


Limitations in Planning tools to simulate real network Rely more on real field experience/data where possible

Key RF Design metrics


CPICH EC/Io UE TX power Handover State
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 14

WCDMA RF Engineering
A Clean Textbook RF Design for Coverage
Define Reverse Link Budget from QOS Margins Space Cells for Target Edge Signal Strength. Adjust heights to contain Interference Use Buildings as Interference Shields Unlimited Bldg Penetration & QOS ???

H B R D = 2R > 2B B R

It Doesnt look Too Difficult ??


NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 15

WCDMA RF Engineering
Real World CDMA Cells Fragment - Close Spacing presents many conflicting challenges.
Path loss Slopes Flatter, More Patches of Overshoot Site Grid breaks up Handoff Problems Increase Longer Neighbor Lists Longer Code Search times Spectral Efficiency Loss

Mobile TX Pwr vs Log D


20 10 0

dBm

-10 -20 -30 -40 -1 -0.5 0 log(d) 0.5 1

Slope ?

A prediction tool is only used as support...


NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 16

Cell Planning Considerations


Importance of Pilot Control on Soft Handoff
Aim To control Pilot into desired areas at required levels Results
Soft Handoff levels reduction Improve Downlink capacity Minimize CE usage Reduce neighbor lists & long code search times Improve FER performance

Example

Excessive x-way (x > 3) Soft-Handoff Area due to lack of dominant server Improved area by applying down-tilt and re-orienting site

Excessive Soft-Handoff reduced Excessive SoftHandoff area to be reduced

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 17

Cell Planning Considerations


Review of main Points
Flexibility in RF Coverage control is the most important optimization factor High Cell edge reliability and building penetration loss, result in pilot pollution Use downtilt and/or reduce height to confine coverage Antenna Selection
Greater performance with directional antennas in interference-limited areas like Urban

Choose site location to create dominant server area CDMA analysis result dependant on traffic distribution
(good understanding, even, weighted)
Use GSM Traffic distribution

Pilot Ec/Io is the important threshold, not signal level Coverage & Interference control !! NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name - 18

Advantages of owning a 2G network


Knowledge of existing Traffic distribution @busy hours
More accurate data on traffic distribution maps

Knowledge of Performance for individual sites


I.e: eliminate tall & uncontrollable sites

Knowledge of areas with excessive GSM multiple servers


I.e: minimize potential Soft Handoffs problems in 3G

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 19

Agenda
RF Design WCDMA Principles Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages
First Tuning Principles First Tuning Process

Tools
Some Real examples Lessons Learnt

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Optimizing UMTS networks


Objective of the Optimization activity
Adjust the system resources available in each location so that: The system performance is optimized The service perception of the end user is the best possible

Particularities
Pre-Launch All the signal on the air is co-channel The user behavior is hard to model The traffic mix is becoming more complex The services will become more and more asymmetric

What can be the an effective approach?


Prepare the network for an initial activity Validate a methodology and a set of tools to analyze the system Closely monitor the evolution of the real users

Post-Launch
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 21

Optimization Stages
Pre-launch Optimization (First Tuning)
The main objective is to prepare network launch by validating sites functionality and by performing basic network optimization through drive tests
FTP HTTP PING 1 4 7 * 2 5 8 0 3 6 9 #

Post-launch Optimization (Fine Tuning)


The main objective is to optimize performance of a network influenced by traffic load, using real system performance data and/or drive tests data
RNC
1 4 7 * 2 5 8 0 3 6 9 # 1 4 7 * 2 5 8 0 3 6 9 #

1 4 7 * 1 4 7 * 2 5 8 0 3 6 9 #

2 5 8 0

3 6 9 #

1 4 7 *

2 5 8 0

3 6 9 #

1 4 7 *

2 5 8 0

3 6 9 #

1 4 7 *

2 5 8 0

3 6 9 #

OMC
Presentation Name - 22

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Agenda
RF Design
WCDMA Principles Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages

First Tuning Principles


First Tuning Process Tools Some Real examples

Lessons Learnt
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Main Considerations for first tuning (1/2)


RF control is the key in a CDMA network
As everything is co-channel, parameter configuration may help up to a certain level; there is a minimum base RF quality needed to achieve Aim is to contain each sector to its intended coverage area

A poor coverage control may cause


no dominant server (poor Ec/Io, but high composite signal level) dropped calls due to slow Handoff access to the wrong pilot and wrong neighbor list excessive soft handoff (higher than average 4,5,6 way handoff) higher than average downlink power

Coverage control should be exercised at the early design stage


Pilot Ec/Io is the Key metric, not signal Level Coverage & Interference Control !!
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 24

Main Considerations for first tuning (2/2)


Neighbour list definition is also very important to be defined so that the present signal is used in the most effective way Neighbour lists controls which Pilots the UE is assessing as

handoff candidates
Aim is to minimize per-sector neighbor list length without compromising capacity, access fail and dropped call numbers

Search time increases with longer neighbor lists


Leads to possible Dropped calls

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 25

GSM vs CDMA Optimization


2G/GSM Priorities

Frequency Planning (SFH, AFP) Reduce the co-channel & adjacent channels
interference

Minimize the signal overshoot into 2nd & 3rd server areas Optimal Neighboring lists to avoid Call dragging HO settings (Hysteresis, thresholds, etc) to avoid ping-pong Traffic load management between layers

Capacity driven by network equipment installed


NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 26

GSM vs CDMA Optimization


2G/CDMA Priorities
Code Planning (Easier than GSM BCCH reuse planning) Greater Emphasis on Coverage / Pilot Control Soft Handoff Control
Thresholds based on absolute Ec/Io criteria CDMA less likely to require per site parameter optimization. More adjustments made on RF Control & not using Parameter settings

Neighbor Planning
Optimal neighbor lists: minimal but accurate!

Capacity distinction between UL (Noise Floor) & DL (PA usage) Power Allocation Distribution
Adjust Max Power Per User to balance capacity and performance
More power per user = less capacity (All users share same PA)

Higher power per user necessary at Network borders to compensate for lack of SHO
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 27

Agenda
RF Design
WCDMA Principles Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages First Tuning Principles

First Tuning Process


Tools Some Real examples

Lessons Learnt
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Main metrics to be used along the process


RF Quality indicators
CPICH Ec/Io (dB) Received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band i.e. it is
identical to the RSCP measured on the CPICH divided by the RSSI.

Active Set Size Number of Radio Links established simultaneously by the UE

Application layer Metrics


Mean Holding time In some stages, can be useful to start performing continuous calls drive
tests

Dropped Call Rate Number of Calls abnormally terminated; traditionally implemented on


controlled duration calls.

Call Setup Success Percentage of calls established related to the number of attempted calls
Successful Calls Percentage of calls that could be normally established, maintained and
terminated normally

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 29

First Tuning Process (1/2)


Site Shakedown

Cluster Analysis (iterative) Pilot Optimization Drive Radio Verification Drive

Network Analysis (iterative)

Pilot Optimization Drive


Radio Verification Drive
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 30

First Tuning Process (2/2)

DIVA
Ec/Io Best SC

Data Logging + Processing sw

Corrective actions to be performed

Active set Size Neighbor list tuning

Analysis to be performed at Cluster & Network Level


NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 31

Test Drive Specifications


Cell Shakedown
Cell Shakedown Drive
The drive routes for shakedown are defined as circles around the cell at approximately 30 percent of the expected cell coverage area.
Purpose: to test call setup in each cell, handoffs (softer) between cells and to verify antenna orientation, Primary Pilot EC/N0 (PCPICH EC/N0), scrambling code allocation for each sector according to the RF design and neighbor list coherence with engineering requirements. UE transmitted power will be analyzed to double-check possible reception cabling problems. Equipment: Trace Mobile RF Scanner Call type: voice call; ping. Data collected: PCPICH EC/N0, UE transmitted power, DL carrier RSSI, Events (mapping with rrc messages - rrc Established, Call setup, Call Established, Radio Link Addition & Deletion)
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 32

Test Drive Specifications (1/2)


Cluster/Network Optimization
Pilot Optimization Drive
Purpose: to determine the actual pilot coverage for each cluster and solve the main RF
propagation issues (pilot shoot-up, pilot pollution, scrambling code overlap...) and neighbor list estimation.

Equipment: Trace Mobile - Pilot scanner Applications: none Data collected: Scrambling code analysis (Ec/N0, Ec, RSSI), top-N analysis with a window at 12. Analyses: Per-PCPICH coverage; Best PCPICH coverage; 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th PCPICH coverage;
Number of PCPICH over a given Ec/N0 (12dB - RF design warranty area)

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 33

Test Drive Specifications (2/2)


Cluster/Network Optimization
Radio Verification DRIVE
Purpose: Mainly insure the RF coverage control and neighbor list tuning (antenna
azimuths, tilts, neighbor list tuning)

Process: each call is setup, hold during the time and released; mobile originating and
mobile terminating for voice; mobile originating only for data.

Applications: voice call; FTP over several RABs. Data collected: Ec/N0, UE transmitted power, DL transmitted code power, average
number of radio links.

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 34

Agenda
RF Design
WCDMA Principles Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages First Tuning Principles First Tuning Process

Tools
Some Real examples

Lessons Learnt
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Tools to be used
RF Scanner to collect the data- Initially it is necessary to perform pure RF measurements so that we can take a real picture of the coverage quality.
Agilent Viper, Anritsu, ... Diva (Nortel Propietary), ...

Test Mobile- After a basic RF coverage quality has been implemented, call processing measurements should be included to get closer to the end customer perception
Nemo, Tems, CAIT, X-CAL, ... RFO (Nortel Propietary), Actix, X-CAP

RNC Traces are very useful support for Call processing Optimization

Both types of tools are complementary, cannot


work only with one type
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 36

Viper Agilent E7476A


The W-CDMA Receiver is the Agilent E6455C Digital Receiver
with the E7476A Network Optimization Platform.

Four different modes are available on the receiver:


Scrambling Code Analyzer [Top N, User List, P-SCH]
CPICH Ec/Io Top N Ec/Io (SC reported regardless of any neighbor list), Primary and Secondary SCH trace (Ec/Io, Ec), RSSI (Io), CPICH RSCP (Ec),

CW (Carrier Wave) Power Measurements, Channel Power Measurements, Spectrum Measurements

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 37

Diva Agilent Post-processing

Nortel is using the proprietary DIVA Agilent post-processing tool to analyze and post-process the data collected from the Agilent RF Receiver.

Source Data
Text file export from the Agilent E7476A data collection software (Top-N files in Scrambling Code Analyzer mode) containing RSSI, Ec/Io, SC, geographical coordinates, time stamp. DRF files used for Site Database, to ease the display of site information and for neighbor list tuning (Site, FDDCell, AntennaSystem, FDDNeighbouringCell DRF files)

Maps
Any geographical information readable by MapInfo (e.g, tabs and tiffs) All maps displayed against background of highways, geographic features, etc. User definable resolution for Geographic and Temporal binning of data.

The key analysis screens that are being used are


System Map: Best Ec/No, number of cells in active set, EC/No 2nd 3rd ... Server, potentially RSSI. SC plotter: Ec/No in a sector level analysis Delta tool module Neighbor List Tuner

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 38

RF Scanner vs Call processing


RF Optimization Activity Confirm coverage Assess signal quality Assess areas of excessive handoff Tune neighbor lists Using Call Processing + Processing Sw
UE TX power Best server Ec/No

Using RF Scanner + DIVA


Estimate with DL RSSI Best server Ec/No

UE active set

Number of SCs meeting given threshold criteria Add SCs that meet threshold criteria but arent in current neighbor list

Conclude from call drop analysis Analysis of Measurement Report messages

Call Drop/Failed Access analysis

Detailed message and parametric info analysis

N/A

A huge progress on RF Coverage Control and Neighbor List Tuning, can be done with scanner measurements (no need call processing).
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 39

WCDMA RF Optimizer - Features


Geographic plots of Parametric Data (forward & reverse links) SC Plotter Delta Plot Call Statistics (Drop Calls, Access Failures) Synchronized Call Trace Screens Graphs of Parametric Data (forward & reverse links) Neighbor List Tuner DRF Editor (Network Configuration File)

Coverage Analysis Failure Mode Analysis

Other Search Window Analysis (Active & Neighbor Set) Features Soft Handoff Statistics (by handoff type, Avg. CEs / user, Avg RF Links / user)
Quality Analysis (Markov, Voice, per rate type)

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 40

Example of a Current Network Test

100 Sites Intensively RF Optimized. >150 sectors used over drive route, interference from total cluster of 300 sectors. 253 Voice or PS data calls made. 25000 Call Seconds of DCH occupancy. Call Traces collected from Network and UE Call drop rate referenced to 90 second hold time

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 41

Measurement Control Failure Example


<-RrcActSetUpdComp <ASUDCmplt/> <-NbapRadLinkRestInd ->RrcMeasCont Mod intra[ new[14=sc23 15=sc24 16=sc34 17=sc55 18=sc56 19=sc68 20=sc72 ] rem[1 2 3 4 7 11 12 13 ]] 02:17:08.100 adr_ > Dcch MEASCTRL remove[ 1 2 3 4 7 11 12 13 ] res( 0=73 5=35 6=36 8=47 9=57 10=74 14=23+ 15=24+ 16=34+ 17=55+ 18=56+ 19=68+ 20=72+) 02:17:08.126 adr_ < Dcch :rrcMeasControlFailure <-RrcMeasContFail <MeasCtrlFail/> ->RrcActSetUpd del[ 73] 02:17:08.573 dlr_ > Dcch 02:17:08.615 dlr_ ActiveSetUpdate DEL[ 73] ASETUD f= 2152.2 [r35,]

Neighborlist Update Fails Causing UE not to find Neighbor SC56 and drop due to bad ec/io 50 seconds later

02:17:52.808 dlr_ UE Status: Rssi=-59.2 UeTx=-12.4 Bler1=3.96% FingSC > 57/ -12.6, 02:17:58.811 dlr_ UE Status: Rssi=-52.5 UeTx=-19.9 Bler1=1.98% FingSC > 57/ -8.1, 02:18:02.810 dlr_ UE Status: Rssi=-48.8 UeTx=-23.0 Bler1=0% FingSC > 57/ -6.3, 02:18:06.814 dlr_ UE Status: Rssi=-38.7 UeTx=-30.5 Bler1=2% FingSC > 57/ -8.1, 02:18:10.810 dlr_ UE Status: Rssi=-43.7 UeTx=-30.4 Bler1=0% FingSC > 57/ -8.5, 02:18:14.810 dlr_ UE Status: Rssi=-48.4 UeTx=-17.5 Bler1=28.71% FingSC > 57/ -14.4, 02:18:18.811 dlr_ UE Status: Rssi=-49.2 UeTx=-999.0 Bler1=97.03% FingSC > 57/ -9.2, !! CALL DROP_1 RRC=0 Symptom = Covg OK, Bad EC/NO !!Nbr Srch Fail Drop + MeasCtrlFail 02:18:19.778 dlr_ UE Status: FingSC > 02:18:20.353 idle > Bcch sfn=1033 systemInformationBlockType3 Cellid=27156 =SC 56 02:18:20.479 idle ASETUD f= 2152.2 [r56,] 02:18:20.479 idle NBR PKT [] 02:18:20.671 idle > Bcch sfn=1049 systemInformationBlockType3 Cellid=27156 =SC 56

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 42

Agenda
RF Design
WCDMA Principles Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages First Tuning Principles First Tuning Process

Tools

Some Real examples

Lessons Learnt
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Some Real Examples of UMTS optimization


Pilot Pollution optimization Coverage optimization Example of cluster tuning

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 44

Example of Pilot pollution


Active set size for a cluster Pilot pollution (> 3 way handover ) SW sector 152

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 45

Example of Pilot pollution


Active set size after reazimuth of sector 152 Reduced pillot polution in the area

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 46

Example of coverage control


Ec/Io sector 136 Excess coverage for this sector

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 47

Example of coverage control


Down tilt of sector 136 Overspray substantially reduced

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 48

Initial Network Tuning Project Overview (1/2)


TUNING (CORE) = 30 ANEL_AUX = 18
Sites to apply Cell Shakdown = 39 Cluster I
# of sites = 25 # of sites (Core) = 11 # of sites (Cell Shakedown) = 18

Cluster II
# of sites = 23 # of sites (Core) = 19 # of sites (Cell Shakedown) = 21

TEAM I

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

TEAM II Name - 49 Presentation

Cluster Tuning RF Coverage Control


1 Sectors Change AntennaOrientation Orientation 18 4 Change Antenna Sectors 9 Sectors ChangeElectrical Electrical tilt 15 5 Change tilt Sectors 6 Sectors Change Mechanical tilt 5 Change Mechanical tilt 11 Sectors Change Antenna Height 1 sector

Universe # of Sites 48 # of Sectors 141

HWsplitt work Sector Orders 1 sector # of Sites # of Sectors 27 44 56% 31%

HW work Orders # of Sectors with Azimuths Changes # of Sectors with Electrical Tilt # of Sectors with Mechanical Tilt
# of Sectors with Electrical Tilt # of Sectors with Mechanical Tilt
# of # of # of # of Sectors with 1 work type Sectors with 2 work type Sectors with 3 work type Sectors with 4 work type

25 26 21
29 work orders 22 work orders
23 12 7 2

18% 18% 15%

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 50

Cluster Tuning RF Coverage Control


CPICH Ec/Io

Scanner
Ec/No Ranges (dB) -6 to 0 -8 to 6 -10 to 8 -12 to -10 -15 to 12 NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL -30 to -15

UE

After

before Mai-22 Mai-22 after after 58% 56% 62% 57% 61% 25% 26% 22% 25% 21% 11% 11% 10% 11% 9% 3% 3% 3% 4% 3% 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% Presentation Name - 51 0% 0% 1% 0% 1%

Cluster Tuning RF Coverage Control


Active Set Size

Scanner

UE

After

Number of cells in Active Set before Mai-22 Mai-22 After After 1 47% 47% 41% 47% 42% 2 34% 34% 34% 34% 33% 3 14% 15% 16% 14% 16% 4 4% 4% 6% 4% 7% 5 1% 1% 3% 1% 2% 6 0% 0% 1% 0% 1% 7 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL Presentation Name - 52 9 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

Zoom on bad EC/Io Problem

SPOT2

SPOT2

Problem: Interference; Low signal Level. Objective: Find a best server Solution: 1st Reorientation of 123A; downtilt of 231C, 23C 45 B. 2nd Remove downtilt of 123A 3rd Turn off the sector 123 A and reorientation of 45 B Obs.: MINIMIZED. The only solution is a new site for +/- 200m (micro site?)
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 53

Zoom on bad EC/Io Problem

SPOT3

SPOT3

Problem: Interference; Low signal Level. Objective: Find a best server Solution: 1st Downtilt of 67 C and 58 B. 2nd Adition of a 3rd sector in split on 120 Obs.: SOLVED
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 54

Zoom on bad EC/Io Problem

SPOT9

SPOT9

Problem: High active set size. Objective: Reduce the active set size. Solution: 1st Downtilt of 134 C and 37 C. Obs.: SOLVED.
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 55

Examples on Application metrics Evolution


Cluster 4*
Mean Holding Time (continuous Calls)
Dropped Call Rate Voice

Start
11,4 min
13,2%

Inter
22,7 min
6,2%

Final
38,4 min
2,8%

Dropped Call Rate PS 384


Call Setup Success Voice

18,3%
83,2%

9,3%
91,2%

5,1%
95,1%

Call Setup Success PS 384


Successful Calls Voice Successful Calls PS 384

80,1%
70% 61,8%

93,2%
85% 83,9%

94,3%
92,3% 89,2%

* Values based on low number of samples (high SD)

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 56

Tuning Mobility 3G-2G


UMTS is being initially deployed as coverage islands relying on roaming to 2G networks to complete coverage layer An interlayer mobility strategy is needed to ensure minimum impact to the customer when moving out from 3G Coverage It is important to take a good picture of the rf quality of the 2G network so that we can tune the 2G neighbor list
Identify properly the sites in the 3G coverage boundaries Generate a best server plot of the 2G area Define the neighbor list accordingly

Compressed mode parameters need to be carefully optimized

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 57

Agenda
RF Design
WCDMA Principles Design Process and main considerations

RF Optimization
Optimization Stages First Tuning Principles First Tuning Process

Tools
Some Real examples

Lessons Learnt
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Link Budget Results applied in Real Project


CPICH RSCP = CPICH Ec (dBm) Received Signal Code Power on one
channelisation code measured on the Primary CPICH.

CPICH power feeders loss antenna gain

35 dBm 3,5 dB 17,5 dB EiRP = CPICH power -feeder loss + antenna gain EiRP = 49 dBm

Minimum Receive Level (Dense Urban) = EiRP - Max Pathloss


Dense Urban Environment - Indoor Speech 12,2 Maximum Path Loss Minimum Receive Level Maximum Path Loss Minimum Receive Level Maximum Path Loss Minimum Receive Level 126,3 -77,3 127,4 -78,4 136,9 -87,9 CS 64 124,5 -75,5 125,6 -76,6 134,6 -85,6 PS 64 125,9 -76,9 127 -78 136,6 -87,6 PS 144 123 -74 124,1 -75,1 133,7 -84,7 PS 384 119 -70 120,1 Available Reverse Link Budget -71,1 129,5 Available Reverse Link Budget -80,5
Presentation Name - 59

Available Reverse Link Budget

Urban Environment - Indoor

Suburban Environment - Indoor

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Validation of the Link Budget


CPICH RSCP > -78 (PS 64 was design objective) in more than 80% with 9 missing sites...

EC values (dBm) -50 to 20 -60 to 50 -75 to 60 -85 to 75 -95 to 85 -120 to 95

before 4% 15% 40% 25% 12% 1%

after 4% 15% 36% 26% 13% 3%


Presentation Name - 60

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Rules Generated after several Isolation Measurements GSM 1800 60 dB of horizontal isolation
Dual Band 60 dB of horizontal isolation

chart

chart

Area 1 is forbidden Area 2 azimuths 0 to 180 Area 3 azimuths 60 to 240 Area 4 azimuths 90 to 270 Area 5 : mix decoupling area (vertical + horizontal) N.B. : The large circle represent the margin for H90 antennas; and the bold line the limit between area 2&5 for these antennas

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 61

Some examples of antenna layout evolution


Objective is to keep number of antennas

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Rx / Tx Rx/Tx ou Rx E ricsson RBS200 c/ duplex E ricsson RBS2202 Lucent RBS2000/6 Hybrid Lucent RBS2000/12 Hybrid

Tma

Tma

Tma

GSM 900

Rx / Tx Rx/Tx ou Rx E ricsson RBS200 c/ duplex E ricsson RBS2202 Lucent RBS2000/6 Hybrid Lucent RBS2000/12 Hybrid

Tma

Tma

Tma

GSM 900

Rx/ Tx UM TS

Rx/ Tx

Rx / Tx Rx/Tx ou Rx E ricsson RBS200 c/ duplex E ricsson RBS2202 Lucent RBS2000/6 Hybrid Lucent RBS2000/12 Hybrid

GSM 900

Rx / Tx Rx/Tx ou Rx E ricsson RBS200 c/ duplex E ricsson RBS2202 Lucent RBS2000/6 Hybrid Lucent RBS2000/12 Hybrid

GSM 900

Rx/ Tx UM TS

Rx/ Tx

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Rx / Tx Rx/Tx ou Rx E ricsson RBS200 c/ duplex E ricsson RBS2202 Lucent RBS2000/6 Hybrid Lucent RBS2000/12 Hybrid

Tma

GSM 900

Tma

Tma

Tma

Rx/ Tx

Tma

GSM 1800 1800

Rx/ Tx

Tma

Tma

Tma

Tma

Rx / Tx Rx/Tx ou Rx E ricsson RBS200 c/ duplex E ricsson RBS2202 Lucent RBS2000/6 Hybrid Lucent RBS2000/12 Hybrid

Tma

GSM 900

Rx/ Tx

GSM 1800 1800

Rx/ Tx

Rx/ Tx UM TS

Rx/ Tx

Rx / Tx Rx/Tx ou Rx E ricsson RBS200 c/ duplex E ricsson RBS2202 Lucent RBS2000/6 Hybrid Lucent RBS2000/12 Hybrid

GSM 900

Rx/ Tx

1800 GSM 1800

Rx/Tx

Rx / Tx Rx/Tx ou Rx E ricsson RBS200 c/ duplex E ricsson RBS2202 Lucent RBS2000/6 Hybrid Lucent RBS2000/12 Hybrid

GSM 900

Rx/ Tx

Rx/Tx

Rx/ Tx UM TS

Rx/Tx

1800 GSM 1800

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 62

Some Optimization Conclusions


According to Nortels original recommendations, based on CDMA experience, the following items were confirmed:
Antenna Types Electrical Tilt & Horizontal Beamwidth Antenna Configuration (Avoid 3 sectors within 180) Importance of HW config high correlation with the QoC; From 40 up to 50% of HW changes during
optimization

Importance of Site Selection a supplementary effort when Acquisition to match the objectives /
requirements even the main driver is to go for a simple design

Troubleshoot an Area A new site is not always a solution (macro & microcellular approach)

Nominal cell Design Measured coverage compliant to original RF design; All


missing sites (Greenfield & 2G InPlan) were concluded to be relevant.

2G Sites needs to be specially analyzed If the level of interference is high,


is better not to build it than to remove it; some sites there is no way to control its

coverage...
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 63

Conclusions
The variables that influence the behavior of the system are excessive,
the number of assumptions that would need to be performed makes any study be just a guess.... The only way of finding results is reality. Nortel has successfully designed and optimized UMTS networks and is gathering real field experience to be able to drive the market requirements. WCDMA system is significantly more sensitive to interferences than GSM, it is very important to perform a good RF design and Optimization to achieve the best performance Most of the advices coming from the CDMA experience are really helping us to solve the problems we are finding on the field.

Nortel Networks is committed to UMTS and is willing to help you in


successful implementations of UMTS ...
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL
Presentation Name - 64

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 65

EC/Io Status After the changes

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 66

Active Set Size after the changes

NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Name - 67