The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System: A Progress Report
Patricio A. Bernal, Executive Secretary IOC Laura S. L. Kong, Director, International Tsunami Information Centre
Tsunami Deposits Workshop June 12-15, 2005 Seattle, Washington
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
• Established in 1960, part of UNESCO • Purpose is to promote international cooperation and to coordinate programmes in research, services and capacity-building, in order to learn more about the nature and resources of the ocean and coastal areas and to apply that knowledge for the improvement of management, sustainable development, the protection of the marine environment, and the decision-making process of its Member States
Where is Evacuation Route? Public Awareness
National Warning System
Cabinet Office Japan
.TSUNAMI Early Warning Overview
National Government Local Government
Tsunami Warning Center
What is Tsunami?
Establish national / regional warning center against local and regional tsunamis (Warning guidance)
3. Assess national tsunami risk (Hazard assessment)
2. Promote education/preparedness and risk reduction against tsunami hazard (Mitigation and Public Awareness)
.TWS SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Develop National and Regional Capacity to:
WARNING CENTER OPERATORS
Pacific. NGO EMERGENCY MANAGERS
Civil Defense Local Authorities
University and Govt Researchers
Comprehensive Tsunami Risk Reduction Stakeholders build Tsunami Resilient Community
. Mediterranean Tsunami Warning Centers
GOVT. Indian Ocean.
IOC established the International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC)
Supports ITSU and TWSP
• RHH Pacific Tsunami Warning Center acts as TWSP Operations Center. IOC est.BACKGROUND
• In April 1965. including timely international tsunami warnings Subsidiary Group to IOC Assembly composed by 129 States
• In 1966. ICG/ITSU International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (TWSP)
Recommends & Coordinate tsunami programs. hosted by USA
Training Programme Pacific Basin monitoring of seismicity and sea levels • Global network of tsunami scientists
. Democratic People's Republic of Korea.IOC ICG/ITSU
• 27 member States:
Australia. China. El Salvador. Chile. Canada. Singapore.save lives/property • System based on national / regional warning centres + international information centre (ITIC). Mexico. Malaysia. Ecuador. USSR. Costa Rica. Indonesia. Peru. Republic of Korea. Philippines. Cook Islands. Samoa.
• Successful Operational Tsunami Warning System • Successful international scientific program • Direct humanitarian aim Mitigate tsunami effects . France. United States. Thailand. New Zealand. Fiji. Nicaragua. Guatemala. Colombia. Japan.
Pacific Example TWSP WARNING CENTERS
RFTWC KMA JMA PHIVOLCS
INOCAR BMG BOM CPPT SNAM NZ
.have already educated and prepared public. Recognized Authorized National Authority receives and immediately evaluates/translates. be prepared to explain to highest government leaders and public why decisions made (qualitatively. and limitations of impact prediction. .EWS WILL SAVE LIVES
1. Warning – local (educate).during and afterward. distant (monitoring center) 2.have already practiced response plan.have already minimized impact through pre-disaster mitigation . . informs public For an appropriate response.government must understand phenomena. . .
The system must be:
– Fully owned by Indian Ocean Rim countries – Based on international multilateral cooperation – Based on the open and free exchange of data – Protect all countries in the Indian Ocean Basin – Transparent and accountable to all members
Define the proper scale of the problem and its solution.
How does it function?
Is based on the joint operation of international networks of detection connected with national tsunami warning centres UN governance provided under the IOC Each nation is responsible for issuing warnings in their territory and protect its own population. provincial and local)
. National centres must have strong links with emergency preparedness authorities (national.
Regional Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System
National National National TWC National TWC National National TWC TWC TWC TWS
PTWC Regional TWC
International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC)
Joint UN implementation: IOC. multi-year (>3) Beyond the emergency: transition to reconstruction and development phase.Where are we now?
A single system being planned All countries of the Indian Ocean participate Tsunami advisory information provided from centres in Hawaii and Tokyo. WMO. ISDR. National focal points designated in 19 nations Governance of UN/IOC to be accepted in Paris Full scope of the task recognized: multi-nation (28). UNDP 15
Ja F M A M J Jul A S O N D Ja Fe
Implementation Interim System IOC-WMO-ISDR Implementation full system 2005-2006
• Jan 18-22: World Conference on Disaster Reduction. Thailand • Feb 16: EOS III/GEOSS. Jakarta. Phuket. Brussels • Feb 22-24 Tokyo Seminar. Paris • Mar 6-19: JICA/ADRC training course. Kobe • Jan 25-26: China-ASEAN Beijing Workshop • Jan 28-29: Ministerial Meeting. Indonesia • Apr 14-16: IOC 2nd Regional Coordination Mtg. Senior Officers Affected countries • Feb 28-March 2: NHK and Asian Broadcasting Union ws • Mar 3-8: IOC 1st Regional Technical Coordination Mtg. Tokyo • Mar 14-18: WMO GTS workshop. Mauritius 16
Paris: Formal est of ICG/IOTWS • July: IOC-ISDR Japan and Hawaii TWS Study Tours • Sept: TIME tsunami modelling. PHIVOLCS-ITIC-IASPEI-IAVCEI • Sept-Oct: 1st meeting of the ICG/IOTWS
Ja F M A M J Jul A S O N D Ja Fe
Implementation Interim System IOC-WMO-ISDR
Implementation full system 2005-2006
• May-Aug: IOC-led multi-disc technical /capacity assessments • June 22: IOC General Ass.
Kenya.August: 18 . establish national priorities. regional actions
18-21 May: Sri Lanka 6-17 June: Oman. IFRC Goal: Assess technical capability and capacity building needs.20 countries 3-day mission: IOC. Madagascar 5-13 July: Mozambique. ISDR. Malaysia.Mission Calendar
May . in-country organizations. Somalia. South Africa
. Seychelles 15-25 August: Thailand. Indonesia. WMO. Mauritius. incl UNDP. Tanzania 10-15 June: Myanmar. OCHA. Pakistan 4-9 July: Comores. Maldives Not yet scheduled: Iran. Bangladesh 20-28 August: India.
Fast-track. based on existing networks seismographic and sea-level CTBTO broadcasting data experimentally Sea-level GLOSS network being upgraded Communication channels being provided through existing operators (GTS of WMO) Plans for full-fledged system to be completed: technical group to convene Interim solution operating by October National tsunami mitigation coordination committee organized. National tsunami response plans developed 19
GLOBAL BROADBAND SEISMOGRAPHIC NETWORK
Broadband Seismic Stations contributing data to PTWC
2 sites with hourly data before 1999. 10 sites with hourly data later than 1999. and 8 sites with monthly data before 1999.
There are 9 GLOSS sites with hourly real-time data. 15 sites with monthly data later than 1999.Indian Ocean GLOSS
WHITE CROSS retransmission to PTWC via GTS Select station from map for data display. 11 additional sites with hourly fast delivery data.
Suggested global distribution of deep sea pressure sensors (USA .to be defined)
Technical WS. Planning Sept 2005
South-China Sea (WESTPAC/ASEAN)
China-ASEAN. Mar 2005
Strengthening of the Pacific System. Senate Bill 50) ICG/ITSU October 2005 (Valparaíso. Jun 2005
South West Pacific (Australia)
SP Awareness WS. Chile)
. Coordination mtg. Spain.Beyond the immediate response: Planning Global Coverage
Caribbean Region (IOCARIBE)
IASTWS. Atlantic/Caribbean (USA. Jan 2005
Mediterranean: France. 2002. Italy. 2004. SOPAC Tsunami WG.
Communication channels for increased number of instrumental platforms (Geo-sta Meteo Satellites)
Support for the establishment of IOC Operational Centre for disaster management
.Issues requiring support
Donor Coordination: Financial project pledges to extend Tsunami coverage to 28 nations of Indian Ocean Rim beyond 2005 and to multi-hazard platform (TSU-REG-05/CSS10 – Region)
Deep-sea pressure sensor technology for tsunami detection (NOAA DART availability)
Facilitating free exchange of national data for protection of life and property.
Report / data to countries (IOC)
– Wave runup/inundation. remote sensing
Collect all data on earthquake / tsunami. cabled). deepocean. eyewitness
Conduct research on
– Real time seismic characterization of great earthquakes – Numerical Modelling of impacted/vulnerable coastlines – Engineering design guidance for seismic/tsunami loading. regional. hydroacoustic. engineering. ionospheric. Sea level records – coastal gauges. altimetry. Satellite imagery … – Damage and impact. satellite. deformation signals. vertical evacuation criteria – New real-time tsunami (and other hazards) monitoring – GPS (remote. comprehensive database / archive
– Global.How can scientists assist?
In collaboration with countries: Conduct post-tsunami surveys. Research
Participate as experts in capacity building efforts organized regionally (by IOC and others) and nationally 25
. geology. local seismograms. social. and follow-up studies Create universally-available.
org/itsu www. Charles McCreery charles.kong@unesco.ITIC:
ITSU: ioc.unesco.mccreery@noaa. Francois Schindele IOC: Dr.tsunamiwave. Patricio Bernal IOC Tsu Prog: Peter Pisserssens firstname.lastname@example.org
. Laura Kong l.info Chair: Dr.