A PROJECT ON WASTE MANAGEMENT COMMOM EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT
(A STEP TOWARDS BETTER ENVIRONMENT)
SUBMITTED BY Ms. VIRAL PATEL T.Y.B.M.S
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI 2007-2008
GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRLS COLLEGE S.V ROAD MALAD (WEST) MUMBAI - 400 064
COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT A STEP TOWARDS BETTER
I, Ms. VIRAL PATEL of Ghansyhamdas Saraf Girls College, Malad TYBMS (SEMESTER V) hereby declare that I project on WASTE MANAGEMENT in the knowledge. have completed the academic year 2007-
08.The information submitted is true and original to the best of my
SIGNATURE OF THE STUDENT
GURUNATHAN PILLAI (Project Guide) hereby certifies that
Ms VIRAL PATEL of T. Prof.Y.V.The
information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.Waste Management
GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRLS’ COLLEGE
(Arts & Commerce) ACCREDITED BY NAAC WITH ‘A’ GRADE S.
. MUMBAI. ROAD.S (Semester V ) of GHANSHYAMDAS
SARAF GIRLS COLLEGE.400 064
I. MALAD WASTE MANAGEMENT has completed the project in the academic year 2007-08 .M.B. MALAD (W).
and suggestion on the subject. I also wish to thank all the employees of the GESCL who shared their views while acquiring some of the information and for all the support and help rendered in compilation of the project. for providing
(Managing Director of
guidance. useful material and
information on the subject.
I would particularly like to thank Prof. guidance. GURUNATHAN PILLAI for
being my project guide and for giving his valuable advice. My thanks are also due to the college library for providing me necessary books.Waste Management
Project Co-ordinator Date:
I sincerely thank the teaching faculty of the self financing department of Ghansyhamdas Saraf Girls College and also to the university of Mumbai to give us such big opportunity to work upon this project.
are due to Mr.
resource consumption patterns. generating less demand for disposal on the environment. and economic impacts. jobs and income levels.
Waste management is an important part of the urban infrastructure as it ensures the protection of the environment and of human health. Implementing a "less is better" concept provides better protection of human health and safety by reducing exposures. the disposal technologies and
. and other socioeconomic and cultural factors.
Waste prevention and minimization has positive environmental.
human health and safety. It is not only a technical environmental issue but also a highly political one. Less Waste also lowers disposal cost. Cities are now grappling with the problems of high volumes of waste.Waste Management
I thus acknowledge their contribution with full sincerity. the costs involved. Waste management is closely related to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles. Arising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns have had a unintended and negative impact on the urban environment generation of wastes far beyond the handling capacities of urban governments and agencies.
methodologies. There is a need for a complete rethinking of "waste" .involving the community and the private sector. Some of the defining criteria for future waste minimization programmes will include
deeper community participation.
. These issues have been amply demonstrated by good practices from many cities around the world. and using low energy/low technology resources. focusing on life cycles (rather than end-of-pipe solutions). A rethinking that calls for WASTE to become WEALTH REFUSE to become RESOURCE TRASH to become CASH There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal that is focused on municipalities and uses high energy/high technology. involving innovative technologies and disposal methods. But these problems have also provided a window of opportunity for cities to find solutions . and the impact of wastes on the local and global environment. and involving
behaviour changes and awareness raising. to move more towards waste processing and waste recycling (that involves publicprivate partnerships.to analyze if waste is indeed waste.driven at the community level. understanding economic benefits/recovery
of waste. aiming for eventual waste minimization .
Types of waste .Waste management concepts .Waste collection methods .Waste disposal methods .History of waste management About waste mangement .
3. 5.Classification of waste water .
INDEX Serial no.Industrial wastewater treatment . reconciling investment costs with long-term goals.Company Profile .
.What is waste .Introduction .
Waste management introduction . minimizing environmental impacts.How to dispose of water wastes .What is management .
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 17 22 27 31 33 41 44 45 47 49 51 53
2.Recycling and its advantages Waste management in India About the visit to GESCSL .Waste Management
decentralized administration of waste. 1.What is waste management .Preventive measures Waste water management .Health impacts of waste .Process overview
Page no.Water Conservation .
Primary research is a data you retrieve by doing some fieldwork. Primary research can often prove more relevant than secondary research because the primary research can be co-ordinated to facts and data you want retrieve.
Mainly. some books from the library.
I have used both primary and secondary research method for the purpose of
my project. I have got the required information from various sources.Laboratory .Secured landfill facility 55 58.Waste Management . I have used the internet.
Secondary Research Secondary research is a method of research carried out of another company or organization. I have visited an industrial waste water purification plant in order to know the process to purify the waste water of various industries.
What is waste?
Waste is rubbish.
. Waste may also be intangible in the case of wasted time or wasted opportunities. trash. It can exist as a solid. When released in the latter two states the wastes can be referred to as emissions. garbage. It is usually strongly linked with pollution. which have been used inefficiently or
inappropriately. or gas or as waste heat. The term waste implies things. or junk is unwanted or undesired material. There are a number of different types of waste.
If it is not dealt with sustainably in this manner biodegradable waste can contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and by implication climate change.g. e.
What is management?
The term "management" characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human. The two have to combine to ensure the safe and legal disposal of the waste. paper & food waste) can be composted or anaerobicly digested to produce soil improvers and renewable fuels. The biodegradable
component of wastes (e. and is set out in different acts of waste legislation.Waste Management
Some components of waste can be recycled once recovered from the waste
stream. One view comes from the individual or organization producing the material. glass or paper. financial. which in turn
According to the Oxford English Dictionary. intellectual or intangible). the second is the view of Government. material. plastic bottles. the word "manage" comes
from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse).g. metals. There are two main definitions of waste.
transport. recycling or disposal of waste materials.Waste Management
derives from the Latin manus (hand). Waste management can involve solid. liquid or gaseous substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each. usually ones produced by human activity.
. in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. processing (waste treatment). A sub focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources from them.
What is waste management?
Waste management is the collection. The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.
with minimal environmental impact. industrial.
2. and these were released back into the ground locally. while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. the amount of wastes generated by human population was insignificant mainly due to the low population densities.
The history of waste management
Historically. and for residential. and commercial producers.Waste Management
Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations. 3. Protect people who handle waste items from accidental injury. for urban and rural areas. Open piles of waste should be avoided because they are a risk to those who scavenge and unknowingly reuses contaminate items. Prevent the spread of infection to the local community. coupled with the fact there was very little exploitation of natural resources. Waste management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities. Safely dispose of hazardous materials 5.
The purpose of waste management is to:
1. Prevent the spread of infection to healthcare workers who handle the waste. 4. Common wastes produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and human & biodegradable wastes.
The Plague. Waste has played a tremendous role in history. wood was widely used for most applications. There was a consequent increase in industrial and domestic wastes posing threat to human health and environment. reuse of wood has been well documented Nevertheless. it is once again well documented that reuse and recovery of such metals have been carried out by earlier humans.
Waste management concepts
There are a number of concepts about waste management. were diseases that altered the populations of many country. With the advent of industrial revolution. cholera and typhoid fever. This was due to the increase in population and the massive migration of people to industrial towns and cities from rural areas during the 18th century. However.
. which vary in their usage between countries or regions. and contaminated water supply. They were perpetuated by filth that harbored rats. to mention a few. widely-used concepts. waste management became a critical issue.Waste Management
Before the widespread use of metals. It was not uncommon for everybody to throw their waste and human wastes out of the window which would decompose in the street. This section presents some of the most general.
reuse and recycle. such as cutting fabric patterns with slightly more "waste material" left -. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws. This type of solution is by no means limited to the clothing industry. and that a thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste.Waste Management
The waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce. Some "rethink" solutions may be counter-intuitive. Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other
. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. resulting in a decrease in net waste.the now larger scraps are then used for cutting small parts of the pattern. which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R': "Re-think".
Toxics use reduction is a more controversial approach to source reduction that targets and measures reductions in the upstream use of toxic materials. Source reduction is typically measured by efficiencies and cutbacks in waste. and product formulation. Source reduction methods involve changes in manufacturing technology. due to its emphasis on toxic chemical inputs. Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling.
. do not have a formal waste-collection system in place. the term "pollution prevention" may refer to source reduction.
Many communities in the United States are implementing variable rate
pricing for waste disposal (also known as Pay As You Throw . has been opposed more vigorously by chemical manufacturers. Toxics use reduction programs have been set up by legislation in some states .
WASTE COLLECTION METHODS
Collection methods vary widely between different countries and regions.PAYT) which has been effective in reducing the size of the municipal waste stream.Waste Management
materials by modifying industrial production. Toxics use reduction emphasizes the more preventive aspects of source reduction but. Many areas. especially those in less developed countries. At times. raw material inputs. and it would be impossible to describe them all.
For example. In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most common method of disposal.or
rear-loading compactor trucks. gallon) bin that is emptied weekly from the curb using side. a few communities use a proprietary collection system known as Envac.S. which conveys refuse via underground conduits using a vacuum system.
WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS
. In Europe and a few other places around the world. Waste collected is then
transported to a regional landfill. In rural areas people usually dispose of
their waste by hauling it to a transfer station. whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or organics on a scheduled basis.4 U. in Australia most urban domestic households have a 240-litre
Disposal methods for waste products vary widely, depending on the area and type of waste material. For example, in Australia, the most common method of disposal of solid household waste is in landfill sites, as it is a large country with a low-density population. By contrast, in Japan it is more common for waste to be incinerated, because the
country is smaller and land is scarce. Other waste types (such as liquid
sewage) will be disposed of in different ways in both countries.
Disposing of waste in a landfill is one of the most traditional method of waste disposal, and it remains a common practice in most countries. Historically, landfills were often established in disused quarries, mining borrow pits. A voids or
designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method A landfill compaction vehicle in operation of disposing of waste materials in a way that minimises their impact on the
local environment. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can
create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of leachate where result of rain percolating through the waste and reacting with the products of
decomposition, chemicals and other materials in the waste to produce the leachate which can pollute groundwater and surface water. Another byproduct of landfills is landfill gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.
Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain
leachate, such as clay or plastic lining material. Disposed waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stablise the new landform, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats) and reduce the amount of wind-blown litter. Many landfills also have a landfill gas extraction system installed after closure to extract the landfill gas generated by the decomposing waste materials. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using
perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate
electricity. Even flaring the gas is a better environmental outcome than allowing it to escape to the atmosphere, as this consumes the methane, which is a far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Many local authorities, especially in urban areas, have found it difficult to establish new landfills due to opposition from owners of adjacent land. Few people want a landfill in their local neighborhood. As a result, solid waste disposal in these areas has become more expensive as material must be transported further away for disposal (or managed by other methods).
This fact, as well as growing concern about the impacts of excessive materials consumption, has given rise to efforts to minimise the amount of orts include taxing or levying waste sent to landfill, recycling the materials, converting material to energy, designing products that use less material, and legislation mandating that manufacturers become responsible for disposal costs of products or packaging. A related subject is that of industrial ecology, where the material flows between industries is studied. The byproducts of one industry may be a useful commodity to another, leading to a reduced materials waste stream.
Incineration is a waste disposal method that involves the combustion of waste at high temperatures.
Incineration is popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource.
incineration of waste materials converts the waste into heat. In effect. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". This type of incinerator is sometimes called
an energy-from-waste (EfW) facility. gaseous
emissions. It is recognised as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Sweden has been a leader in using the energy generated from incineration over the past 20 years. the first plant in the United States. and residual solid ash. A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an incinerator that burns wastes in high-efficiency furnace/boilers to produce steam and/or electricity and incorporates modern air pollution control systems and continuous emissions monitors. Other types of thermal treatment include
pyrolysis and gasification.Waste Management
A waste-to-energy plant in Saugus. Massachusetts. as they do not consume as much area as a landfill. though it
In some developing nations some resource recovery already takes place by way of manual labourers who sift through un-segregated waste to salvage material that can be sold in the recycling market. There is also a growing acknowledgement that simply disposing of waste materials is unsustainable in the long term. as there is a finite supply of most raw materials. recycling.
A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a resource to be exploited. instead of simply a challenge to be managed and disposed of.Waste Management
remains a controversial method of waste disposal in many places due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. The practice of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common. There are a number of methods of recovering resources from waste materials. with new technologies and methods being developed continuously. and other terms. or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity. especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. There are a number of different methods by which resources may be extracted from waste: the materials may be extracted and recycled. These unrecognised
. The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as secondary resource recovery.
food and aerosol cans. steel. newspapers.The recycling of
obsolete computers and electronic equipment is important.
making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. although not as commonly collected. the most common consumer items recycled include aluminium beverage cans. the very high human cost of these activities including disease. so that the raw materials from these items can be used again (recycled). are part of the informal sector. Other types of plastic (PVC. glass bottles and jars. which is proven to be both cost effective and also appears to help in urban poverty alleviation. but more costly
. However. magazines. They are collected and sorted into common groups.Waste Management
workers called waste pickers or rag pickers. LDPE. PP. but play a significant role in reducing the load on the Municipalities' Solid Waste Management departments. paperboard cartons. The popular meaning of ‗recycling‘ in most developed countries has come to refer to the widespread collection and reuse of various everyday waste materials. In developed countries. There is an increasing trend in recognising their contribution to the environment and there are efforts to try and integrate them into the formal waste management systems. HDPE and PET plastic bottles. These items are usually composed of a single type of material. injury and reduced life expectancy through contact with toxic or infectious materials would not be tolerated in a developed country
Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be considered waste. and cardboard. and PS: see resin identification code) are also recyclable.
In some countries. both are commonly found in electronic items). as choice items are removed (such as aluminium cans). Practices such as trash picking can reduce this value further. recycling programs are subsidised by deposits paid on beverage containers (see container deposit legislation). It usually requires significantly less energy. most economic systems do not account for the benefits to the environment of recycling these materials. The cost of collecting and sorting the materials often means that they are equally or more expensive than virgin materials. such as selenium and cadmium.
. where recovery of the gold and copper can cause environmental problems (monitors contain lead and various "heavy metals". compared with extracting virgin materials. However. This is
most often the case in developed countries where industries producing the
raw materials are well-established. The economics of recycling junked automobiles also depends on the scrap metal market except where recycling is mandated by legislation (as in Germany). For example. Recycled or used materials have to compete in the marketplace with new (virgin) materials. water and other resources to recycle materials than to produce new materials.Waste Management
due to the separation and extraction problems. Much electronic waste is sent to Asia.
17 tonnes CO2 greenhouse gases. recycling steel saves about 95% of the energy used to refine virgin ore (source: U.
.S. Bureau of Mines).Waste Management
recycling 1000 kg of aluminum cans saves approximately 5000 kg of bauxite ore being mined (source: ALCOA Australia) and prevents the generation of 15.
Damage due to air pollution Groundwater and run off pollution. shelter and breeding desalination Sanitary landfill Disadvantages Advantages completed landfill areas volume can increase with can little and requires maintenance addition of people/equipment requires proper planning.vermin. refuse volume is reduced by half Open dumping Disadvantages Advantages Inexpensive Health hazard.Waste Management
Waste Disposal Methods Advantages and Disadvantages
Ocean dumping Advantages Disadvantages ocean overburdened Convenient destruction of food sources inexpensive killing of plankton source of material. Incineration Disadvantages Advantages requires minimum land Inexpensive to build and operate can be operated in any High energy requirement weather Requires skilled produces stable odorfree personnel and continuous residue maintenance Unsightly-smell waste. Recycling Disadvantages Advantages
.insects. filled land can be reused design and operation. rodents etc. for other community purposes.
Types of solid waste
Biomedical or hospital waste
liviable environment for the future.
Some wastes cannot push needed Separation of useful material from waste difficult.
metals. paints. leaves. fruits. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tonnes of solid waste. flowers. bulbs. construction and demolition debris. 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste. Recyclable: paper. Over the last few years. For example. the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans. today one will not see a single28 piece of plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban
. Garbage: the four broad categories Organic waste: kitchen waste. plastics. Toxic waste: old medicines. and other such nonbiodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. glass. In India. vegetables. The existing landfills are neither well equipped nor well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater.
Municipal solid waste
Municipal solid waste consists of household waste. batteries. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. chemicals. aluminium foils. and waste from streets. Soiled: hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other fluids. the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. shoe polish. some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. plastics. fertilizer and pesticide containers. spray cans. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits.Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source:
a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste. sanitation residue. in 1997 it was about 48 million tonnes. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is not collected at all.
b)Industrial waste as hazardous waste c) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.
Normally it is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a bad odour. either due to resource crunch or inefficient infrastructure. Plastic waste is another cause for ill health. This leads to unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the health problems. not all of this waste gets collected and transported to the final dumpsites. This waste is ultimately thrown into municipal waste collection centres from where it is collected by the area municipalities to be further thrown into the landfills and dumps. it can cause serious impacts on health and problems to the surrounding environment.
Impacts of solid waste on health
. The plague outbreak in Surat is a good example of a city suffering due to the callous attitude of the local body in maintaining cleanliness in the city. With increase in the global population and the rising demand for food and other essentials. there has been a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. rats. and other creatures that in turn spread disease.Waste Management
Health impacts of waste
Modernization and progress has had its share of disadvantages and one of the main aspects of concern is the pollution it is causing to the earth – be it land. especially excreta and other liquid and solid waste from households and the community. air. Unattended waste lying around
attracts flies. Thus excessive solid waste that
is generated should be controlled by taking certain preventive measures. are a serious health hazard
and lead to the spread of infectious diseases. If at this stage the management and disposal is improperly done. and water. Waste that is not properly managed. However.
Waste from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks. since they ferment. direct exposure can lead to diseases through chemical exposure as the release of chemical waste into the environment leads to chemical poisoning. Other than this. Many studies have been carried
out in various parts of the world to establish a
connection between health and hazardous waste. In fact. creating conditions favourable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens.Waste Management
The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste include – the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method. Uncollected solid waste also increases risk of injury. co-disposal of industrial hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazards. and infection. Other high-risk group includes
population living close to a waste dump and those. Exposure to hazardous waste can affect human health. Uncollected
. and workers in facilities
producing toxic and infectious material. especially the pre-school children. organic domestic waste poses a serious threat. children being more vulnerable to these pollutants. whose water supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill sites. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and the rag pickers being the most vulnerable. In particular.
Direct dumping of untreated waste in rivers. bandages. and lakes results in the accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain through the plants and animals that feed on it. swabs.Waste Management
solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff. plasters. Disposal of health-care wastes require special
Workers working with waste containing chemical
and metals may
experience toxic exposure.
Recycling too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. Improperly operated incineration plants cause air pollution and improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects
and rodents that spread disease. resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become the breeding ground of disease. and other types of infectious waste are often disposed with the regular non-infectious waste. Disposal of hospital and other medical waste requires special attention since this can create major health hazards. Ideally these sites should be located at a safe
distance from all human settlement. and research centres such as discarded syringe needles. health care centres. seas. Waste dumped near a water source also causes contamination of the water body or the ground water source. Waste treatment and disposal sites can also create health hazards for the neighbourhood. Landfill sites should be well lined and walled to ensure that there is no leakage into the nearby ground water sources. This waste generated from the hospitals. medical laboratories.
Eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected dust. may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these infectious items. Occupational hazards associated with waste handling Infections Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste. Accidents
Bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy
containers. Different diseases that results from the bites of animals feeding on the waste.
Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste. especially during landfill operations. such as Hepatitis B and C. Chronic diseases Incineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases. Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste. Infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects. and from infected wounds.
. including cancers resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous compounds.Waste Management
attention since it can create major health hazards. Rag pickers and others who
are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recycled.
through wounds caused by discarded syringes.
Some studies have detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. Other states should emulate their example. In most industrialized countries. the Government of Himachal Pradesh has banned the use of plastics and so has Ladakh district. The role of plastics The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effects on human health
has become a matter of concern.
. Diseases Certain chemicals if released untreated. colour plastics have been legally banned. lead. chromium. and
polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease
or death. e. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper. cobalt.Waste Management
Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites or from methane gas explosion at landfill sites. cyanides. selenium. In India. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste. and cadmium.g. Coloured plastics are harmful as their
pigment contains heavy metals that are highly toxic. mercury.
At the household-level proper segregation of waste has to be done and it should be ensured that all organic matter is kept aside for composting.
. which is undoubtedly the best method for the correct disposal of this segment of the waste.Waste Management
Proper methods of waste disposal have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment around the area or cause health hazards to the people living there. Organic waste can be
composted and then used as a fertilizer. the organic part of the waste that is generated decomposes more easily. attracts insects and causes disease. In fact.
Have we ever thought about the number of trees that we use in a day?
.We use a huge quantity of paper in our work at schools and in offices.Cars. buses. These thermal power plants are run on fossil fuels (mostly coal) and are responsible for the emission of huge amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants
How we all contribute everyday?
All of us in our daily lives contribute our bit to this change in the climate. serious thought: -Electricity is the main source of power in urban areas. These are run mainly on petrol or diesel both fossil fuels. We generate large quantities of waste in the form of plastics that remain in the environment for many years and cause damage
. All our gadgets run on electricity generated mainly from thermal power plants. Give these points a good. and trucks are the principal ways by which goods and people are transported in most of our cities.
Some of the wet processes is replaced by the dry processes. However. 1.
PREVENTION & CONTROL OF WATER WASTE
Water pollution are contributed due to industrial effluents and sewage. such high-yielding varieties of crops require large quantities of fertilizers. where it is already in existence. Industries.Timber is used in large quantities for construction of houses. need to operate their plants regularly without looking for savings.Waste Management
. Because the land area available for agriculture is limited (and in fact. metal
. which means
that large areas of forest have to be cut down. high-yielding varieties of crop are being grown to increase the agricultural output from a given area of land. The time has came to avert major disaster. Effluent treatment systems have to be incorporated in industry. For example. and more fertilizer means more emissions of nitrous oxide. New techniques that need no water is highly beneficial.
. is actually shrinking as a result of ecological degradation!).A growing population has meant more and more mouths to feed.
low in volume. For instance. For instance. 6. near agricultural lands and on roads. To minimize the volume of effluents. 4.
pickling once carried out by acids is replaced by sand blasting in which
no liquid effluent is generated. in our country distilleries can set up bio-gas plants which are fed by their effluents resulting in reduction in fuel costs and decrease in effluent‘s strength. are mingled with diluted waste for treatment or disposal. The sludge from pulp and paper industry may be used for manufacturing boards used in packing or in preparation of artificial wooden panels while those from the electroplating industry may form water–proofing compounds. 3. Waste can be converted into wealth. the final rinse water containing little alkali is used for the first and second rinsing of yarn containing excess alkali. for reduction in pollution load and the diluted wastes after minor treatment is utilised for irrigation. 2.
5. It can be avoided by setting up a common effluent treatment plant where industries are located. This method is used for treating tannery effluents. Small industries cannot afford treatment plants as they frequently discharge their effluents. It can be segregated from other streams of diluted wastes. the waste water that is less polluted may be used in rinsing. The sludge obtained is a problem. Concentrated wastes. in the mercerizing of yarn.
and generation of power is ever increasing with development of civilization.
Waste Water Management
Water is one of the most essential parts for human survival. sugar industries and distilleries that let out more effluents can be used for irrigation or as fertilizers after proper treatment. cooling. which will help cut down the fresh water needs. irrigation.Waste Management
Recovery of chemicals and metals is practiced in most industries. without affecting ground water. In view of the wide range of
. And paper mills. The reclaimed waste water can be reused for industrial processes such as boiler. Since the start of the industrial revolution and the fast expanding agricultural activities water
resource began to deteriorate with time. feeding. Human water demand for industrial water supply.
Water quality. a large number of variables are to be considered to describe water quality and water use. which eliminates pathogens before disposal. These wastes are normally handled by the sanitation department. Classifications of Waste Water
1. while others may be toxic 3. In any case water quality is usually affected. solutes and suspended mater in the water. Process waste waters: These waters are produced by some industrial processes and include the undesired liquid product of any unit operation. in general. Waters can be
. Industrial operations produce a liquid product that almost always must be treated before being returned to the environment. directly or indirectly.Waste Management
activities affecting the quality of water. doing laundry. Some may rob oxygen from the environment. Domestic waste waters: These waters are produced by the mere acts
of living such as using the bathroom. by human activities making it harmful for living plants and animals. is determined by the gases. or washing the dishes. The major concern with these wastes is the reactions that may occur with the environment being either direct or indirect.
2. Cooling waste waters: These waters are produced as a result of some sort of heat exchanger where heat is removed from the product. There are three different groups of wastewater to be considered.
. Recycling creates the necessity for periodic cleaning. and is also a major factor in thermal pollution of water sources. This type of waste must also be monitored and often treated.Waste Management
used once or recycled. where at least some may be released into the environment.
This groundwater in turn feeds wells. water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation breaks the fall. Some ancient Indian methods of water conservation
The Indus Valley Civilization. Protecting
forests means protecting water 'catchments'.000 years ago. In ancient India. some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate (remove salts) water. had one of the most sophisticated urban water supply and sewage 41 systems in the world. people
believed that forests were the 'mothers' of rivers and worshipped the sources of these water bodies. The idea of ground water recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining importance in many cities. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and digging wells. growing industrialization. Over the years rising populations. and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. that flourished along the banks of the river
Indus and other parts of western and northern India about 5. In the forests. The fact that the people were well acquainted with
. Water conservation has become the need of the day.Waste Management
Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water storage and conservation systems that prevailed in those days. and rivers. lakes.
the warm. processing. Cooling towers can also scale up and corrode.Waste Management
Industrial wastewater treatment
Industrial Waste Water Treatment can be classified into the following categories:
Boiler water treatment Cooling water treatment Wastewater treatment
Water treatment is used to optimize most water-based industrial processes. effluent water from one process might be perfectly suitable for reuse in another process somewhere else on site. This can save money in three ways: lower charges for lower water consumption. cooling. such as: heating. Steam boilers can scale up or corrode. dirty water they can contain will encourage bacteria to grow. lower charges for the smaller volume of effluent water
. and Legionnaires' Disease can be the fatal consequence. and rinsing. In many cases. With the proper treatment. Poor water treatment lets water interact with the surfaces of pipes and vessels which contain it. Domestic water can become unsafe to drink if proper hygiene measures are neglected. but left untreated. so that operating costs and risks are reduced. cleaning. a significant proportion of industrial on-site wastewater might be reusable. and these deposits will mean more fuel is needed to heat the same amount of water.
. These can be mobile. like a fine silt. Scaling occurs when the chemistry and temperature conditions are such that
the dissolved mineral salts in the water are caused to precipitate and form
solid crystalline deposits.
Industrial water treatment seeks to manage four main problem areas: scaling. which in a pressurised system can lead to catastrophic failures.
Corrosion occurs when the parent metal oxidises (as iron rusts. Dust. Scale is a problem because it insulates and heat exchange becomes less efficient as the scale thickens. or can build up in layers on the metal surfaces of the systems.Waste Management
discharged and lower energy costs due to the recovery of heat in recycled
wastewater. for example)
and gradually the integrity of the plant equipment is compromised. Scale also narrows pipe widths and therefore increases the energy used in pumping the water through the pipes. corrosion. which wastes energy. grass. The corrosion products can cause similar problems to scale. Microbes can thrive in untreated cooling water. but corrosion can also lead to leaks. fungal spores and so on collect in the water
and create a sort of "microbial soup" if not treated with biocides. which is warm and sometimes full of organic nutrients. flies. microbiological activity and disposal of residual wastewater. as wet cooling towers are very efficient
air scrubbers. Boilers do not have many problems with microbes as the high temperatures prevents their growth.
lakes or oceans.
. Most petroleum refineries. and the UK has had stringent Health & Safety Guidelines concerning cooling tower operations for many years as have had governmental agencies in other countries. Disposal of residual wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and costly problem.Waste Management
outbreaks of the deadly Legionnaires' Disease have been traced to unmanaged cooling towers. chemical and petrochemical plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or
national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community
treatment plants or into rivers.
dispose of liquids in a deep. protective eyewear and plastic apron) Note: Liquid wastes can when handling and transporting liquid wastes. not into open drains.. STEP 5: Remove utility gloves (wash daily or when visibly soiled and dry). because it may pose an infectious risk to healthcare workers who contact or handle the waste. covered hole. STEP 6: Wash and dry hands or use an antiseptic handrub as described above.
also be poured into the latrine.5% chlorine solution for 10 minutes before washing them. urine and other body fluids) requires special handling. STEP 4: Decontaminate specimen containers by placing them in a 0. hospital sewage must also be treated and disinfected. Cholera Epidemic In case of a cholera epidemic.g. blood.
HOW TO DISPOSE OF WATER WASTES
Liquid contaminated waste (e. STEP 1: Wear PPE (utility gloves.
STEP 2: Carefully pour wastes down a utility sink drain or into a flushable toilet and rinse the toilet or sink carefully and thoroughly with water to remove residual wastes. Avoid splashing. STEP 3: If a sewage system doesn‘t exist. feces. human tissue.
Sources of waste water for recycle & reuse In a running industry the water in untreated or treated form is used for various applications.Waste Management
Advantages of Recycling & Reuse Of Waste Water
Reduction in interference with the Environment will increase by
reducing or eliminating the effluent discharge. Recycling & reuse is an approach towards ISO . Hence the waste water is being generated in various sections. boiler blow down.
Reduction in "Disposal Volume" and the costs associated with it.
Reduction in "Fresh water" intake and the costs associated with it. the recycled water shall provide "ongoing savings".
End use of recycled water the recycled water generated from waste water can be used for various
. The sources typically are treated effluent from effluent treatment plant.
Recycled water is like creation of "New".
Recycled water can be treated to almost any standards hence is
suitable for any end usage. "In-house" source of good
quality water largely unaffected by external factors. In areas where "fresh water" cost is presently high or likely to be hiked. It is an effective approach towards 'Sero Liquid Discharge'.14000. floor washings.
as soft water gardening etc. chillers.
Process of recycling
applications after suitable post – treatment like process water. boiler feed cooling tower.
creating health and environmental hazards. New consumption patterns and social linkages are emerging. Waste management still is a linear system of collection and disposal. if a new paradigm for approaching it is not created. interventions have been fragmented and are often contradictory.Waste Management
WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA
There is no Indian policy document. which examines waste as part of a cycle of production-consumption-recovery or perceives the issue of waste through a prism of overall sustainability. over 400 million people clustered in cities over the next thirty years (UN. are undergoing a massive migration of their population from rural to urban centres. The new Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2000.e. will have more than 40 per cent. recognizing its natural resource roots as well as health impacts. Urban India is likely to face a massive waste disposal problem in the coming years. such as India. In fact.
. fails even to manage waste in a cyclic process. Developing countries. which has tremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban poor
but can also enrich the earth through composting and recycling rather than
spreading pollution as has been the case. which came into effect from January 2004. India. Till now. But a closer look at the current and future scenario reveals that waste needs to be treated holistically. Increasing urban migration and a high density of population will make waste management a difficult issue to handle in the near future. i. Waste can be wealth. the problem of waste has been seen as one of cleaning and disposing as rubbish.
There is. All policy documents as well as legislation dealing with urban solid waste mention or acknowledge recycling as one of the ways of diverting waste. environmental regulators. citizens‘ groups and nongovernmental organizations need to develop a variety of responses which are
rooted in local dynamics. both of infrastructure requirements as well as its social dimensions. including product manufacturers. rather than borrow non-contextual solutions from
elsewhere. which increases in quantity. especially over the past few years. There have been a variety of policy responses to the problem of urban solid waste in India. however. trade. say better packing. has not been touched upon. yet sustainable solutions either of organic or inorganic waste remains an untapped and unattended area. Critical issues such as industry responsibility. This new paradigm should include a cradle-to-grave approach with responsibility being shared by many stakeholders. municipalities and the urban poor. and changes in composition with each passing day. but they do so in a piece meal manner and do not address the framework needed to enable this to happen.Waste Management
1995). a critical paradigm to enable sustainable recycling and to catalyse waste reduction through. municipal agencies. consumers and communities. the recycling industry. an inadequate understanding of the problem.
. Modern urban living brings on the problem of waste. labour groups. Urban planners.
The construction work was started in March 96 and the plant was pre-commissioned in just two year i. Total Rs. The land for the
project is given at the token price of Rs.Waste Management
Constitution : The CETP at Vatva is managed by a Co. Vatva. 1 by GIDC. 22. Advent Corporation USA has carried out the process design of the CETP. 10. mtrs. Power Requirement : The total connected power is 1100KW Supplied by A. Cost of Project : The total cost of the project is about Rs. S
24106 Dated 08-09-1992) Land Area : The Total Land area is 21000 sq.75 crore Rs. Technology : M/s. 32. 32. 18. in May 98. Ltd.
Salient features of the plant : a) It has a state of art technology called as AIS (Advent's Intergral
.28 crore Total Source of Finance : Contribution from Member units Subsidy from Central/State Govt.e. Internal collection systems Rs.E.98 crore
Society has obtained the loan amounting Rs.C.23 crore Rs.00 crore Conveyance line upto AMC Pirana Plant Rs.operative Society named The Green Environment Services Co.17 crore Treatment units Rs.00 crore. (Registration No. 33. Operative Society Limited formed by the member units of GIDC Estate. In case of power failure they have stand by DG set of 1000 KVA which is sufficient to run the entire project. 1150 lacs from Industrial Development Bank of India and same has been prepaid before maturity.11 crore Sabarmati Rs. 5. 10.
Q. Charging Basis : Effluent Rs.
The Vatva Industrial Estate has been developed by Gujarat Industries Development Corporation in the year 1960 to accommodate small scale and medium scale industries. Toc/DAY Solid waste : Rs. They Collect extra treatment charges from the Member units who discharge their Effluent exceeding specified norms given by GESCSL.
. project cost and power supply as compared to conventional systems. 200/MT. which helps us in improving the quality of Influent of CETP. they are calling them individually against our technical committee and proper technology is being guided to them to control it at their premises itself. c) There are no moving parts in the Aeration Tank as well as clarifier. 20/kg. b) The advantage of this system is about 66% saving in land area. Tank as it's designed based on gravity flow only through the system. Incase of exceeding in any of the parameter than the specified by us. This Estate is located in the south east direction of Ahmedabad City on Ahmedabad-Mehmadabad state highway. d) There is no pumping anywhere in the plant once effluent reaches to E.Waste Management
System) Which consists Aeration system with Inbuit clarifier.
Soc. U.A.. To treat the effluent by individual member units at source was very difficult and Techno-economically not viable hence to solve this problem. Process houses. the most practical and cost-effective approach was adopted by establishing the Common Effluent Treatment Plant under the name "The Green Environment Services Co-op.".
one of the internationally renowned consultants for the industrial wastewater
treatment. with the support of Vatva Industries Association and Gujarat Dyestuff Manufacturer's Association. Ltd. The commissioning and operations supervision is done by advent's Indian Collaborators Advent Envirocare Technology Pvt. Dyes & Dye Intermediates manufacturers.S. Ltd. Treated effluent is taken to pirana sewage treatment plant through a closed pipeline.
. Pigment manufacturers etc.
It is therefore necessary for the member units to give primary treatment to their effluent before discharging the wastewater into ICS of CETP for the further treatment. out of which approximately 680 industries generates the effluent. Advent Corporation.Waste Management
In this Industrial Estate there are approximately 1800 units. rolling mills. Ltd.. Pune (India). These units include Pharmaceutical products manafacturers. Sudarshan Chemicals Ind. The process designing is carried out by M/s. Detailed engineering for the CETP project is carried our by renowed consultant M/s. Ahmedabad.
INTERNAL COLLECTION SYSTEM & CONVEYANCE NETWORK There are 680 member units spread in an area of 13. control system is also provided. in Vatva Insustrial Complex.
. The effluent from every member is conveyed through the ICS to CETP in a most scientific and economical way.
The detailed engineering for ICS is carried out by renowed consultant M/s. To Control the
quality & quantity of member‘s effluent.5 sq. km.
The rising mains have a total length of 6119m and their sizes vary from 180mm to 400mm and are made up of HDPE. In all there are six pumping stations located in such a
way that maximum flow from sump rooms to pumping stations is available
by gravity. The wastewater is pumped to CETP from six pumping stations. the wastewater flows by gravity to the pumping stations. Ahmedabad based on the Technoeconomic feasibility study of the various alternative of ICS. so that pumping cost can be minimised. Gravity mains is having a total pipe length of 17. It is obligatory on the part of member to construct discharge tank having holding capacity of waste water of one day volume at 15' height for gravity discharge. 5 and its discharge goes to pumping station 5. The 680 members which are scattered in different area of the complex are covered in 92 sump rooms from where. All the members discharge their effluent from their over head discharge tank in the respective sumps.
.C. In Internal Collection System. and of different sizes varying from 250mm to 600mm diameter and are made up of R. and stoneware. One new pumping station No..588 mts. The salient features of the Internal Effluent Collection System are as under. 7 is installed to divert choked gravity mains of pumping station no. The magnetic flow meter & butterfly valves
are provided in each sump room maximum 9 connections are given.C.Waste Management
Dalal Consultants and Engineers Ltd.
The CETP has its own in house well equiped. The R&D lab. The physical and the chemical analysis of the wastewater from different units of the CETP as well as influent from the individual member is carried out in the laboratory. The laboratory is functioning round the clock for the determination of various parameters of the effluent and solid waste. The TOC lab. The laboratory has been divided into four sections : The Chemistry lab. This CETP is a result of joint efforts and strong determination put together to
. laboratory. The Microbiology lab. We have modern and Imported Analytical Instruments for the Analysis.
make environment pollution free and earth a better place.
SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF CETP. Forests and Environment Department notified the area
SECURED LANDFILL FACILITY (SLF)
The Society developed three Secured Landfill Sites for the disposal of
hazardous solid waste.
The Govt. of Gujarat.
Vasundhara or earth is the only planet in our solar system which can support life so it is very important to save it from various waste hazards.member units outside of Vatva. Waste management is of great concern to mankind as it affects the entire planet and all its living creatures. Thus. 400/MT of solid waste. Environmental Productivity Council (NPC). Charges for disposal of solid waste: a ) Rs. With the rapid growth of population. Increasing amounts of wastes generated everyday is becoming a major problem particularly in urban cities around the globe. construction and operation are done in compliance with the guidelines issued by CPCB and GPCB. New Delhi. there has been a substantial increase in the generation of solid waste resulting into the contamination of
. b) Rs. The major types of solid waste include: a ) Gypsum Waste. Detailed engineering design. d) ETP sludge. 250/ MT of solid waste – member units from Vatva. c ) Iron Powder and. b) Incinerator ash.most suitable for developing Secured Landfill Facility.
Human activities create waste. it is rightly said that God Gives Enough to Satisfy Every
Man’s Need but not Every Man’s Greed. This can be achieved using various process design and
modification techniques. End Waste Before It Ends Your Life
Waste Minimization Through Plant Process Design And Modification The trend for waste management has been moving from traditional ―end-ofpipe‖ treatment to ―waste minimization‖ solution. For instance.
Thus. Instead of treating waste at the end of manufacturing processes. water and land resources. stored. process engineers have been playing a more important role in waste management by either eliminating emissions at source or recovering and reusing materials that would otherwise be
discharged. and it is the way these wastes are handled.Waste Management
air. the waste can be reduced from source
. collected and disposed of that pose risks to the environment and to public health.
a collaborative research project was launched by Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. For sustainable growth. Implementing and monitoring effective waste minimization principles. safe disposal of oily sludge in a cost-effective manner is a key issue that has confronted the oil industry in India for a long time. To find an environmentally safe and cost effective solution to the problem. This led to development of OiliVorous-S. This product was successfully field tested in Mathura. Barauni and Digboi refineries of IOCL and 4000 MT of sludge was biodegraded during the year 2002-2003 at an average cost of about US$15 per MT of sludge. a commercially produced microbial consortium to biodegrade the hazardous constituents of oily sludge. engaged in the business of refining.Waste Management
by designing or modifying process equipment or technology.
contribute unnecessary waste generation . At a conservative estimate.
.000 MT of oily sludge gets generated in the country every year. transportation and marketing of petroleum products throughout the country. Discussions on holistic approach for source reduction . by changing
process or procedure. and by improving the
housekeeping and inventory control. This topical presentation includes:
Introduction of the waste minimization concepts . (IOCL) and Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI). Identification of system components and process activities that may Examination of practical techniques for planning . by substituting raw materials. Cost justification for waste minimization. over 20.
IN THE PETROLEUM
Indian Oil Corporation is the largest commercial enterprise in India.
HAZARDOUS WASTE DROWNING GROUND WATER
India generates enough untreated hazardous waste to cover the whole of
INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED
APPENDIX . Going by the latest report of the hazardous waste management committee of the Supreme Court. storage and disposal facilities (TSDF) for industrial hazardous
.Waste Management Indian Oil Corporation has adopted a holistic approach for handling oily sludge at its refineries and other locations. there are only 10 independent operational treatment. Bio-remediation / bio-degradation. The strategies adopted include:
Minimization of sludge generation at source .
In-situ cleaning of tanks by chemical and mechanical means. Incineration .
crore investments for development and maintenance. hazardous waste must be kept in storage after which it is to be treated in a TSDFs facility. This takes care only 40% of the hazardous waste generated that includes harmful metals like lead and mercury and lethal chemicals. In 2003. Maharashtra. the Supreme Court asked states to strictly implement the hazardous waste management rules under the Environment Protection Act
.based NGO Toxic Link director Ravi Agarwal said.‖ Delhi. some large companies build their own. The 10 TSDFs are spread out in a few states including Andhra Pradesh. since TSDFs involve multi. most companies. especially small ones. one of which states the storage time should not exceed three months. While independent TSDFs are open for industries to use at a price. that came into play in 1989. rely on independent TSDFs. among others. the environment ministry issued guidelines under the rules. Tamil Nadu.Waste Management
waste in the country. In Kerela. ― The three month guideline is rarely followed and most of the hazardous waste is dumped in open spaces. environment ministry official said. ―Since in many states such facilities don‘t exist. According to the hazardous waste management rules under the Environment Protection Act. Contamination of ground water due to this is common. However. the country generates 5 million tonnes of hazardous waste every year and 10 TSDFs have the capacity to treat not more than 2 million tonnes. the TSDFs are still in the process of development. West Bengal and Haryana. many companies transport the waste to a state where a TSDF exists while others allow their waste to remain untreated‖. According to industry estimates. Gujarat and Rajasthan. In 2002.
The state authorities are supposed to provide land for TDSFs at a subsidized rate.2
Now. power your house from plastic waste Asian electronics & Singapore company to Build Power Plants Fired By Liquid Hydrocarbons Electricity from plastic waste. A TSDFs includes a laboratory and an incinerator where different waste is treated separately and a landfill where treated waste is disposed.THE ECONOMIC TIMES DATED. vice president of Ramky Enviro Engineers. The bottom
of the landfill is covered by a high density polyethylene layer. It may sound unrealistic.
SOURCE.deficit India. but it‘s now being touted as the technology of future for the power. that runs 7 TSDFs.5th July. Alka
and had appointed a committee to monitor the implementation of the rules. 2007 Thursday
APPENDIX .‖ said AK Saxena. Officials said the Centre and the monitoring committee have repeatedly asked states to
identify land for TSDFs. The apex court said every state must have at least one TSDF.
―Lack of availability of appropriate land is the biggest constraint in developing TSDFs and the state governments need to be proactive.
Europe and the US. is joining hands with two large corporate to make it a commercial success. Bhiwandi.based Asian Electronics (AEL) AND Singapore ‗s environ. who has got six patents in India for the technology and in the process of filing for international patent.Waste Management
The new initiate will take shape through the projects of joint venture company. On experimental basis. The power plants will be set up in Navi Mumbai. Thane and Rajasthan at a total capex of Rs 128 crore.Hub Holdings have teamed up to build four power plants of 8 mega watt (MW)
each based on this commercially viable‘ technology. is joining hands with two large corporates to make it a commercial success. MUMBAI: Electricity from plastic waste. Green Hydrocarbons (GHL) which is registered in Japan. Mumbai. according to
. Alka Umesh Zadgaonkar. The plants will be fired
by the liquid hydrocarbons produced from plastic waste. who has got six patents in India for the technology and in the process of filing for international patent. AEL had set up a 2 MW plant in Nagpur. Mumbai-based Asian Electronics (AEL) and Singapore‘s Enviro-Hub Holdings have teamed up to build four power plants of 8 mega watt (MW) each based on this ‗commercially viable‘ technology. The plants will be fired
waste. It may sound unrealistic. but it‘s now being touted as the technology of future for the power-deficit India. which is running in full steam.
only 70% of the crude is refined to fuel. AEL is already in talks Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) for a JV to develop technology for optimum conversion of crude oil into petrol and diesel.Waste Management
The AEL board is expected to clear the proposals on Thursday (July 5). Using our technology. AEL‘s share price has moved up 2% to close at Rs 908 on BSE. executive chairman of Enviro-Hub. In the present scenario. The stock price has seen 43% jump over last one month. Each plant with a capacity of 12. On Wednesday. Our estimate is that the
The JV is planning to set up plants to process plastic waste in eight countries in Far-East Asia and Brazil. a part of $260 million Enviro-Hub. claimed the official. it can be improved to 90%.
Mrs Zadgaonkar. said the official. Cimelia.000 tonnes per annum can be set up at a cost of $12 million. While working as the head
. has already established its brand name in the global ewaste management and recycling industry. owns the patent for her invention. told ET from Singapore that his company is looking forward to jointly set up fuel plants in and around Singapore with the help of Unique and AEL.
AEL top management refused to comment on their JV plans and proposals for setting up power plants. who developed the technology for producing fuel from
Raymond Ng. he said. Enviro-Hub has access to nearly 50.000 tonnes waste in each of these markets.
she tested the fuel in bikes and proved successful. Mrs Zadgaonkar holds 26% stake. have done studies on the process and given permission to start commercial production of fuel from plastic waste. science and technology. US Instruments has got the manufacturing licence from Unique Waste Plastic Management and Research. when 300 gm of plastic waste she was processing in her college lab broke down into a dark brown liquid. Mrs
Zadgaonkar invented the new method to reuse the hydrocarbons in plastic. including coal and mines.Waste Management
of chemistry department in Raisoni Engineering College in Nagpur.‖ said the official. the ministries.
As per the request of President APJ Abdul Kalam.
Enviro-Hub‘s subsidiary Cimelia Resource Recovery will hold 50% stake in GHL and the remaining 50% will be owned by Shah-controlled companies. a company owned by Mrs Zadgaonkar and family.‖ said the official. Maharashtra Energy Development Agency had signed a memorandum of understanding with Mrs Zadgaonkar for a JV to develop commercial process for fuel from plastic. Rajasthan State Industrial Development & Investment Corporation has expressed interest in setting up similar plants across the state. petroleum and natural gas. After years of refining processes.
―On a December morning almost a decade ago. AEL and US Instruments. ―In US Instruments. It took time to reach a happy confirmation that the derivative was indeed liquid hydrocarbons.
gives a fuel better than petrol and diesel as the impurities are less when compared to the crude oil.
APPENDIX . Is the technology oriented or labour oriented?
―Plastic. a product of petroleum. we can convert the waste plastic into oil (70%).3
QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Why did you decided to have a plant for industrial waste water treatment? 2. Through the new technology. How the process of the plant works? 3. What do you with the water that is purified? 4. How much percent of waste do you think is purified? 5.‖ said the official. gas (20%) and coke (10%).
6. Does the government provide any assistance or subsidy for the work done?
Company (GESCSL) Booklet Pamphlets
The Economic Times Times of India