# Light, Optic and Interference

• The Reflection and Refraction of Light

• Mirrors and Lenses

• Optical Instrument

• Principle of Linear Superposition
25.2 The Reflection of Light
LAW OF REFLECTION

The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal
to the surface all lie in the same plane, and the angle
of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
25.2 The Reflection of Light
In specular reflection, the reflected rays are parallel to each
other.
25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror
The person’s right hand becomes
the image’s left hand.

The image has three properties:

1. It is upright.
2. It is the same size as you are.
3. The image is as far behind the mirror
as you are in front of it.
25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror
A ray of light from the top of the chess piece reflects from the mirror.
To the eye, the ray seems to come from behind the mirror.

Because none of the rays actually emanate from the image, it is
called a virtual image.
25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror
The geometry used to show that the image distance is equal
to the object distance.
25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror
Conceptual Example 1 Full-Length Versus Half-Length Mirrors

What is the minimum mirror height necessary for her to see her full
image?

(a) Equal to her height?

OR

(b) Equal to half her height?
25.4 Spherical Mirrors
If the inside surface of the spherical mirror is polished, it is a concave
mirror. If the outside surface is polished, is it a convex mirror.

The law of reflection applies, just as it does for a plane mirror.

The principal axis of the mirror is a straight line drawn through the
center and the midpoint of the mirror.
25.4 Spherical Mirrors
A point on the tree lies on the principal axis of the concave mirror.
Rays from that point that are near the principal axis cross the axis
at the image point.
25.4 Spherical Mirrors
Light rays near and parallel to the principal axis are reflected
from the concave mirror and converge at the focal point.

The focal length is the distance between the focal point and
the mirror.

25.4 Spherical Mirrors
The focal point of a concave mirror is halfway between
the center of curvature of the mirror C and the mirror at B.
R f
2
1
=
25.4 Spherical Mirrors
Rays that lie close to the principal axis are called paraxial rays.

Rays that are far from the principal axis do not converge to a single
point. The fact that a spherical mirror does not bring all parallel
rays to a single point is known as spherical abberation.
25.4 Spherical Mirrors
25.4 Spherical Mirrors
R f
2
1
÷ =
When paraxial light rays that are parallel to the principal axis
strike a convex mirror, the rays appear to originate from the focal
point.
25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
CONCAVE MIRRORS
This ray is initially parallel to the principal axis
and passes through the focal point.
This ray initially passes through the focal point,
then emerges parallel to the principal axis.
This ray travels along a line that passes through
the center.
25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
Image formation and the principle of reversibility
25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
When an object is located between the focal point and a concave mirror,
and enlarged, upright, and virtual image is produced.
25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
CONVEX MIRRORS
Ray 1 is initially parallel to the principal axis and appears to originate from
the focal point.

Ray 2 heads towards the focal point, emerging parallel to the principal axis.

Ray 3 travels toward the center of curvature and reflects back on itself.
25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors
The virtual image is diminished in size and upright.

The convex mirror always form a virtual image of the object no
matter where in front of the mirror the object is placed.
25.6 The Mirror Equation and Magnification
mirror the of length focal = f
mirror & object btw distance =
o
d
ion magnificat = m
Mirror Equation and Magnification
mirror & image btw distance =
i
d
(ratio of height/distance of image in comparison to object)
25.6 The Mirror Equation and Magnification
These diagrams are used
to derive the mirror equation.
f d d
i o
1 1 1
= +
o
i
o
i
d
d
h
h
m ÷ = =
For concave mirrors,
(Use –d
i
for virtual image)
Magnification Equation:
25.6 The Mirror Equation and Magnification
Example 5 A Virtual Image Formed by a Convex Mirror

A convex mirror is used to reflect light from an object placed 66 cm in
front of the mirror. The focal length of the mirror is -46 cm. Find the location
of the image and the magnification.
1
cm 037 . 0
cm 66
1
cm 46
1 1 1 1
÷
÷ = ÷
÷
= ÷ =
i i
d f d
cm 27 ÷ =
i
d
( )
41 . 0
cm 66
cm 27
=
÷
÷ = ÷ =
o
i
d
d
m
25.6 The Mirror Equation and Magnification
Summary of Sign Conventions for Spherical Mirrors
mirror. concave a for is + f
mirror. convex a for is ÷ f
mirror. the of front in is object the if is +
o
d
mirror. the behind is object the if is ÷
o
d
image). (real mirror the of front in is object the if is +
i
d
image). (virtual mirror the behind is object the if is ÷
i
d
object. upright an for is + m
object. inverted an for is ÷ m
Exercise 1
A spherical Christmas tree ornament is 6.00 cm
in diameter. Determine the magnification of an
object placed 10.0 cm away from the ornament.

M = 0.130
26.1 The Index of Refraction
s m 10 00 . 3
8
× = c Light travels through a vacuum at a speed
Light travels through materials at a speed less than its speed
in a vacuum.
DEFINITION OF THE INDEX OF REFRACTION

The index of refraction of a material is the ratio of the speed
of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the material:
v
c
n = =
material in the light of Speed
in vacuum light of Speed
Refraction is the incidence of change in speed as a ray of light goes
from one material to another causing the ray to deviate from its incident
direction
26.1 The Index of Refraction
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light
SNELL’S LAW OF REFRACTION

When light travels from a material with
one index of refraction to a material with
a different index of refraction, the angle
of incidence is related to the angle of
refraction by
2 2 1 1
sin sin u u n n =
SNELL’S LAW
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light
Example 1 Determining the Angle of Refraction

A light ray strikes an air/water surface at an
angle of 46 degrees with respect to the
normal. Find the angle of refraction when
the direction of the ray is (a) from air to
water and (b) from water to air.
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light
( )
54 . 0
33 . 1
46 sin 00 . 1 sin
sin
2
1 1
2
= = =

n
n u
u
(a)
(b)

33
2
= u
( )
96 . 0
00 . 1
46 sin 33 . 1 sin
sin
2
1 1
2
= = =

n
n u
u

74
2
= u
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light
APPARENT DEPTH
Example 2 Finding a Sunken Chest

The searchlight on a yacht is being used to illuminate a sunken
chest. At what angle of incidence should the light be aimed?
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light
( )
69 . 0
00 . 1
31 sin 33 . 1 sin
sin
1
2 2
1
= = =

n
n u
u

44
1
= u
( )

31 3 . 3 0 . 2 tan
1
2
= =
÷
u
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
'
1
2
n
n
d d
Apparent depth,
observer directly
above object
26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light
Conceptual Example 4 On the Inside Looking Out

A swimmer is under water and looking up at the surface. Someone
holds a coin in the air, directly above the swimmer’s eyes. To the
swimmer, the coin appears to be at a certain height above the
water. Is the apparent height of the coin greater, less than, or the
same as its actual height?
26.3 Total Internal Reflection
When light passes from a medium of larger refractive index into one
of smaller refractive index, the refracted ray bends away from the
normal.
Critical angle
2 1
1
2
sin n n
n
n
c
> = u
26.3 Total Internal Reflection
Example 5 Total Internal Reflection

A beam of light is propagating through diamond and strikes the diamond-air
interface at an angle of incidence of 28 degrees. (a) Will part of the beam
enter the air or will there be total internal reflection? (b) Repeat part (a)
assuming that the diamond is surrounded by water.
26.3 Total Internal Reflection

4 . 24
42 . 2
00 . 1
sin sin
1
1
2
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷ ÷
n
n
c
u
(a)
(b) 
3 . 33
42 . 2
33 . 1
sin sin
1
1
2
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷ ÷
n
n
c
u
26.3 Total Internal Reflection
Conceptual Example 6 The Sparkle of a Diamond

The diamond is famous for its sparkle because the light coming from
it glitters as the diamond is moved about. Why does a diamond
exhibit such brilliance? Why does it lose much of its brilliance when
placed under water?
26.4 Polarization and the Reflection and Refraction of Light
1
2
tan
n
n
B
= u Brewster’s law
26.6 Lenses
Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is
formed.
With a converging lens, paraxial rays that are parallel to the principal
axis converge to the focal point.
26.6 Lenses
With a diverging lens, paraxial rays that are parallel to the principal
axis appear to originate from the focal point.
26.6 Lenses
26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses
RAY DIAGRAMS
26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses
IMAGE FORMATION BY A CONVERGING LENS
In this example, when the object is placed further than
twice the focal length from the lens, the real image is
inverted and smaller than the object.
26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses
When the object is placed between F and 2F, the real image is
inverted and larger than the object.
26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses
When the object is placed between F and the lens, the virtual image is
upright and larger than the object.
26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses
IMAGE FORMATION BY A DIVERGING LENS
A diverging lens always forms an upright, virtual, diminished image.
26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and the Magnification Equation
f d d
i o
1 1 1
= +
o
i
o
i
d
d
h
h
m ÷ = =
Thin lens equation:
Magnification equation:
26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and the Magnification Equation
Summary of Sign Conventions for Lenses
lens. converging a for is + f
lens. diverging a for is ÷ f
lens. the of left the to is object the if is +
o
d
lens. the of right the to is object the if is ÷
o
d
image). (real lens the of right the to formed image an for is +
i
d
image). (virtual lens the of left the to formed image an for is ÷
i
d
image. upright an for is + m
image. inverted an for is ÷ m
26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and the Magnification Equation
Example 9 The Real Image Formed by a Camera Lens

A 1.70-m tall person is standing 2.50 m in front of a camera. The
camera uses a converging lens whose focal length is 0.0500 m.
(a) Find the image distance and determine whether the image is
real or virtual. (b) Find the magnification and height of the image
on the film.
1
m 6 . 19
m 50 . 2
1
m 0500 . 0
1 1 1 1
÷
= ÷ = ÷ =
o i
d f d
(a)
m 0510 . 0 =
i
d
real image
(b)
0204 . 0
m 50 . 2
m 0510 . 0
÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
o
i
d
d
m
( )( ) m 0347 . 0 m 70 . 1 0204 . 0 ÷ = ÷ = =
o i
mh h
26.9 Lenses in Combination
The image produced by one lens serves as the object for
the next lens.
26.12 The Compound Microscope
To increase the angular magnification
beyond that possible with a magnifying
can be included to “premagnify” the
object.
Angular magnification of
a compound microscope
( )
e o
e
f f
N f L
M
÷
÷ ~
26.13 The Telescope
Angular magnification of
an astronomical telescope
e
o
f
f
M ÷ ~
27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition
When two or more light waves pass through a given point, their electric
fields combine according to the principle of superposition.
The waves emitted by the sources start out in phase and arrive at
point P in phase, leading to constructive interference.
   , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0
1 2
= = ÷ m mì
27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition
The waves emitted by the sources start out in phase and arrive at
point P out of phase, leading to destructive interference.
( )    , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0
2
1
1 2
= + = ÷ m m ì
27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition
If constructive or destructive interference is to continue ocurring at
a point, the sources of the waves must be coherent sources.

Two sources are coherent if the waves they emit maintain a constant
phase relation.