Alternating Current Circuit

• Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
• Inductors and Inductive Reactance
• Circuit containing Resistance, Capacitance and
Inductance
• Resonance in Electric Circuit
• Semiconductor Devices
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
The resistance in a purely resistive circuit has the same value
at all frequencies.
R I V
rms rms
=
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
C
X I V
rms rms
=
fC
X
C
t 2
1
=
capacitive
reactance
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
Example 1 A Capacitor in an AC Circuit

The capacitance is 1.50μF and the rms
voltage is 25.0 V. What is the rms current
when the frequency is (a) 100 Hz and
(b) 5000 Hz?
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
A 0236 . 0
1060
V 0 . 25
rms
rms
=
O
= =
C
X
V
I
( )( )
O =
×
= =
÷
1060
F 10 50 . 1 Hz 100 2
1
2
1
6
t t fC
X
C
(a)
(b)
( )( )
O =
×
= =
÷
2 . 21
F 10 50 . 1 Hz 5000 2
1
2
1
6
t t fC
X
C
A 18 . 1
21.2
V 0 . 25
rms
rms
=
O
= =
C
X
V
I
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
For a purely resistive circuit,
the current and voltage are
in phase.
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
The current in a capacitor leads
the voltage across the capacitor
by a phase angle of 90 degrees.
The average power used by a capacitor in an ac circuit is zero.
23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
In the phasor model, the voltage
and current are represented by
rotating arrows (called phasors).

These phasors rotate at a frequency f.

The vertical component of the phasor
is the instantaneous value of the current
or voltage.
23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance
L
X I V
rms rms
=
inductive
reactance
L f X
L
t 2 =
23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance
The current lags behind the
voltage by a phase angle of
90 degrees.
The average power used by an inductor in an ac circuit is zero.
23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance
23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance
In a series RLC circuit, the total opposition to the flow is
called the impedance.
Z I V
rms rms
=
( )
2
2
C L
X X R Z ÷ + =
23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance
( )
2
2
C L
X X R Z ÷ + =
2 2 2
) (
C L r o
V V V V ÷ + =
23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance
R
X X
V
V V
C L
R
C L
÷
=
÷
= | tan
phase angle between
current and total voltage
| | cos cos
rms rms
2
rms
V I Z I P = =
power factor
23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits
Resonance occurs when the frequency of a vibrating force exactly
matches a natural (resonant) frequency of the object to which the
force is applied.

The oscillation of a mass on a spring is analogous to the oscillation of
the electric and magnetic fields that occur, respectively, in a capacitor
and an inductor.
23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits
( )
2
2
rms
rms
2 1 2 fC fL R
V
I
t t ÷ +
=
( )
2
2
2 1 2 fC fL R Z t t ÷ + =
Resonant frequency
LC
f
o
t 2
1
=
Exercise 1
An ac generator supplies a peak (not rms) voltage of 150
V at 60.0 Hz. The generator is connected in series with
a 35-mH inductor, a 45-µF capacitor and an 85-W
resistor.
a) Determine the rms voltage of the generator.
110 V
b) What is the capacitive reactance for this circuit?
59 ohm
c) What is the inductive reactance for this circuit?
13 ohm
d) What is the impedance of the circuit?
97 ohm

23.5 Semiconductor Devices
Semiconductor devices such as diodes and transistors are widely
used in modern electronics.
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
n-TYPE AND p-TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS
The semiconducting materials (silicon and
germanium) used to make diodes and
transistors are doped by adding small
amounts of an impurity element.
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
THE SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
At the junction between the n and p materials, mobile electrons and
holes combine and create positive and negative charge layers.
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
There is an appreciable current through the diode when the
diode is forward biased.

Under a reverse bias, there is almost no current through the
diode.
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
A half-wave rectifier.
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
SOLAR CELLS
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
TRANSISTORS
A bipolar junction transistor can
be used to amplify a smaller
voltage into a larger one.
23.5 Semiconductor Devices
23.5 Semiconductor Devices