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# Alternating Current Circuit

**• Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance
**

• Inductors and Inductive Reactance

• Circuit containing Resistance, Capacitance and

Inductance

• Resonance in Electric Circuit

• Semiconductor Devices

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance

The resistance in a purely resistive circuit has the same value

at all frequencies.

R I V

rms rms

=

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance

C

X I V

rms rms

=

fC

X

C

t 2

1

=

capacitive

reactance

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance

Example 1 A Capacitor in an AC Circuit

The capacitance is 1.50μF and the rms

voltage is 25.0 V. What is the rms current

when the frequency is (a) 100 Hz and

(b) 5000 Hz?

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance

A 0236 . 0

1060

V 0 . 25

rms

rms

=

O

= =

C

X

V

I

( )( )

O =

×

= =

÷

1060

F 10 50 . 1 Hz 100 2

1

2

1

6

t t fC

X

C

(a)

(b)

( )( )

O =

×

= =

÷

2 . 21

F 10 50 . 1 Hz 5000 2

1

2

1

6

t t fC

X

C

A 18 . 1

21.2

V 0 . 25

rms

rms

=

O

= =

C

X

V

I

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance

For a purely resistive circuit,

the current and voltage are

in phase.

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance

The current in a capacitor leads

the voltage across the capacitor

by a phase angle of 90 degrees.

The average power used by a capacitor in an ac circuit is zero.

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance

In the phasor model, the voltage

and current are represented by

rotating arrows (called phasors).

These phasors rotate at a frequency f.

The vertical component of the phasor

is the instantaneous value of the current

or voltage.

23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance

L

X I V

rms rms

=

inductive

reactance

L f X

L

t 2 =

23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance

The current lags behind the

voltage by a phase angle of

90 degrees.

The average power used by an inductor in an ac circuit is zero.

23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance

23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance

In a series RLC circuit, the total opposition to the flow is

called the impedance.

Z I V

rms rms

=

( )

2

2

C L

X X R Z ÷ + =

23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance

( )

2

2

C L

X X R Z ÷ + =

2 2 2

) (

C L r o

V V V V ÷ + =

23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance

R

X X

V

V V

C L

R

C L

÷

=

÷

= | tan

phase angle between

current and total voltage

| | cos cos

rms rms

2

rms

V I Z I P = =

power factor

23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits

Resonance occurs when the frequency of a vibrating force exactly

matches a natural (resonant) frequency of the object to which the

force is applied.

The oscillation of a mass on a spring is analogous to the oscillation of

the electric and magnetic fields that occur, respectively, in a capacitor

and an inductor.

23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits

( )

2

2

rms

rms

2 1 2 fC fL R

V

I

t t ÷ +

=

( )

2

2

2 1 2 fC fL R Z t t ÷ + =

Resonant frequency

LC

f

o

t 2

1

=

Exercise 1

An ac generator supplies a peak (not rms) voltage of 150

V at 60.0 Hz. The generator is connected in series with

a 35-mH inductor, a 45-µF capacitor and an 85-W

resistor.

a) Determine the rms voltage of the generator.

110 V

b) What is the capacitive reactance for this circuit?

59 ohm

c) What is the inductive reactance for this circuit?

13 ohm

d) What is the impedance of the circuit?

97 ohm

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

Semiconductor devices such as diodes and transistors are widely

used in modern electronics.

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

n-TYPE AND p-TYPE SEMICONDUCTORS

The semiconducting materials (silicon and

germanium) used to make diodes and

transistors are doped by adding small

amounts of an impurity element.

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

THE SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

At the junction between the n and p materials, mobile electrons and

holes combine and create positive and negative charge layers.

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

There is an appreciable current through the diode when the

diode is forward biased.

Under a reverse bias, there is almost no current through the

diode.

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

A half-wave rectifier.

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

SOLAR CELLS

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

TRANSISTORS

A bipolar junction transistor can

be used to amplify a smaller

voltage into a larger one.

23.5 Semiconductor Devices

23.5 Semiconductor Devices