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Systems of Linear Equations:
✦ An Introduction
✦ Unique Solutions
✦ Underdetermined and
Overdetermined Systems
Matrices
Multiplication of Matrices
The Inverse of a Square Matrix
Systems of Linear Equations and Matrices
5.1
Systems of Linear Equations:
An Introduction
Systems of Equations
Recall that a system of two linear equations in two
variables may be written in the general form
where a, b, c, d, h, and k are real numbers and neither
a and b nor c and d are both zero.
Recall that the graph of each equation in the system is a
straight line in the plane, so that geometrically, the
solution to the system is the point(s) of intersection of the
two straight lines L
1
and L
2
, represented by the first and
second equations of the system.
ax by h
cx dy k
+ =
+ =
Systems of Equations
Given the two straight lines L
1
and L
2
, one and only one of
the following may occur:
1. L
1
and L
2
intersect at exactly one point.
y
x
L
1
L
2
Unique
solution
(x
1
, y
1
)
(x
1
, y
1
)
x
1
y
1
Systems of Equations
Given the two straight lines L
1
and L
2
, one and only one of
the following may occur:
2. L
1
and L
2
are coincident.
y
x
L
1
, L
2
Infinitely
many
solutions
Systems of Equations
Given the two straight lines L
1
and L
2
, one and only one of
the following may occur:
3. L
1
and L
2
are parallel.
y
x
L
1
L
2
No
solution
Example:
A System of Equations With Exactly One Solution
Consider the system
Solving the first equation for y in terms of x, we obtain
Substituting this expression for y into the second equation
yields
2 1
3 2 12
x y
x y
÷ =
+ =
2 1 y x = ÷
3 2(2 1) 12
3 4 2 12
7 14
2
x x
x x
x
x
+ ÷ =
+ ÷ =
=
=
Example:
A System of Equations With Exactly One Solution
Finally, substituting this value of x into the expression for
y obtained earlier gives
Therefore, the unique solution of the system is given by
x = 2 and y = 3.
2 1
2(2) 1
3
y x = ÷
= ÷
=
1
2
3 4
5 6
6
5
4
3
2
1
–1
Example:
A System of Equations With Exactly One Solution
Geometrically, the two lines represented by the two
equations that make up the system intersect at the
point (2, 3):
y
x
(2, 3)
2 1 x y ÷ =
3 2 12 x y + =
Example:
A System of Equations With Infinitely Many Solutions
Consider the system
Solving the first equation for y in terms of x, we obtain
Substituting this expression for y into the second equation
yields
which is a true statement.
This result follows from the fact that the second equation
is equivalent to the first.
2 1
6 3 3
x y
x y
÷ =
÷ =
2 1 y x = ÷
6 3(2 1) 3
6 6 3 3
0 0
x x
x x
÷ ÷ =
÷ + =
=
Example:
A System of Equations With Infinitely Many Solutions
Thus, any order pair of numbers (x, y) satisfying the
equation y = 2x – 1 constitutes a solution to the system.
By assigning the value t to x, where t is any real number,
we find that y = 2t – 1 and so the ordered pair (t, 2t – 1)
is a solution to the system.
The variable t is called a parameter.
For example:
✦ Setting t = 0, gives the point (0, –1) as a solution of the
system.
✦ Setting t = 1, gives the point (1, 1) as another solution of
the system.
6
5
4
3
2
1
–1
1
2
3 4
5 6
Example:
A System of Equations With Infinitely Many Solutions
Since t represents any real number, there are infinitely
many solutions of the system.
Geometrically, the two equations in the system represent
the same line, and all solutions of the system are points
lying on the line:
y
x
2 1
6 3 3
x y
x y
÷ =
÷ =
Example:
A System of Equations That Has No Solution
Consider the system
Solving the first equation for y in terms of x, we obtain
Substituting this expression for y into the second equation
yields
which is clearly impossible.
Thus, there is no solution to the system of equations.
2 1
6 3 12
x y
x y
÷ =
÷ =
2 1 y x = ÷
6 3(2 1) 12
6 6 3 12
0 9
x x
x x
÷ ÷ =
÷ + =
=
1
2
3 4
5 6
Example:
A System of Equations That Has No Solution
To interpret the situation geometrically, cast both
equations in the slopeintercept form, obtaining
y = 2x – 1 and y = 2x – 4
which shows that the lines are parallel.
Graphically:
6
5
4
3
2
1
–1
y
x
2 1 x y ÷ =
6 3 12 x y ÷ =
5.2
Systems of Linear Equations:
Unique Solutions
3 2 8 9
2 2 1 3
1 2 3 8
÷ (
(
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
3 2 8 9
2 2 1 3
1 2 3 8
÷ (
(
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
1 0 0 3
0 1 0 4
0 0 1 1
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1 0 0 3
0 1 0 4
0 0 1 1
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
The GaussJordan Method
The GaussJordan elimination method is a technique for
solving systems of linear equations of any size.
The operations of the GaussJordan method are
1. Interchange any two equations.
2. Replace an equation by a nonzero constant multiple of
itself.
3. Replace an equation by the sum of that equation and a
constant multiple of any other equation.
Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
First, we transform this system into an equivalent system
in which the coefficient of x in the first equation is 1:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
Multiply the
equation by 1/2
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
First, we transform this system into an equivalent system
in which the coefficient of x in the first equation is 1:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 3 11
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
Multiply the first
equation by 1/2
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Next, we eliminate the variable x from all equations except
the first:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 3 11
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
Replace by the sum of
– 3 X the first equation
+ the second equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Next, we eliminate the variable x from all equations except
the first:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 3 11
2 4 6
2 2
x y z
y z
x y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
÷ + + =
Replace by the sum of
– 3 ☓the first equation
+ the second equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Next, we eliminate the variable x from all equations except
the first:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 3 11
2 4 6
2 2
x y z
y z
x y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
÷ + + =
Replace by the sum
of the first equation
+ the third equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Next, we eliminate the variable x from all equations except
the first:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 3 11
2 4 6
3 5 13
x y z
y z
y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Replace by the sum
of the first equation
+ the third equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Then we transform so that the coefficient of y in the
second equation is 1:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 3 11
2 4 6
3 5 13
x y z
y z
y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Multiply the second
equation by 1/2
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Then we transform so that the coefficient of y in the
second equation is 1:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 3 11
2 3
3 5 13
x y z
y z
y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Multiply the second
equation by 1/2
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
We now eliminate y from all equations except the second:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 3 11
2 3
3 5 13
x y z
y z
y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Replace by the sum of
the first equation +
(–2) ☓ the second equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
We now eliminate y from all equations except the second:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
7 17
2 3
3 5 13
x z
y z
y z
+ =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Replace by the sum of
the first equation +
(–2) ☓ the second equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
We now eliminate y from all equations except the second:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
7 17
2 3
3 5 13
x z
y z
y z
+ =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Replace by the sum of
the third equation +
(–3) ☓ the second equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
We now eliminate y from all equations except the second:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
7 17
2 3
11 22
x z
y z
z
+ =
÷ = ÷
=
Replace by the sum of
the third equation +
(–3) ☓ the second equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Now we transform so that the coefficient of z in the third
equation is 1:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
7 17
2 3
11 22
x z
y z
z
+ =
÷ = ÷
=
Multiply the third
equation by 1/11
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Now we transform so that the coefficient of z in the third
equation is 1:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
7 17
2 3
2
x z
y z
z
+ =
÷ = ÷
=
Multiply the third
equation by 1/11
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
We now eliminate z from all equations except the third:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
Replace by the sum of
the first equation +
(–7) ☓ the third equation
7 17
2 3
2
x z
y z
z
+ =
÷ = ÷
=
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
We now eliminate z from all equations except the third:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
3
2 3
2
x
y z
z
=
÷ = ÷
=
Replace by the sum of
the first equation +
(–7) ☓ the third equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
We now eliminate z from all equations except the third:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
3
2 3
2
x
y z
z
=
÷ = ÷
=
Replace by the sum of
the second equation +
2 ☓ the third equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
We now eliminate z from all equations except the third:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
3
1
2
x
y
z
=
=
=
Replace by the sum of
the second equation +
2 ☓ the third equation
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Example
Solve the following system of equations:
Solution
Thus, the solution to the system is x = 3, y = 1, and z = 2.
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
3
1
2
x
y
z
=
=
=
Augmented Matrices
Matrices are rectangular arrays of numbers that can aid
us by eliminating the need to write the variables at each
step of the reduction.
For example, the system
may be represented by the augmented matrix
Coefficient
Matrix
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
1 1 2 2
(
(
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
2 4 6 22
3 8 5 27
1 1 2 2
(
(
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
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and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 2 3 11
3 8 5 27
1 1 2 2
(
(
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
2 3 11
3 8 5 27
2 2
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
÷ + + =
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 2 3 11
0 2 4 6
1 1 2 2
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
2 3 11
2 4 6
2 2
x y z
y z
x y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
÷ + + =
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 2 3 11
0 2 4 6
0 3 5 13
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
2 3 11
2 4 6
3 5 13
x y z
y z
y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 2 3 11
0 1 2 3
0 3 5 13
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
2 3 11
2 3
3 5 13
x y z
y z
y z
+ + =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 0 7 17
0 1 2 3
0 3 5 13
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
7 17
2 3
3 5 13
x z
y z
y z
+ =
÷ = ÷
+ =
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 0 7 17
0 1 2 3
0 0 11 22
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
7 17
2 3
11 22
x z
y z
z
+ =
÷ = ÷
=
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 0 7 17
0 1 2 3
0 0 1 2
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
7 17
2 3
2
x z
y z
z
+ =
÷ = ÷
=
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 0 0 3
0 1 2 3
0 0 1 2
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
3
2 3
2
x
y z
z
=
÷ = ÷
=
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Matrices and GaussJordan
Every step in the GaussJordan elimination method can be
expressed with matrices, rather than systems of equations,
thus simplifying the whole process:
Steps expressed as systems of equations:
Steps expressed as augmented matrices:
1 0 0 3
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 2
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
3
1
2
x
y
z
=
=
=
Row Reduced Form
of the Matrix
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RowReduced Form of a Matrix
Each row consisting entirely of zeros lies below all
rows having nonzero entries.
The first nonzero entry in each nonzero row is 1
(called a leading 1).
In any two successive (nonzero) rows, the leading 1
in the lower row lies to the right of the leading 1 in
the upper row.
If a column contains a leading 1, then the other
entries in that column are zeros.
Row Operations
1. Interchange any two rows.
2. Replace any row by a nonzero constant
multiple of itself.
3. Replace any row by the sum of that row
and a constant multiple of any other row.
Terminology for the
GaussJordan Elimination Method
Unit Column
A column in a coefficient matrix is in unit form
if one of the entries in the column is a 1 and the
other entries are zeros.
Pivoting
The sequence of row operations that transforms
a given column in an augmented matrix into a
unit column.
Notation for Row Operations
Letting R
i
denote the ith row of a matrix, we write
Operation 1: R
i
↔ R
j
to mean:
Interchange row i with row j.
Operation 2: cR
i
to mean:
replace row i with c times row i.
Operation 3: R
i
+ aR
j
to mean:
Replace row i with the sum of row i
and a times row j.
Example
Pivot the matrix about the circled element
Solution
3 5 9
2 3 5
(
(
¸ ¸
3 5 9
2 3 5
(
(
¸ ¸
1
1 3
R
5
3
3 1
5 2 3
(
(
¸ ¸
2 1
2 R R ÷
5
3
1
3
1 3
0 1
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
The GaussJordan Elimination Method
1. Write the augmented matrix corresponding to
the linear system.
2. Interchange rows, if necessary, to obtain an
augmented matrix in which the first entry in
the first row is nonzero. Then pivot the matrix
about this entry.
3. Interchange the second row with any row below
it, if necessary, to obtain an augmented matrix
in which the second entry in the second row is
nonzero. Pivot the matrix about this entry.
4. Continue until the final matrix is in row
reduced form.
Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
3 2 8 9
2 2 1 3
1 2 3 8
÷ (
(
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
1 2
R R +
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Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
1 0 9 12
2 2 1 3
1 2 3 8
(
(
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
2 1
2 R R +
3 1
R R ÷
1 2
R R +
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Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
1 0 9 12
0 2 19 27
0 2 12 4
(
(
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
2 1
2 R R +
3 1
R R ÷
2 3
R R ÷
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Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
2 3
R R ÷
1
2 2
R
1 0 9 12
0 2 12 4
0 2 19 27
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
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Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
1
2 2
R
1 0 9 12
0 1 6 2
0 2 19 27
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
3 2
R R ÷
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Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
1 0 9 12
0 1 6 2
0 0 31 31
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
3 2
R R ÷
1
3 31
R
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and after matrix changes
Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
1 0 9 12
0 1 6 2
0 0 1 1
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
1
3 31
R
1 3
9 R R ÷
2 3
6 R R +
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Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
1 0 0 3
0 1 0 4
0 0 1 1
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
2 3
6 R R +
1 3
9 R R ÷
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Example
Use the GaussJordan elimination method to solve the
system of equations
Solution
The solution to the system is thus x = 3, y = 4, and z = 1.
3 2 8 9
2 2 3
2 3 8
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + + =
+ ÷ =
1 0 0 3
0 1 0 4
0 0 1 1
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
5.3
Systems of Linear Equations:
Underdetermined and Overdetermined systems
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2 3 2
3 1 2 1
2 3 5 3
÷ ÷ (
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
1
x z
y z
=
= ÷
0
1
x z
y z
÷ =
÷ = ÷
A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2 3 2
3 1 2 1
2 3 5 3
÷ ÷ (
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
2 1
3 R R ÷
3 1
2 R R ÷
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A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2 3 2
0 7 7 7
0 1 1 1
÷ ÷ (
(
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
2 1
3 R R ÷
3 1
2 R R ÷
1
2 7
R ÷
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A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1 2 3 2
0 1 1 1
0 1 1 1
÷ ÷ (
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
1
2 7
R ÷
1 2
2 R R ÷
3 2
R R +
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A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
÷ (
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
1 2
2 R R ÷
3 2
R R +
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A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
Observe that row three reads 0 = 0, which is true but
of no use to us.
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
÷ (
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
This last augmented matrix is in rowreduced form.
Interpreting it as a system of equations gives a system of
two equations in three variables x, y, and z:
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1
0 0 0 0
÷ (
(
÷ ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
0
1
x z
y z
÷ =
÷ = ÷
A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
Let’s single out a single variable –
say, z
– and solve for x
and y in terms of it.
If we assign a particular value of z –
say, z = 0
– we obtain
x = 0 and y = –1, giving the solution (0, –1, 0).
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1
x z
y z
=
= ÷
0
1
x z
y z
÷ =
÷ = ÷
(0) 0
(0) 1 1
= =
= ÷ = ÷
A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
Let’s single out a single variable –
say, z
– and solve for x
and y in terms of it.
If we instead assign z = 1, we obtain the solution (1, 0, 1).
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1
x z
y z
=
= ÷
0
1
x z
y z
÷ =
÷ = ÷
(1) 1
(1) 1 0
= =
= ÷ =
A System of Equations
with an Infinite Number of Solutions
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
Let’s single out a single variable –
say, z
– and solve for x
and y in terms of it.
In general, we set z = t, where t represents any real number
(called the parameter) to obtain the solution (t, t – 1, t).
2 3 2
3 2 1
2 3 5 3
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ = ÷
1
x z
y z
=
= ÷
0
1
x z
y z
÷ =
÷ = ÷
( )
( ) 1 1
t t
t t
= =
= ÷ = ÷
A System of Equations That Has No Solution
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
1
3 4
5 5 1
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
÷ ÷ =
+ + = ÷
1 1 1 1
3 1 1 4
1 5 5 1
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
2 1
3 R R ÷
3 1
R R ÷
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A System of Equations That Has No Solution
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
1 1 1 1
0 4 4 1
0 4 4 2
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
2 1
3 R R ÷
3 1
R R ÷
3 2
R R +
1
3 4
5 5 1
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
÷ ÷ =
+ + = ÷
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A System of Equations That Has No Solution
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
1 1 1 1
0 4 4 1
0 0 0 1
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
3 2
R R +
1
3 4
5 5 1
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
÷ ÷ =
+ + = ÷
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A System of Equations That Has No Solution
Solve the system of equations given by
Solution
Observe that row three reads 0x + 0y + 0z = –1 or 0 = –1!
We therefore conclude the system is inconsistent and has
no solution.
1 1 1 1
0 4 4 1
0 0 0 1
(
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
1
3 4
5 5 1
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
÷ ÷ =
+ + = ÷
Systems with no Solution
If there is a row in the augmented matrix
containing all zeros to the left of the vertical line
and a nonzero entry to the right of the line, then
the system of equations has no solution.
Theorem 1
a. If the number of equations is greater than or
equal to the number of variables in a linear
system, then one of the following is true:
i. The system has no solution.
ii. The system has exactly one solution.
iii. The system has infinitely many solutions.
b. If there are fewer equations than variables in
a linear system, then the system either has no
solution or it has infinitely many solutions.
5.4
Matrices
2 3
2 3
X B A
X A B
+ =
= ÷
2 3
2 3
X B A
X A B
+ =
= ÷
3 4 3 2
3
1 2 1 2
( (
= ÷
( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
3 4 3 2
3
1 2 1 2
( (
= ÷
( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
9 12 3 2
3 6 1 2
( (
= ÷
( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
9 12 3 2
3 6 1 2
( (
= ÷
( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
6 10
2 4
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
6 10
2 4
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
6 10
1
2 4 2
X
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
6 10
1
2 4 2
X
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
3 5
1 2
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
3 5
1 2
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
Matrix
A matrix is an ordered rectangular array of numbers.
A matrix with m rows and n columns has size m ☓ n.
The entry in the ith row and jth column is denoted by a
ij
.
Applied Example: Organizing Production Data
The Acrosonic Company manufactures four different
loudspeaker systems at three separate locations.
The company’s May output is as follows:
If we agree to preserve the relative location of each entry
in the table, we can summarize the set of data as follows:
Model A Model B Model C Model D
Location I 320 280 460 280
Location II 480 360 580 0
Location III 540 420 200 880
320 280 460 280
480 360 580 0
540 420 200 880
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
Applied Example: Organizing Production Data
We have Acrosonic’s May output expressed as a matrix:
a. What is the size of the matrix P?
Solution
Matrix P has three rows and four columns and hence
has size 3 ☓ 4.
320 280 460 280
480 360 580 0
540 420 200 880
P
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Applied Example: Organizing Production Data
We have Acrosonic’s May output expressed as a matrix:
b. Find a
24
(the entry in row 2 and column 4 of the
matrix P) and give an interpretation of this number.
Solution
The required entry lies in row 2 and column 4, and is
the number 0. This means that no model D
loudspeaker system was manufactured at location II
in May.
320 280 460 280
480 360 580 0
540 420 200 880
P
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Applied Example: Organizing Production Data
We have Acrosonic’s May output expressed as a matrix:
c. Find the sum of the entries that make up row 1 of P
and interpret the result.
Solution
The required sum is given by
320 + 280 + 460 + 280 = 1340
which gives the total number of loudspeaker systems
manufactured at location I in May as 1340 units.
320 280 460 280
480 360 580 0
540 420 200 880
P
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Applied Example: Organizing Production Data
We have Acrosonic’s May output expressed as a matrix:
d. Find the sum of the entries that make up column 4 of
P and interpret the result.
Solution
The required sum is given by
280 + 0 + 880 = 1160
giving the output of Model D loudspeaker systems at
all locations in May as 1160 units.
320 280 460 280
480 360 580 0
540 420 200 880
P
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Equality of Matrices
Two matrices are equal if they have the same size
and their corresponding entries are equal.
Example
Solve the following matrix equation for x, y, and z:
Solution
Since the corresponding elements of the two matrices must
be equal, we find that x = 4, z = 3, and y – 1 = 1, or y = 2.
1 3 1 4
2 1 2 2 1 2
x z
y
( (
=
( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Addition and Subtraction of Matrices
If A and B are two matrices of the same size, then:
1. The sum A + B is the matrix obtained by adding
the corresponding entries in the two matrices.
2. The difference A – B is the matrix obtained by
subtracting the corresponding entries in B from
those in A.
Applied Example: Organizing Production Data
The total output of Acrosonic for May is
The total output of Acrosonic for June is
Find the total output of the company for May and June.
Model A Model B Model C Model D
Location I 210 180 330 180
Location II 400 300 450 40
Location III 420 280 180 740
Model A Model B Model C Model D
Location I 320 280 460 280
Location II 480 360 580 0
Location III 540 420 200 880
Applied Example: Organizing Production Data
Solution
Expressing the output for May and June as matrices:
✦ The total output of Acrosonic for May is
✦ The total output of Acrosonic for June is
320 280 460 280
480 360 580 0
540 420 200 880
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
210 180 330 180
400 300 450 40
420 280 180 740
B
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Applied Example: Organizing Production Data
Solution
The total output of the company for May and June is
given by the matrix
320 280 460 280 210 180 330 180
480 360 580 0 400 300 450 40
540 420 200 880 420 280 180 740
530 460 790 460
880 660 1030 40
960 700 380 1620
A B
( (
( (
+ = +
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Laws for Matrix Addition
If A, B, and C are matrices of the same size, then
1. A + B = B + A Commutative law
2. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) Associative law
Transpose of a Matrix
If A is an m ☓ n matrix with elements a
ij
,
then the transpose of A is the n ☓ m matrix
A
T
with elements a
ji
.
Example
Find the transpose of the matrix
Solution
The transpose of the matrix A is
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
1 4 7
2 5 8
3 6 9
T
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Scalar Product
If A is a matrix and c is a real number, then
the scalar product cA is the matrix obtained
by multiplying each entry of A by c.
Example
Given
find the matrix X that satisfies 2X + B = 3A
Solution
2 3
2 3
X B A
X A B
+ =
= ÷
3 4 3 2
3
1 2 1 2
( (
= ÷
( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
9 12 3 2
3 6 1 2
( (
= ÷
( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
6 10
2 4
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
6 10
1
2 4 2
X
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
3 5
1 2
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
3 4 3 2
1 2 1 2
A B
( (
= =
( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
and
Applied Example: Production Planning
The management of Acrosonic has decided to increase its
July production of loudspeaker systems by 10%
(over June output).
Find a matrix giving the targeted production for July.
Solution
We have seen that Acrosonic’s total output for June may
be represented by the matrix
210 180 330 180
400 300 450 40
420 280 180 740
B
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Applied Example: Production Planning
The management of Acrosonic has decided to increase its
July production of loudspeaker systems by 10%
(over June output).
Find a matrix giving the targeted production for July.
Solution
The required matrix is given by
210 180 330 180
(1.1) 1.1 400 300 450 40
420 280 180 740
B
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
231 198 363 198
440 330 495 44
462 308 198 814
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
5.5
Multiplication of Matrices
11 12 13 14
11 12 13
21 22 23 24
21 22 23
31 32 33 34
b b b b
a a a
A B b b b b
a a a
b b b b
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
11 12 13 14
11 12 13
21 22 23 24
21 22 23
31 32 33 34
b b b b
a a a
A B b b b b
a a a
b b b b
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Size of A (2 ☓ 3) (3 ☓ 4) Size of B
(2 ☓ 4)
Size of AB
Same
Multiplying a Row Matrix by a Column Matrix
If we have a row matrix of size 1☓ n,
And a column matrix of size n ☓ 1,
Then we may define the matrix product of A and B, written
AB, by
1 2 3
[ ]
n
A a a a a = · · ·
1
2
3
n
b
b
B b
b
(
(
(
( =
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1
2
1 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3
[ ]
n n n
n
b
b
AB a a a a b a b a b a b a b
b
(
(
(
( = ··· = + + +··· +
(
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Find the matrix product AB.
Solution
2
3
[1 2 3 5]
0
1
a d n A B
(
(
(
= ÷ =
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
2
3
[1 2 3 5] (1)(2) ( 2)(3) (3)(0) (5)( 1) 9
0
1
AB
(
(
(
= ÷ = + ÷ + + ÷ = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
Dimensions Requirement
for Matrices Being Multiplied
Note from the last example that for the multiplication to
be feasible, the number of columns of the row matrix A
must be equal to the number of rows of the column
matrix B.
Dimensions of the Product Matrix
From last example, note that the product matrix AB has
size 1 ☓ 1.
This has to do with the fact that we are multiplying a row
matrix with a column matrix.
We can establish the dimensions of a product matrix
schematically:
Size of A (1 ☓ n) (n ☓ 1) Size of B
Size of AB
(1 ☓ 1)
Same
Dimensions of the Product Matrix
More generally, if A is a matrix of size m ☓ n and B is a
matrix of size n ☓ p, then the matrix product of A and B,
AB, is defined and is a matrix of size m ☓ p.
Schematically:
The number of columns of A must be the same as the
number of rows of B for the multiplication to be feasible.
Size of A (m ☓ n) (n ☓ p) Size of B
Size of AB
(m ☓ p)
Same
Mechanics of Matrix Multiplication
To see how to compute the product of a 2 ☓ 3 matrix A and
a 3 ☓ 4 matrix B, suppose
From the schematic
we see that the matrix product C = AB is feasible (since the
number of columns of A equals the number of rows of B) and
has size 2 ☓ 4.
11 12 13 14
11 12 13
21 22 23 24
21 22 23
31 32 33 34
b b b b
a a a
A B b b b b
a a a
b b b b
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Size of A (2 ☓ 3) (3 ☓ 4) Size of B
Size of AB
(2 ☓ 4)
Same
Mechanics of Matrix Multiplication
To see how to compute the product of a 2 ☓ 3 matrix A and
a 3 ☓ 4 matrix B, suppose
Thus,
To see how to calculate the entries of C consider entry c
11
:
11 12 13 14
21 22 23 24
c c c c
C
c c c c
(
=
(
¸ ¸
11
11 11 12 13 21 11 11 12 21 13 31
31
[ ]
b
c a a a b a b a b a b
b
(
(
= = + +
(
(
¸ ¸
11 12 13 14
11 12 13
21 22 23 24
21 22 23
31 32 33 34
b b b b
a a a
A B b b b b
a a a
b b b b
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Mechanics of Matrix Multiplication
To see how to compute the product of a 2 ☓ 3 matrix A and
a 3 ☓ 4 matrix B, suppose
Thus,
Now consider calculating the entry c
12
:
11 12 13 14
21 22 23 24
c c c c
C
c c c c
(
=
(
¸ ¸
12
12 11 12 13 22 11 12 12 22 13 32
32
[ ]
b
c a a a b a b a b a b
b
(
(
= = + +
(
(
¸ ¸
11 12 13 14
11 12 13
21 22 23 24
21 22 23
31 32 33 34
b b b b
a a a
A B b b b b
a a a
b b b b
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Mechanics of Matrix Multiplication
To see how to compute the product of a 2 ☓ 3 matrix A and
a 3 ☓ 4 matrix B, suppose
Thus,
Now consider calculating the entry c
21
:
11 12 13 14
21 22 23 24
c c c c
C
c c c c
(
=
(
¸ ¸
11
21 21 22 23 21 21 11 22 21 23 31
31
[ ]
b
c a a a b a b a b a b
b
(
(
= = + +
(
(
¸ ¸
11 12 13 14
11 12 13
21 22 23 24
21 22 23
31 32 33 34
b b b b
a a a
A B b b b b
a a a
b b b b
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Mechanics of Matrix Multiplication
To see how to compute the product of a 2 ☓ 3 matrix A and
a 3 ☓ 4 matrix B, suppose
Thus,
Other entries are computed in a similar manner.
11 12 13 14
21 22 23 24
c c c c
C
c c c c
(
=
(
¸ ¸
11 12 13 14
11 12 13
21 22 23 24
21 22 23
31 32 33 34
b b b b
a a a
A B b b b b
a a a
b b b b
(
(
(
= =
(
(
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Compute AB.
Solution
Since the number of columns of A is equal to the number
of rows of B, the matrix product C = AB is defined.
The size of C is 2 ☓ 3.
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
A B
÷
(
(
(
= = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Compute AB.
Solution
Thus,
Calculate all entries for C:
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
A B
÷
(
(
(
= = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
11 12 13
21 22 23
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
c c c
C AB
c c c
÷
(
( (
(
= = ÷ =
( (
(
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
11
1
[3 1 4] 4 (3)(1) (1)(4) (4)(2) 15
2
c
(
(
= = + + =
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Compute AB.
Solution
Thus,
Calculate all entries for C:
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
A B
÷
(
(
(
= = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
12 13
21 22 23
1 3 3
15 3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
c c
C AB
c c c
÷
(
( (
(
= = ÷ =
( (
(
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
12
3
[3 1 4] 1 (3)(3) (1)( 1) (4)(4) 24
4
c
(
(
= ÷ = + ÷ + =
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Compute AB.
Solution
Thus,
Calculate all entries for C:
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
A B
÷
(
(
(
= = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
13
21 22 23
1 3 3
15 24 3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
c
C AB
c c c
÷
(
( (
(
= = ÷ =
( (
(
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
13
3
[3 1 4] 2 (3)( 3) (1)(2) (4)(1) 3
1
c
÷
(
(
= = ÷ + + = ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Compute AB.
Solution
Thus,
Calculate all entries for C:
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
A B
÷
(
(
(
= = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
21 22 23
1 3 3
15 24 3 3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
C AB
c c c
÷
(
÷
( (
(
= = ÷ =
( (
(
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
21
1
[ 1 2 3] 4 ( 1)(1) (2)(4) (3)(2) 13
2
c
(
(
= ÷ = ÷ + + =
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Compute AB.
Solution
Thus,
Calculate all entries for C:
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
A B
÷
(
(
(
= = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
22 23
1 3 3
15 24 3 3 1 4
4 1 2
13 1 2 3
2 4 1
C AB
c c
÷
(
÷
( (
(
= = ÷ =
( (
(
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
22
3
[ 1 2 3] 1 ( 1)(3) (2)( 1) (3)(4) 7
4
c
(
(
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ + =
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Compute AB.
Solution
Thus,
Calculate all entries for C:
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
A B
÷
(
(
(
= = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
23
1 3 3
15 24 3 3 1 4
4 1 2
13 7 1 2 3
2 4 1
C AB
c
÷
(
÷
( (
(
= = ÷ =
( (
(
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
23
3
[ 1 2 3] 2 ( 1)( 3) (2)(2) (3)(1) 10
1
c
÷
(
(
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ + + =
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Let
Compute AB.
Solution
Thus,
1 3 3
3 1 4
4 1 2
1 2 3
2 4 1
A B
÷
(
(
(
= = ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
1 3 3
3 1 4 15 24 3
4 1 2
1 2 3 13 7 10
2 4 1
C AB
÷
(
÷
( (
(
= = ÷ =
( (
(
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
¸ ¸
Laws for Matrix Multiplication
If the products and sums are defined for the
matrices A, B, and C, then
1. (AB)C = A(BC) Associative law
2. A(B + C) = AB + AC Distributive law
Identity Matrix
The identity matrix of size n is given by
n rows
n columns
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
n
I
· · ·
(
(
· · ·
(
=
(
(
· · ·
¸ ¸
Properties of the Identity Matrix
The identity matrix has the properties that
✦ I
n
A = A for any n ☓ r matrix A.
✦ BI
n
= B for any s ☓ n matrix B.
✦ In particular, if A is a square matrix of
size n, then
n n
I A AI A = =
Example
Let
Then
So, I
3
A = AI
3
= A.
1 3 1
4 3 2
1 0 1
A
(
(
= ÷
(
(
¸ ¸
3
1 0 0 1 3 1 1 3 1
0 1 0 4 3 2 4 3 2
0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1
I A A
( ( (
( ( (
= ÷ = ÷ =
( ( (
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
3
1 3 1 1 0 0 1 3 1
4 3 2 0 1 0 4 3 2
1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
AI A
( ( (
( ( (
= ÷ = ÷ =
( ( (
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Matrix Representation
A system of linear equations can be expressed in the form
of an equation of matrices. Consider the system
The coefficients on the lefthand side of the equation can
be expressed as matrix A below, the variables as matrix X,
and the constants on righthand side of the equation as
matrix B:
2 4 6
3 6 5 1
3 7 0
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + ÷ = ÷
÷ + =
2 4 1 6
3 6 5 1
1 3 7 0
x
A X y B
z
÷
( ( (
( ( (
= ÷ ÷ = = ÷
( ( (
÷ ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Matrix Representation
A system of linear equations can be expressed in the form
of an equation of matrices. Consider the system
The matrix representation of the system of linear
equations is given by AX = B, or
2 4 6
3 6 5 1
3 7 0
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + ÷ = ÷
÷ + =
2 4 1 6
3 6 5 1
1 3 7 0
x
y
z
÷
( ( (
( ( (
÷ ÷ = ÷
( ( (
÷ ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Matrix Representation
A system of linear equations can be expressed in the form
of an equation of matrices. Consider the system
To confirm this, we can multiply the two matrices on the
lefthand side of the equation, obtaining
which, by matrix equality, is easily seen to be equivalent to
the given system of linear equations.
2 4 6
3 6 5 1
3 7 0
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ + =
÷ + ÷ = ÷
÷ + =
2 4 6
3 6 5 1
3 7 0
x y z
x y z
x y z
÷ +
( (
( (
÷ + ÷ = ÷
( (
÷ + ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
5.6
The Inverse of a Square Matrix
(3)(1) ( 1)(2) ( 1)( 1) 2
( 4)(1) (2)(2) (1)( 1) 1
( 1)(1) (0)(2) (1)( 1) 2
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
( (
( (
÷ + + ÷ = ÷
( (
÷ + + ÷ ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(3)(1) ( 1)(2) ( 1)( 1) 2
( 4)(1) (2)(2) (1)( 1) 1
( 1)(1) (0)(2) (1)( 1) 2
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
( (
( (
÷ + + ÷ = ÷
( (
÷ + + ÷ ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
x
y
z
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
x
y
z
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Inverse of a Matrix
Let A be a square matrix of size n.
A square matrix A
–1
of size n such that
is called the inverse of A.
Not every matrix has an inverse.
✦ A square matrix that has an inverse is
said to be nonsingular.
✦ A square matrix that does not have an
inverse is said to be singular.
1 1
n
A A AA I
÷ ÷
= =
Example: A Nonsingular Matrix
The matrix has a matrix
as its inverse.
This can be demonstrated by multiplying them:
1 2
3 4
A
(
=
(
¸ ¸
1
3 1
2 2
2 1
A
÷
÷
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
1
3 1
2 2
2 1 1 2 1 0
3 4 0 1
AA I
÷
÷
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1
3 1
2 2
2 1 1 2 1 0
3 4 0 1
A A I
÷
÷
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Example: A Singular Matrix
The matrix does not have an inverse.
If B had an inverse given by where
a, b, c, and d are some appropriate numbers, then by
definition of an inverse we would have BB
–1
= I.
That is
implying that 0 = 1, which is impossible!
0 1
0 0
B
(
=
(
¸ ¸
0 1 1 0
0 0 0 1
1 0
0 0 0 1
a b
c d
c d
( ( (
=
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
( (
=
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1
a b
B
c d
÷
(
=
(
¸ ¸
Finding the Inverse of a Square Matrix
Given the n ☓ n matrix A:
1. Adjoin the n ☓ n identity matrix I to obtain
the augmented matrix [A

I
].
2. Use a sequence of row operations to reduce
[A

I
] to the form [I

B] if possible.
Then the matrix B is the inverse of A.
Example
Find the inverse of the matrix
Solution
We form the augmented matrix
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
2 1 1 1 0 0
3 2 1 0 1 0
2 1 2 0 0 1
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Find the inverse of the matrix
Solution
And use the GaussJordan elimination method to reduce it
to the form [I

B]:
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
2 1 1 1 0 0
3 2 1 0 1 0
2 1 2 0 0 1
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1 2
R R ÷
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Example
Find the inverse of the matrix
Solution
And use the GaussJordan elimination method to reduce it
to the form [I

B]:
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
1 1 0 1 1 0
3 2 1 0 1 0
2 1 2 0 0 1
÷ ÷ ÷ (
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1 2
R R ÷
1
2 3
3 1
3
2
R
R R
R R
÷
+
+
Toggle slides
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compare before
and changes
Example
Find the inverse of the matrix
Solution
And use the GaussJordan elimination method to reduce it
to the form [I

B]:
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
1 1 0 1 1 0
0 1 1 3 2 0
0 1 2 2 2 1
÷ (
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
1
2 3
3 1
3
2
R
R R
R R
÷
+
+
1 2
2
3 2
R R
R
R R
+
÷
÷
Toggle slides
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compare before
and changes
1 2
2
3 2
R R
R
R R
+
÷
÷
Example
Find the inverse of the matrix
Solution
And use the GaussJordan elimination method to reduce it
to the form [I

B]:
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
1 0 1 2 1 0
0 1 1 3 2 0
0 0 1 1 0 1
÷ (
(
÷ ÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
1 3
2 3
R R
R R
÷
+
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Example
Find the inverse of the matrix
Solution
And use the GaussJordan elimination method to reduce it
to the form [I

B]:
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
1 0 0 3 1 1
0 1 0 4 2 1
0 0 1 1 0 1
÷ ÷ (
(
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
1 3
2 3
R R
R R
÷
+
I
n
B
Toggle slides
back and forth to
compare before
and changes
Example
Find the inverse of the matrix
Solution
Thus, the inverse of A is the matrix
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
3 1 1
4 2 1
1 0 1
÷ ÷
(
(
÷
(
÷ (
¸ ¸
1
A
÷
=
A Formula for the Inverse of a 2 ☓ 2 Matrix
Let
Suppose D = ad – bc is not equal to zero.
Then A
–1
exists and is given by
a b
A
c d
(
=
(
¸ ¸
1
1
d b
A
c a D
÷
÷
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
Example
Find the inverse of
Solution
We first identify a, b, c, and d as being 1, 2, 3, and 4
respectively.
We then compute
D = ad – bc = (1)(4) – (2)(3) = 4 – 6 = –
2
1 2
3 4
A
(
=
(
¸ ¸
Example
Find the inverse of
Solution
Next, we substitute the values 1, 2, 3, and 4 instead of
a, b, c, and d, respectively, in the formula matrix
to obtain the matrix
1 2
3 4
A
(
=
(
¸ ¸
4 2
3 1
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
d b
c a
÷
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
Example
Find the inverse of
Solution
Finally, multiplying this matrix by 1/D, we obtain
1 2
3 4
A
(
=
(
¸ ¸
1
3 1
2 2
2 1 4 2
1 1
3 1 2
d b
A
c a D
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Using Inverses to Solve Systems of Equations
If AX = B is a linear system of n equations
in n unknowns and if A
–1
exists, then
X = A
–1
B
is the unique solution of the system.
Example
Solve the system of linear equations
Solution
Write the system of equations in the form AX = B where
2 1
3 2 2
2 2 1
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
+ + = ÷
1
2
1
x
X y B
z
( (
( (
= =
( (
÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
Example
Solve the system of linear equations
Solution
Find the inverse matrix of A:
2 1
3 2 2
2 2 1
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
+ + = ÷
1
2
1
x
X y B
z
( (
( (
= =
( (
÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
2 1 1
3 2 1
2 1 2
A
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
1
3 1 1
4 2 1
1 0 1
A
÷
÷ ÷
(
(
= ÷
(
( ÷
¸ ¸
Example
Solve the system of linear equations
Solution
Finally, we write the matrix equation X = A
–1
B and multiply:
2 1
3 2 2
2 2 1
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
+ + = ÷
x
y
z
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
3 1 1 1
4 2 1 2
1 0 1 1
÷ ÷
( (
( (
÷
( (
÷ ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Example
Solve the system of linear equations
Solution
Finally, we write the matrix equation X = A
–1
B and multiply:
Thus, the solution is x = 2, y = –1, and z = –2.
2 1
3 2 2
2 2 1
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + =
+ + =
+ + = ÷
(3)(1) ( 1)(2) ( 1)( 1) 2
( 4)(1) (2)(2) (1)( 1) 1
( 1)(1) (0)(2) (1)( 1) 2
+ ÷ + ÷ ÷
( (
( (
÷ + + ÷ = ÷
( (
÷ + + ÷ ÷ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
x
y
z
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
End of
Chapter
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