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# Definition;

## Momentum = jisim x halaju = mv

Units: kg m/s Each particle in the fluid stream has momentum. Whenever the velocity of the stream changes, magnitude or direction, the momentum of particle changes.

Whenever a jet of liquid impinges on a fixed plate, it experiences some force. As per Newton's Second Law of Motion, this force is equal to the rate of change of momentum of the jet. It has been observed that if the plate is not fixed, then the plate starts moving in the direction of the jet, because of the force.

Newtons

2nd Law:

A force is required to produce a change in momentum. This may be provided by contact with solid boundary or by one part of the fluid stream acting on another.

## Consider a jet of water impinging normally on a fixed plate as shown in fig-1.

A jet of water of 100 mm diameter impinges normally on a fixed plate with a velocity of 30 m/s. Find the force exerted on the plate.

A jet of water 50 mm diameter is discharging under a constant head of 70 metres. Find the force by the jet on a fixed plate. Take coefficient velocity as 0.9
(2.19 kN)

A horizontal jet of water is issuing under an effective head of 25 m. Calculate the diameter of the jet, if the force exerted by the jet on a vertical fixed plate is 2.22 kN. Take Cv = 1.
(75 mm)

A jet of water of 10 cm diameter impinges normally on a fixed plate with velocity of 20 m/s. Find the force exerted on the plate.
(3141.6 N)

A jet of water of 10cm diameter is discharging under a constant head of 100m. Find the force exerted by the jet on a fixed plate. Take coefficient of velocity 0.9.
(12477 N)

Seorang pekerja menyemburkan air ke dinding bangunan menggunakan hos. Nosel hos menghasilkan jet berdiameter 15 cm dengan halaju 1.5 m/s. Kira daya hentaman jet terhadap dinding jika jet dinding bersudut tepat dan tiada lantunan jet ketika itu.
(39.761 N)

Jet air yang berdiameter 100 mm dikenakan ke atas plat tegak dengan halaju 30 m/s. Cari daya hentaman jet ke atas plat tersebut.
(7068.583 N)