3G-Mobile Security

Shashishekar R
1ST02EC048

INTRODUCTION :
Third generation mobile systems such as UMTS [universal mobile telecommunication system] revolutionized telecommunications technology by offering mobile users content rich services, wireless broadband access to Internet, and worldwide roaming. The users will be able to enjoy Voiceover-IP, multimedia messaging, and video conferencing services with up to 2 Mbps data rate. However the broadcast nature of the wireless communication and increased popularity of wireless devices introduce serious security vulnerabilities.

Mobile users and providers must be assured of the correct identity of the communicating party; user and signaling data must be protected with confidentiality and integrity mechanisms. The main aim is to evaluate current 3G security protocols, implement security features outlined in these protocols

1G Systems-Features
    

Introduced in the 1980s . Employed cellular technology . Analog radio technology. 800-900 MHz frequency band . voice communication service.

 No data service.

2G Systems-Features

Introduced in early 1990s. Data rates 9.6 Kbps – 14.4 Kbps.. Uses Circuit Switching. 800-900 MHz band . Digital radio technology . International roaming services. Caller Id & SMS.

Comparison between 2G and 3G wireless networks

Core Network Used in 2G is TDM and Frame relay transport as compared with IP and ATM transport in 3G 2G handsets did not provide multimedia support whereas 3G provided Data Rates of 2G are Up to 10 To 50 kbps 384 Kbps (EDGE whereas 3G provided data rate upto 2MBps

3G Network Architecture
Circuit Network
Circuit Switch
IN Services

Circuit/ Signaling Gateway Feature Server(s)

Mobility Manager

RNC Voice Radio Access Control
Data + Packet Voice

Call Agent

IP Core Network
IP RAN

Packet Gateway

Packet Network (Internet)

2G

2G/2.5G

3G

objectives for 3G security
To ensure that information generated by or relating to a user is adequately protected To ensure that the security features standardised are compatible with world-wide availability To ensure that the level of protection To ensure that the implementation of 3G security features and mechanisms can be extended and enhanced as required by new threats and services.

GSM and TDMA offer a path of 3G migration employing Enhanced Data-rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). EDGE : Enhanced Data-rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a narrowband (200 kHz channels) radio technology that allows operators to offer 3G services without the necessity of purchasing a 3G license. EDGE is suitable for narrower frequency allocations, and can be deployed in just 2.4 MHz of spectrum

Basic Security Features
    

Mutual Authentication Data Integrity Network to Network Security Wider Security Scope Secure IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity) Usage

3G Security Features
    

User – Mobile Station Authentication Secure Services Secure Applications Fraud Detection Flexibility

Authentication and Key Agreement
128 bit secret key K is shared between the home network and the mobile user

Home Network
Generate SQN
RAND

Mobile User
AUTN SQN ⊕ AK ⊕ SQN K AMF MAC

Generate RAND SQN AMF K
f5

RAND
AK

f1

f2

f3

f4

f5

Serving Network
AV RAND, AUTH RES
f1 f2 f3 f4

MAC

XRES

CK

IK

AK

AUTN := SQN ⊕ AK || AMF || MAC AV := RAND || XRES || CK || IK || AUTN

XMAC

RES

CK

IK

Verify MAC = XMAC Verify that SQN is in the correct range

Problems with 3G Security

A user can be enticed to camp on a false BS. Once the user camps on the radio channels of a false BS, the user is out of reach of the paging signals of SN Hijacking outgoing/incoming calls in networks with disabled encryption is possible. The intruder poses as a man-in-the-middle and drops the user once the call is set-up All that can happen to a fixed host attached to the Internet could happen to a 3G terminal

Future Research Direction

Extend current simulation implementation
More complicated, perhaps fully loaded, network scenario Add video conferencing and multimedia streaming traffic Observe variations in bit error rate and packet drop rate, among other things

Network-to-network security
How to establish trust between different operators Is IPsec a feasible solution for secure communication between networks?

End-to-end security
Can two mobile nodes establish secure communication channel without relying too much on their serving network? How can they exchange certificates or shared secret keys?

Possible solution to existing 3G security problems

Thank--You
Shashishekar R

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