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Seed Plants

Gymnosperms Angiosperms

Gymnosperms
Phylum Ginkgophyta Cycadophyta Gnetophyta Coniferphyta Common Name Ginkgo Cycads Gnetae Conifers Approx. # of Species 1 130 75 600

Characteristics of Gymnosperms
Vascular tissue present
Phloem and xylem

Naked seeds
No flowers Dominant generation: Sporophyte

Gymnosperm Sporophyte
Gametophyte is dependent on sporophyte. Male cone (pollen cone)
Produce microspores. Microspores undergo meiosis and eventually produce pollen grains.

Female cone (ovulate cone)


Produce megaspores. Megaspores undergo meiosis and eventually produce the archegonia.

Zamia sp.

Ginkgo

Pinus

Pollen grains = immature endosporic male gametophytes

Pollen = immature endosporic male gametophyte

micropyle micropyle pollen grains pollination droplet integument meiosis megasporocyte (2n) megasporangium (nucellus) (2n) pollination chamber mitosis & differentiation functional megaspore (n) pollen grains with tubes

pollen grains

integument (2n) archegonial chamber archegonium (with egg) megasporangium (nucellus) (2n)

female gametophyte (n)

Ovule development in non-flowering Spermatophytes

micropyle

integument (2n) fertilization (sperm + egg)

seed coat radicle

zygote (new 2n)

mitosis & differentiation

hypocotyl

megasporangium (nucellus) (2n)

epicotyl (shoot apex) female gametophyte (n) cotyledons female gametophyte (n) megasporangium (degenerate)

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embryo (new 2n)

Seed development in non-flowering Spermatophytes

Young ovule

Mature ovule

Ginkgophyta - Ginkgoales
Ginkgo biloba Popular street tree Highly branched woody tree Fan-shaped often 2-lobed leaves w/ dichotomous venation Dioecious Motile sperm

Macrozamia moorei

Bowenia spectabilis

Z a m i a c e a e

Lepidozamia sp.

Stangeria sp.

Encephalartos sp.

C y c a d a c e a e

Cycas revoluta

Cycas circinalis

Encephalartos sp.

Z a m i a c e a e

Zamia sp.

F, H & I. Ceratozamia sp. ,

Ginkgophyta - Ginkgoales
Ginkgo biloba Popular street tree Highly branched woody tree Fan-shaped often 2-lobed leaves w/ dichotomous venation Dioecious Motile sperm

Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba
With cones but do not bear structures that resemble sporophylls

Ginkgo biloba

Conferophyta- Conifers
Highly branched trees or shrubs with simple leaves Sperm nonmotile Evergreen leaves Needle-like, scalelike, flat blades

Conifer Diversity
A. Araucariaceae B-G. Cupressaceae H. Podocarpaceae I-J. Taxaceae

K-L. Pinaceae

Araucariaceae

Cupressaceae

B-C. Cupressus; D. Juniperus; E. Sequoia; F. Sequoiadendron; G. Taxodium

Cuppressus

D. Juniperus E. Sequoia; F. Sequoiadendron; G. Taxodium

Podocarpaceae

Pinaceae

Podocarpaceae

Taxaceae

Taxaceae

Pinaceae: Pinus

Gnetophyta - Gnetales
3 extant families Thought to be sister group Striate pollen Vessels with pore-like plates

Gnetales

Gnetaceae Gnetum 28 spp. + monotypic Vinkiella

Ephedraceae - Ephedra (ca. 65 spp.) Morman-Tea


Desert shrub

Photosynthetic stems
Reduced scale-like leaves

Welwitschia mirabilis
Native to Namibia, SW Africa