Interoperability for Microwave Access. Provides wireless data over long distance communications. Based on the WirelessMAN (IEEE 802.16) standard. WiMAX is an IEEE 802.16 specific connection-oriented technology, designed to deliver high broadband speeds over wireless at lower costs.
is a highly scalable, long-range system. WiMAX provide high-speed data bandwidth up 70Mbps and telecommunications services.
WiMAX device using with directional antennas, speeds of 10 Mbit/s at 10 km distance is possible, WiMAX devices with omni-directional antennas 10 Mbit/s over 2 km is possible.
WiMAX can provide broadband wireless access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile stations. WiMAX operates on both licensed and nonlicensed frequencies. Useful in areas where cable, DSL broadband and even dial-up might not exist.
WiMAX Standard (IEEE 802.16)
•IEEE 802.16 group was formed in 1998 • IEEE 802.16 (Dec’01) Single carrier PHY layer and TDM MAC layer • IEEE 802.16a (Jan’03) Include NLOS application OFDM PHY layer and OFDMA MAC layer • IEEE 802.16d (June’04) “Fixed WiMAX” Combine previous versions • IEEE 802.16e (Dec’05) “Mobile WiMAX” Add mobility support Scalable OFDM PHY layer and Scalable OFDMA MAC layer
Types of WiMAX
WiMAX has the potential to replace a number of existing telecommunications infrastructures. In a fixed wireless configuration it can replace the telephone company's copper wire networks, the cable TV's coaxial cable infrastructure while offering Internet Service Provider (ISP) services. In its mobile variant, WiMAX has the potential to replace cellular networks. IEEE standard designated 802.16-2004 (fixed wireless applications) and 802.16e-2005 (mobile wire-less). WiMAX as a "last mile" broadband wireless access (BWA) alternative to cable modem service, telephone company Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or T1/E1 service.
Types of WiMAX
WiMAX provides fixed, portable or mobile non-line-of sight service from a base station to a subscriber station, also known as customer premise equipment (CPE). Some goals for WiMAX include a radius of service coverage of 6 miles from a WiMAX base station for point-to-multipoint, non-line-of-sight.This service should deliver approximately 40 megabits per second (Mbps) for fixed and portable access applications. That WiMAX cell site should offer enough bandwidth to support hundreds of businesses with T1 speeds and thousands of residential customers with the equivalent of DSL services from one base station.
Type of WiMAX
Mobile WiMAX takes the fixed wireless application a step further and enables cell phone-like applications on a much larger scale. For example, mobile WiMAX enables streaming video to be broadcast from a speeding police or other emergency vehicle at over 70 MPH. It potentially replaces cell phones and mobile data offerings from cell phone operators such as EvDo, EvDv and HSDPA. In addition it offers superior building penetration and improved security measures over fixed WiMAX. Mobile WiMAX will be very valuable for emerging services such as mobile TV and gaming.
WiMAX is not a Wi Fi
Comparison of WiMAX with Wi-Fi
WiMAX uses licensed spectrum to deliver a point-to-point connection to the Internet from an ISP to an end user. Different 802.16 standards provide different types of access. WiMax is developed primarily for wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs), with rang of few Kilometers. Wi-Fi uses unlicensed spectrum to provide access to a network. Wi-Fi has primarily been developed for wireless local area networks (WLANs), with a range of up to 100m. WiMAX and Wi-Fi have quite different Quality of Service (QoS) mechanisms. WiMAX uses a mechanism based on connections between the Base Station and the user device. Each connection is based on specific scheduling algorithms. Wi-Fi has introduced a QoS mechanism similar to fixed Ethernet, where packets can receive different priorities based on their tags. Wi-Fi runs on the MAC's CSMA/CA protocol, which is connectionless and contention based. whereas WiMAX runs a connection-oriented MAC.
an architecture that defines how a WiMAX network connects with other networks. SS/MS: the Subscriber Station/Mobile Station ASN: the Access Service Network BS: Base station, part of the ASN ASN-GW: the ASN Gateway, part of the ASN CSN: the Connectivity Service Network HA: Home Agent, part of the CSN AAA: AAA Server, part of the CSN NAP: a Network Access Provider NSP: a Network Service Provider
How WiMAX Works?
WiMAX is a connection-oriented technology and affects only the Physical Layer and the MAC portion in the Data Link Layer of the OSI Model. Therefore the 802.16 specification mainly describes the scheduling of communication between towers and WiMAX devices. WiMAX supports two types of connection types. Frequency Division Duplexing(FDD) . one frequency is sent from the base tower to another station tower and from the station tower to the base tower. Time Division Duplexing(TDD). The base tower transmits at one frequency to a station tower and receives data from the station tower at another frequency. Ultimately, WiMAX can be envisioned as a mesh network where each node(tower/access points) can communicate with each other in order to extend the range of WiMAX and, therefore, allows robust communication as there are multiple routes a signal can take.
WiMAX deployment types
To overcome the challenges of traditional Wired access deployment types such as: Backhaul - point-to-point Last-mile - point-to-multipoint Large area coverage - Uses base stations, subscriber stations and WiFi(mesh) solutions for large area coverage.
WiMAX Deployment Application
Implementation in Pakistan
Wateen Telecom, set to launch fixed-wireless services in Pakistan. Biggest WiMax network rollout to date covering more than 17 major cities in Pakistan, including, Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore.
Components of WiMAX
Base Station. Antinna (Tower for communication). Client (with WiMAX enabled). WiMAX Backhaul CPE devices WiMAX Access Points
WiMAX Base Station StarMAX 6400 •Powerful, Modular Blade Architecture •Enhanced Features for Superior Coverage and Throughput •Carrier Class Reliability •TRUFLE™ Mobility Manger •Wide Range of Frequencies
- Omni Directional - 90 Degrees Panel - 60 Degrees Panel
WIMAX TOWER WIMAX Receiver
Client with wiMAX
Notebooks(Laptops) Pc’s with WiMAX Mobiles
WiMAX Backhaul is the transport link between a Base Station (BS) and the WiMAX Access Service Network Gateway (ASN-GW). Defined as Network components which connect client/subscriber access sections of networks with their core switching and management topologies. Backhaul essentially acts as the “glue” that pieces all of the network elements together. This enables the network to deliver seamless and transparent broadband communications, effortlessly, and with high reliability and availability.
Wimax backhaul equipment allows your wireless traffic to easily be bounced from place to place according to your needs.
Customer Premise Equipment (CPE) CPE generally refers to telephones, DSL modems or cable modems, or purchased set-top boxes for use with Communications Service Providers services. Compact devices that bridge Long-Reach Ethernet (LRE) and Ethernet traffic. Support Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) traffic, including digital phones, that co-exists over the same LRE line. Axxcelera’s ExcelMax Indoor CPE is a low cost, self-installable, Point to Multipoint (PMP). CPE designed to operate in the 3.3-3.8 GHz.
Enhanced NLOS Features: Uplink Subchannelization; Space Time Coding Self Install, Self Configure Indoor CPE Half-Duplex FDD and TDD support Supports data, voice and video services Comprehensive Quality of Service (CIR, PIR, Priority) and VLAN support Low cost CPE allows mass residential rollout Self Install feature avoids cost of professional installation Robust, field proven platform
WiMAX Access point
These are optional some where but are used mainly when you have more than 3-4 wireless gadgets requiring to access Wi-Max network. Say in your home if you have 4 laptops who want to connect to internet , use access point simple.
Benefits of WiMAX
Long Range. (up to 30 miles.) Low cost. ($20,000 but will still provide customers with T1-class connections.) Wireless. High Bandwidth. (up to 70 Mb/s) Services. -Non Line-of-sight
Operates at 2 to 11 GHz. A small antenna on a computer connects to the tower and is backwards compatible.
66 GHz. Signal is stronger and more stable. A fixed dish antenna for communication between tower to tower.
DrawBacks of WiMAX
Companies are very hesitant of setting up WiMAX base stations. One solution to this problem is Intel making their Centrino laptop processors WiMAX enabled within the next few years. All laptops are expected to have WiMAX by 2008.
Exclusion of Start-Up Companies.
Even though cost provides a low barrier to entry, none of the startup companies are projected to be major players in the development of WiMAX.(only intel and cisco took advantage)
Research and Development
In order for WiMAX to succeed, new products must be researched and developed to incorporate WiMAX.
Future of WiMAX
As IT industry and countries are recognizing the potential of Wi-Max, the technology has promising future both in terms of cost effectiveness and benefits to consumers. There are few issues still to be resolved like spectrum allocation (as signals have no country boundary). Wi-Max also needs to be combined with technologies like Wi-Fi, bluetooth and others. Let us hope it gives the best to us.
Future of WiMAX
The primary wireless application on mobile systems today is voice. But in five years, people will be using their computers with the same freedom they now have for cell phones. High-quality cameras will have built-in WiMAX and other wireless capabilities with ubiquitous coverage as will game consoles and music players. More serious applications like medical monitoring and diagnostics usable by ordinary people because the delivery cost will be so low.