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British Involvement in India (18th-19th Centuries)

British Presence in India: 18th century

Until 1750s coastal presence

During and after 1750s gradual military dominance and territorial acquisitions

The British East India Company (EIC)

Trade monopoly in Asia (since 1600) *3,000 shareholders *Annual profits of 2 million pounds *Headquarters/directors in London India focal point of EIC trade raw cotton and woven cotton cloth for import EIC settlements Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta

EIC Trade in India First part of the 18th century

Sophisticated economy Profitable for Europeans no military intervention Security/stability guaranteed by the Mughals and nawabs

Company Trade Company Men

Ambitious reps of the EIC Relied on personal diplomatic skills and private armies of sepoys to protect theirs and companys interests. Sepoys Indian mercenary troops employed and trained by Europeans.

British in Bengal
Bengal territory in NE India British presence Calcutta 1756 Nawab overruns Calcutta Robert Clive (company man) and British/sepoy troops overthrow Calcuttas nawab By 1765 the EIC rules Bengal (granted by a weak Mughal Emperor)

Robert Clive: *Arrived to India in 1743 civil service for the EIC *Transferred to the military service of the EIC *Lost election to the House of Commons in England *Return to India in 1756 to take control of the British forces in Madras *Won the Battle of Plassey (1757), securing British control over Bengal Internal weakness and political fragmentation in India Euro.interference in Indias politics / kingmakers!!!

Robert Clive and Expansion of the British Presence in India

European Rivalries in India

The British vs. The French (and the Dutch) Seven Years War (ends in1763) Battle of Plassey (1757) British win control of Bengal / decline of French presence in India

Territorial Expansion in India end of the 18th century

British govt and EIC directors against Company involved in local politics/wars Annexes, adds territories Economic pressures / transformation

Largely done by the natives (indirect control and administration) Policies of westernization, Anglicization, and modernization - tax/property reforms, Christian missionaries, Support of local traditions End of the century India must be saved from backwardness(education, religion, technology, economy, superstition, etc.)

British government of Indian territories (The British Raj)

British presence in India 19th century (The British Raj)

Before 1857 Combination of reforms and support for traditions

After 1857 Direct control and conservatism!

Civilizing India included fostering a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions in morals and in intellect. (Thomas Macaulay, 1835) British presence strongest in urban areas At the same time, the authority of Brahmins and caste separation grew stronger.

Before 1857: Mixture of New and Old

Causes of 1857 Sepoy Uprising (Mutiny British perspective)

Long term causes: *Policies of Westernization (especially under the Marquess of Dalhousie, Governor General in 1840s) - Doctrine of Lapse + exclusion of high ranking Indians from civil and military offices - Perceived threat from Christianity (attack on tradition sati, child marriage, infanticide, permission for widows to remarry)

Territorial Expansion under Lord Dalhousie

Sepoy Rebellion Long Term Causes cont.

Economic causes: - Enforcement of Sale Laws - Increase in taxes / limited investment opportunities - British export and import policies (manufactured goods undermine Indian cotton industry) - Economic expansion (roads, canals, telegraph) at the expense of temples and shrines

Importance of Indian Cotton (raw material) to the British

Cotton exports from India

Sepoy Rebellion causes cont.

Military causes: (immediate causes) - The General Services Enlistment Act (1856) - Challenges to Sepoy privileges (recruitment from various ethnic groups: Sikhs, Gurkhas, etc.) - Breech loaded LeeEnfield rifle (cartridges greased with animal fat) immediate cause

The Sepoy Rebellion

May, 1857 July, 1858* Massacres/atrocities committed by each side Rebel leaders: Nana Sahib and Bahkt Khan Last Mughal ruler: Bahadur Shah installed by the rebels as ruler in Delhi during the rebellion British forces and sepoy troops loyal to them put down the rebellion.

Bahadur Shah

What were the results of the uprising?

Mughal rule/dynasty officially ends The Government of India Act of 1858 (transfer of power from the EIC to the Crown) Queen Victoria declared the Queen of India (Secretary of State for India (London) Viceroy (governor-general) in India. British policy: conservatism and emphasis on traditions

The Colonial (Imperial Stage)

British policies in India: *Doctrine of Lapse suppressed *The Viceroys council included Indians *Indian rajas treaties and Indian peoples traditions, customs, and religions were to be respected (less support for Christian missionaries) *Taxation system reformed (emphasis on export of Indian raw materials) Military recruitment from martial races loyal to the British during the Sepoy rebellion Durbars

Elaborate ceremonies/parades designed to legitimize and celebrate political power of the British rule and native Indian elites.

Social and economic changes in India 19th century

British investment in infrastructure / public works (railroads, canals, harbors, etc.) Indias main exports cash crops (cotton, opium, tea, silk) Implementation of western style technologies, laws, and education Rise of Indias urban elites (merging of Western education and Indian cultural heritage) Greater mobility of population (+) - emergence of common national identity (Pan-Indian) (-) spread of diseases (ex: kala mari)

The Indian Civil Service (ICS)

The ICS Elite government officials/bureaucrats who administered British India after 1858. Composition of the ICS: *~1,000 officials chosen by merit / British men advantages in recruitment based on racist attitudes *1870 1 Indian member *1887 57 Indian members *1914 5% Indian members *1947 - 597 Indians and 588 British

Development of Indian Nationalism

The Sepoy Rebellion - ? Economic development = Pan-Indian identity Early leaders Western educated elites / middle class (ex: Rammohun Roy) Indian National Congress (1885) early demands focused on economic opportunities and social changes within the British Raj.

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